SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sun, 04 Dec 2016 01:51:43 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: A framework for the Most Important Risk Factors of Exposure in Container Based Sanitation (CBS)? - by: cremington http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/19537-a-framework-for-the-most-important-risk-factors-of-exposure-in-container-based-sanitation-cbs#19674 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/19537-a-framework-for-the-most-important-risk-factors-of-exposure-in-container-based-sanitation-cbs#19674
Key questions for the container based system managers, researchers and interested parties:

1. How would you rank the categories of exposure in terms of exposure related risk to human health?
Hazard Intensity: 4
b. Hazardous Events: 1
c. Exposure Pathways: 2
d. Receptor Vulnerability: 4[/li]

2. 2. Which of the risk factors is of highest importance in terms of risk to human health?
a. #1: Prevalence rate of diarrheal disease mortality/morbidity

3. Which is the least important risk factor in each of the components?
a. Hazard Intensity Risk Factors: Incidence rate of infectious outbreaks.
b. Hazardous Events Risk Factors: Availability of anal cleansing materials.
c. Exposure Pathways Risk Factors: Flooring type.
d. Vulnerability Risk Factors: Age of user/immunity or health status of operator.

4. How well do indicators correlate with risk factors and quantify the level of risk in appropriate terms?

It’s good!

5. Are there any indicators you would change?
a. I would change “Inadequate separation of toilets from living areas.” Using distance as a measurement of separation between food preparation are and toilet seems arbitrary. Also, if toilet design ensures containment of feces/urine, how much does it matter where the toilet is located?
b. I’d also change “availability of anal cleansing materials” to “disposal of anal cleansing materials.”
c. Proportion of people trained in last 6 months: Training is important, but the impact is not number of people trained, but the number of people who leave the training viewing diarrheal disease as a severe health impact AND understanding how to minimize risks to themselves and their communities.

6. How useful would you find this exercise is assessing exposure in your organisation?

It’s very useful! It already has encouraged thought around appropriate PPE for staff as well as what should be discussed with CBS clients regarding minimum hygiene standards.

7. Do you think the list of factors and indicators is too LONG or too SHORT?

It could be more in-depth regarding exposure pathways for operators e.g. based on the various steps and activities of the container-based sanitation, what are the specific risks?

8. Any other comments?

I think that there could be more conversation about factors like water and food habits. There’s also a lot of focus on individual behavior, but not enough on community behavior. E.g. I can contract diarrhea if my neighbor doesn’t wash their hands.]]>
Shared toilets, community toilets, public toilets, mobile toilets (container-based or with bags) Mon, 28 Nov 2016 20:40:34 +0000
A framework for the Most Important Risk Factors of Exposure in Container Based Sanitation (CBS)? - by: evemackinnon7 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/19537-a-framework-for-the-most-important-risk-factors-of-exposure-in-container-based-sanitation-cbs#19537 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/19537-a-framework-for-the-most-important-risk-factors-of-exposure-in-container-based-sanitation-cbs#19537
The outcome of this is a proposed set of indicators that aligns the concept of exposure across a range of social, environmental, biological, regulatory and behavioural risk factors in each category and compares risk across systems.

The risk framework would complement semi-quantitative risk ranking and prioritisation and quantitative studies measuring concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria on exposure routes, and qualitative studies to understand vulnerable populations and exposure groups. This work will also validate the risk factors included in this metric. The framework is expected to help private organisation, public institutions and regulators monitor and assess key risks.

So I am asking the community their VIEWS and RESPONSES on the risk factors attached in the documents.
Briefly a conceptual exposure model is shown in figure 1:

There are 4 categories of exposure: 1) Hazard – 2) Hazardous Events – 3) Exposure Routes – 4) Receptor

--- 11 risk factors based on literature review and observation of container based systems in a pre-test case study development environment.





Each risk factor has a sub-set of risk indicators which are given a numerical score of risk (based 1-3) to arrive at a total risk score for the system component (each aspect of the CBS can be assessed individually i.e. user interface, collection and conveyance and waste transfer, and according to user, operator or community exposure groups).

---- 20 Key Risk Indicators (KRI) are proposed to measure the exposure within the system.
Using the spread sheet attached to understand the relevant definitions the communities’ feedback on the questions below would be super helpful in validating the risk factors.


Key questions for the container based system managers, researchers and interested parties:

1. How would you rank the categories of exposure in terms of exposure related risk to human health?
(Hazard Intensity, Hazardous Events, Exposure Pathways and Receptor Vulnerability) (1 being lowest -4 being highest or equal)

2. Which of the risk factors is of highest importance in terms of risk to human health?

3. Which is the least important risk factor in each of the components?

4. How well do indicators correlate with risk factors and quantify the level of risk in appropriate terms?

5. Are there any indicators you would change?

5. How useful would you find this exercise is assessing exposure in your organisation?

6. Do you think the list of factors and indicators is too LONG or too SHORT?

7. Any other comments?]]>
Shared toilets, community toilets, public toilets, mobile toilets (container-based or with bags) Tue, 08 Nov 2016 14:40:06 +0000
Re: Duncan Mara article on shared sanitation - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/18080-duncan-mara-article-on-shared-sanitation#18115 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/18080-duncan-mara-article-on-shared-sanitation#18115 Doreen wrote:

Shared sanitation facilities are paramount in low income urban areas and it is totally wrong to say that they are mostly unhygienic. The expectation that each family will have one toilet in a plot is just not feasible. Taking into consideration that many plots e.g. in Kenya have approximately 5 families living within the plot and there is very very limited space.

Sometimes I have the feeling that the people who actually contributed to some of these policy's/ SDG's have no background information on what is actually happening on the ground.


Yes you can get that feeling very often, but in this case I actually think it is just a different perspective of looking at the topic. SDGs etc. are mostly commitments by national governments and like the GDP are measured in really abstract terms like population coverage statistics and so on.

Based on previous experience, it is just way too easy for the respective government departments to hugely inflate coverage figures using shared sanitation. And even if parts of those shared sanitation facilities are perfectly fine, it is not a good thing to have a government proclaiming success in sanitation coverage (and then diverting funds to other sectors) when the reality on the ground is that unhygienic conditions, long waiting times and difficulties in night time access lead to many people using flying toilets as a common "backup".

Looking at it from this perspective also explains why there seems to be little movement to "soften up" the definition of shared sanitation and/or counting private neighborhood toilets differently, as these governmental negotiations are always a huge game of watering down everything (to avoid real commitments), and changing the definition of shared sanitation is seen as an attempt to water down minimum sanitation standards, even if technically justified.

Edit: over-crowed living conditions are also for many other reasons something the government should not be allowed to just accept by changing their minimum standards. Of course this is not something that will be possible to change over night, and in the meantime shared sanitation is often a good interim solution. But if it becomes accepted as a standard, the incentive to actually improve the overall conditions in the longer term (provide social housing etc.) becomes much lower for government technocrats that just care about numbers and minimum standards (and their next promotion ).]]>
Shared toilets, community toilets, public toilets, mobile toilets (container-based or with bags) Fri, 27 May 2016 07:09:29 +0000
Re: Duncan Mara article on shared sanitation - by: Doreen http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/18080-duncan-mara-article-on-shared-sanitation#18082 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/18080-duncan-mara-article-on-shared-sanitation#18082
I agree with Duncan Mara. It is ridiculous to say that shared toilets are not considered as improved sanitation and I simply don't understand how this was thought about.

Shared sanitation facilities are paramount in densely populated low income urban areas. The expectation that each family will have one toilet in a plot is just not feasible. Taking into consideration that many plots e.g. in Kenya have approximately 5 families living within the plot and there is very very limited space.

Sometimes I have the feeling that the people who actually contributed to some of these policy's/ SDG's have not received enough background information on what is actually happening on the ground.

Best regards,

Doreen]]>
Shared toilets, community toilets, public toilets, mobile toilets (container-based or with bags) Tue, 24 May 2016 06:20:44 +0000
Duncan Mara article on shared sanitation - by: campbelldb http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/18080-duncan-mara-article-on-shared-sanitation#18080 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/52-shared-toilets-community-toilets-public-toilets-mobile-toilets-container-based-or-with-bags/18080-duncan-mara-article-on-shared-sanitation#18080
Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg (2016) 110 (5): 265-267. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trw029

Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic.

Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets.

The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean.

Such shared sanitation should be classified as ‘basic’, sometimes as ‘safely-managed’, sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals.]]>
Shared toilets, community toilets, public toilets, mobile toilets (container-based or with bags) Mon, 23 May 2016 14:16:37 +0000