SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Fri, 29 Apr 2016 07:49:29 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Global Waters Radio: Darren Saywell on Community-Led Total Sanitation - by: campbelldb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17788 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17788 USAID Water Team blog.]]> Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 22 Apr 2016 18:49:56 +0000 Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17713 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17713
The Lancet Global Health paper is very interesting to read, especially considering the current Thematic Discussion on Wash and nutrition on this forum. The conclusions are interesting in terms of possible positive effects of CLTS without subsidies first on WASH behaviour and second on the height and the weight of children.

In terms of methodology I can see that four Universities were involved in the study. What is so complicated in running this kind of study? What can be shared (and not shared) with the WASH (and health, and nutrition) communities? Questionnaires? What software did you use?
In the projects I worked in, we ran WASH KAP (*) surveys several times - questionnaires, excel sheets and access software - with small teams and smaller number of respondents and very small budgets. Does this mean we did not do a good job? How can we improve our statistical treatment and how can we integrate parameters such as HAZ and WAZ and other health and nutrition indicators?

Is there any chance the study you ran can be further replicated and scaled up? Is there a possibility that your University could provide training on this topic?

Thanks!

Cécile

(*) KAP = Knowledge, attitude and practice]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 14 Apr 2016 13:38:56 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17699 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17699 I agree that partners play a big role in the success of the implementation. Unicef was very effective in working with the government. THe program was very well implemented and it showed some positive results in child stunting.

Best

maria Laura]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 14:18:42 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17698 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17698
What I meant by "pity" was not about the results, but on the contrary the fact that I could not quote the report to illustrate how a CLTS program without subsidies demonstrated good results one year after the end of implementation but then Elizabeth's reponse (and yours) made sense and I quoted the Lancet instead.

My questions about subcontracting was aimed at better understanding the role of the partners in implementing a CLTS program. In this case I understand the design and technical assistance of the program was done by UNICEF and the implementation was done by the Department of Sanitation in Koulikoro. This is interesting because institutional engagement enhances sustainability and is a sound basis for replication.

I will have more questions on the study soon but first I will need to go back to the Report.
Thanks !]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 14:15:42 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17697 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17697
thanks for taking the time to read the report. As Elisabeth mentions, the report was an internal report for Unicef and the Foundation who funded the evaluation, you can check and quote the main results from the Lancet Global Health paper.

The implementation was in the hands of the Department of Sanitation of Koulikoro with the support of Unicef. Unicef participated in all the triggering and monitoring ceremonies. They hired local people in some areas, but the job was not sub-contracted in any way.

Personally, I do not see the results as a "pity", it shows very persuasively that a well implemented program can significantly reduce OD in very poor and rural areas. Of course, conclusions may not be the same in other parts of the world, where subsidies are needed. But it shows the importance of behavioral change in terms of adoption.

We are working on some "economics" papers (I'm an economist by training) looking at what is driving adoption.

Best

Maria Laura Alzua]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 13:46:10 +0000
Re: Webinar TOMORROW 17 Dec! Engaging Local Actors in Sanitation Behavior Change: Case Studies of CLTS (10 am EST New York time) - by: khorvath http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17533 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17533
"Thanks for your question. We have not investigated CHCs specifically, as our research focused exclusively on CLTS. Just as CLTS is context-specific and not universally applicable, the same is likely to be the case with other behavior change approaches. This is why we suggest that CLTS be considered as part of a larger toolkit, which includes efforts that have also been implemented worldwide such as sanitation marketing, CHCs, educational approaches, and even subsidies. In order to systematically answer the question, “If CLTS fails in a community, then what?”, we would have to design an experiment where different alternatives are implemented in communities where triggering has not led to behavior change and evaluate outcomes."

I have also attached a pdf of the slides used during the webinar to this response for your further reading. Best wishes,

Kris]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:52:45 +0000
Re: Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria - implementation, learning, research, and influence on practice and policy (WaterAid America) - by: SDickin http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17515 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17515 Thanks for sharing this work. I would be interested in any updates regarding how you addressed the challenges you mentioned. Have you been able to develop the modified triggering approach that is combined with sanitation marketing?
I am also curious how you are defining and promoting 'sustainable sanitation,' Recently I have been working on an analysis to understand how sustainability is defined differently across different sanitation promotion approaches. It would be helpful to get another perspective.
thanks in advance,
Sarah]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 23 Mar 2016 07:56:17 +0000
Can you help us improve our services? - User survey of CLTS Knowledge Hub - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17489-can-you-help-us-improve-our-services-user-survey-of-clts-knowledge-hub#17489 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17489-can-you-help-us-improve-our-services-user-survey-of-clts-knowledge-hub#17489
Your views are really important to us and we hope you can help us to improve what we do by filling in the survey. We thank you in advance.
Participate in the survey here www.surveymonkey.co.uk/r/99GMY6F]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Mon, 21 Mar 2016 11:38:18 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17466 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17466
I am so glad you found our new filtering functions of the library, and the links between library and forum helpful. That's really nice to know.

About the report (www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2300) it's true on the front page it says: DO NOT DISTRIBUTE OR CITE THE CONTENTS OF THIS REPORT.

However, I think that it now outdated because the report is from June 2015 but later they had this important publication:

Paper in the Lancet Global Health (open access, November 2015): www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/langlo/P...X%2815%2900144-8.pdf

I believe that contains all the results from the report and that's what people are meant to cite.

However, I will also double check with Maria, also about your other question regarding the implementation.

Kind regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:42:21 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17463 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17463 Why is it mentioned in the report that it cannot be cited and the results cannot be distributed ? What a pity for a report which concludes about the positive impact of a CLTS program without subvention ! What are the reasons behind this ?
The report mentions that the CTLS program is conducted by the DNS in Mali with support of UNICEF. I would be interested in knowing more about the implementation scheme of the project. Was it a direct implementation or was it subcontracted to associations or NGOs ?

Thanks

Cécile

PS : by the way, I ended up finding this report through the "new" filtering process in SuSanA's library. I selected one topic of the working group, which led me to key reports in the topics and then for the publication whose content is discussed on the forum, there is a direct link. This is just brilliant !]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 17 Mar 2016 15:05:50 +0000
Frontiers Issue 8: CLTS and the Right to Sanitation - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17459-frontiers-issue-8-clts-and-the-right-to-sanitation#17459 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17459-frontiers-issue-8-clts-and-the-right-to-sanitation#17459
Lack of sanitation impacts on the rights to life and health, the right to education (through loss in school days, particularly for girls), and the right to dignity. The purpose of this issue of Frontiers of CLTS is to examine Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in light of human rights: Do the principles and practices of CLTS reflect and promote a rights-based approach to sanitation? In what specific areas do they do so? What areas of CLTS practice raise concerns about actual or potential incompatibility with human rights? Through this issue we hope to give a fuller understanding of human rights for CLTS practitioners to help improve practice.

You can download the issue here www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/reso...and-right-sanitation]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 17 Mar 2016 11:40:01 +0000
Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17312 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17312
Whilst the research for the project was already carried out in Mali a little while ago (2011-2013), important publications only came out late last year, so I thought it's important to bring this to your attention, as it was a very comprehensive study which - amongst other things - also investigated impacts of CLTS on child health.

Title of grant: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali




Source of image: project poster (www.susana.org/_resources/documents/defa...01-16-1439735599.pdf)

  • Name of lead organization: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina (www.unlp.edu.ar/)
  • Primary contact at lead organization: Maria Laura Alzua (CEDLAS-CONICET Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina)*
  • Grantee location: Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • Developing country where the research was tested: Mali
  • Start and end date: Feb. 2011 – 2013
  • Grant type (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other): Other
  • Grant size: $ 908,051 (as per BMGF grant database here)
  • Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): no

* Some information about Maria: "I'm a professor at the Economics Department and a senior researcher at CEDLAS (Center for Distributional, Social and Labor Studies). My interest in sanitation arises from the development point of view."

Short description of the project:

In Mali, only 15% of rural households use improved sanitation. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) uses participatory approaches to facilitate sustained behavior change to eliminate open defecation by mobilizing communities in order to achieve that goal.

Although CLTS has been implemented in over 50 countries, there is a lack of rigorous
and objective data on its impacts on sanitation and hygiene behavior, and on health outcomes such as diarrhea and child growth. The project evaluates the impact of a conducted CLTS campaign implemented by the government of Mali with the support of UNICEF.

Overview of trial profile (Source: Lancet paper www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/langlo/P...X%2815%2900144-8.pdf):




Time frame:
  • Baseline survey: April to June 2011
  • CLTS intervention: September 2011 to June 2012
  • Follow-up survey: April to June 2013

Location: Koulikoro Region (Koulikoro was one of the regions affected by the unprecedented large-scale complex humanitarian crisis in Mali)

The study provided evidence that a pure behavioral intervention with no monetary subsidies substantially increased access to sanitation facilities in rural Mali. Latrines were also cleaner and better stocked with handwashing supplies in treatment villages, indicating improved hygiene behavior. Our findings suggest CLTS improved child growth and reduced the prevalence of stunting among children.

The program did not have a significant impact on self-reported diarrheal illness, thus the program may have impacted child growth and mortality through pathways other than preventing diarrhea, such as reducing the subclinical condition of environmental enteropathy via decreased exposure to environmental fecal contamination.


Goal:

To improve the evidence of the effectiveness of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs on health and behavioral outcomes (the ultimate goal of CLTS is to achieve whole communities that are free of open defecation).


Objectives:

Evaluation of the effectiveness of a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) program implemented by the government of Mali in small rural communities with poor sanitation coverage


Research or implementation partners:

Stanford University, USA; Aix-Marseille University, France; University of the Andes, Colombia; Université Laval, Canada. The CLTS intervention itself was implemented by the Malian government with the support of UNICEF.


Links, further readings:

Final report from 2015: www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2300

Paper in the Lancet Global Health (open access, November 2015): www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/langlo/P...X%2815%2900144-8.pdf

Description of the trial on Clinical Trials.gov, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health:
clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01900912

Documents in SuSanA library (includes a poster about the project from January 2015): www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2301


Current state of affairs: project accomplished (no information about planned further similar studies available)


Biggest successes:

The CLTS campaign was highly successful in increasing access to private latrines, improving the quality of latrines, and reducing self-reported open defecation (see for example figure 3 below from final report). Access to a private latrine almost doubled among households in CLTS villages (coverage increased to 65% in CLTS villages compared to 35% in control villages).

Self-reported open defecation rates fell by 70% among adult women and men, by 46% among older children (age 5-10), and by 50% among children under five. Children too young to use latrines were also more likely to use a child potty in CLTS villages. The program also increased perceived privacy and safety during defecation among women. Observations by field staff support respondent-reported reductions in open defecation, use of cleaner latrines, and improved hygiene in CLTS villages. Latrines in the CLTS households were 3 times more likely to have soap present (prevalence ratio [PR]: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.18-4.61) and 5 times more likely to have water present (PR: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.49-8.05). Latrines at CLTS households were more than twice as likely to have a cover over the hole of the pit (PR: 2.78, 95% CI: 2.24-3.44), and 31% less likely to have flies observed inside the latrine (PR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.68-0.93). CLTS households were also half as likely to have piles of human feces observed in the courtyard (PR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.37-0.79).


Main challenges / frustration:

Although the program led to dramatic improvements in sanitation access, quality of latrines, and improved hygiene behaviors (such as keeping soap and water in the latrine), villages did not reach universal access as intended by the program. Although certification was awarded prematurely in some villages universal access would most likely have been infeasible. The fact that follow-up data was collected a full year after village certifications indicate that the CLTS intervention can be sustainable, but longer-term studies would also shed light on how long improvements in sanitation access persist through time.]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 04 Mar 2016 04:21:11 +0000
Re: From Haiti to Indonesia: What’s Different; What’s the Same in CLTS Implementation - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17182 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17182
I'm glad that you cleared up the confusion.

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 25 Feb 2016 02:37:53 +0000
Re: From Haiti to Indonesia: What’s Different; What’s the Same in CLTS Implementation - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17181 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17181 is a full report (67 pages long). Navigating their website is a bit confusing but I saw it now advertised on Sanitation Updates. So here it is:

waterinstitute.unc.edu/files/2016/01/CLT...al-Report_011416.pdf

It's available from this page:
waterinstitute.unc.edu/clts/resource-library/

The proper way of citing it is:

Venkataramanan, Vidya. 2016. CLTS Learning Series: Lessons from CLTS Implementation in Seven
Countries. Chapel Hill, USA: The Water Institute at UNC.


I copy from the executive summary:

++++++++

Thematic Findings

The following themes were identified across the seven case studies, with related findings and
recommendations for CLTS and rural sanitation practitioners:

Role of CLTS: CLTS was widely perceived as being universally applicable to rural communities,
even though outcomes varied depending on community characteristics. Rather than viewing
it as a comprehensive solution to rural sanitation, CLTS should be considered as one
component of a sanitation strategy. If communities that are more likely to be receptive to
CLTS are targeted more systematically, practitioners can allocate remaining resources to test
other approaches, such as sanitation marketing, in other communities less appropriate for
CLTS.

Local government capacity: In five of the seven case studies, local government capacity was
found to be insufficient to lead CLTS activities. Where local governments are unable to lead
CLTS activities, international NGOs (INGOs) can help strengthen their capacity through
training, mentorship, and targeted technical support. INGOs should also engage with local
NGOs (LNGOs) to trigger communities and strengthen village‐level participation. At the same
time, all NGOs should advocate for increased investment from national government to
ensure that there are sufficient staff, finances, and resources for sanitation in local
government.

Role of village‐level actors: A variety of village volunteers were implicated in different phases
of CLTS, but they needed considerable support from Plan International and local government
to motivate communities toward behavior change. CLTS practitioners need to ensure that an
unfair burden is not placed on volunteers. Practitioners should allocate sufficient resources
for training, financial and in‐kind support, recognition, and exchange visits to sustain
volunteer motivation.   

Adaptations to triggering: Triggering techniques had been adapted in all LS case studies, but
adaptations were not always designed with the aim of improving outcomes. Programs
should systematically identify adaptations to CLTS and critically analyze whether the
adaptations are a result of community context or a result of convenience or logistical
constraints. 
  
Sanctions: Although community‐developed sanctions are encouraged in CLTS, most
examples identified through the LS were enacted by village or district government. CLTS
practitioners, including NGOs and government, need to carefully consider the types of
sanctions they actively encourage or passively condone, who enforces the sanctions, and
how they are enforced in practice. Sanctions may be useful in creating and reinforcing social
norms, but they need to be introduced at the right time, in the right manner, and target the
right people.  

Hardware supply and financing: Latrines built as a result of CLTS were often of poor quality,
adversely affecting the sustainability of CLTS outcomes. Access to durable materials,
technical support, and affordability were key obstacles. Plan International can help influence
the nature of post‐CLTS support in communities through approaches that maintain the
motivational nature of CLTS and also provide access to higher quality sanitation options, such
as sanitation marketing. In countries where government or NGO subsidies are present, Plan
International can help influence the mechanisms by which these subsidies are targeted to
ensure that they do not negate CLTS efforts but rather enhance access and sustainability of
outcomes.

Monitoring outcomes: CLTS monitoring activities comprised a variety of process and
outcome indicators, but ultimately focused on achievement of ODF status, except in Haiti.
There were differences in indicators of success, ODF definitions, and ODF verification
guidelines across all LS case study countries. Achievement of ODF status can serve as a
powerful motivational tool for communities to change their sanitation practices. However, it
is less useful as a metric to measure progress; its binary nature suggests that communities
that have nearly achieved 100% latrine coverage may still qualify as “not ODF.” Therefore,
programs should consider focusing on routinely collecting data (including baseline
measurements) on household‐level indicators of sanitation so they can measure and
recognize incremental progress in communities. Improved monitoring of activities will help
generate evidence on the potential, the effectiveness, and the limits of CLTS.  

+++++++

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 25 Feb 2016 02:07:19 +0000
Re: Frontiers of CLTS Issue 7: Norms, Knowledge and Usage - by: JamieMyers http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/16517-frontiers-of-clts-issue-7-norms-knowledge-and-usage#17163 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/16517-frontiers-of-clts-issue-7-norms-knowledge-and-usage#17163 www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/blog/partial-usage-toilets

We are interested in hearing reflections from others especially in relation to particular issues. These include:

- Scalable ways to measure and monitor partial usage. Measuring usage at all is much more difficult than counting a toilet. Looking at inter-household differences adds another level of complexity.

- How widespread is partial usage outside of India?

- Are there any other factors associated with partial usage that we have missed?

- What research is there on partial usage that we might have missed?]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Tue, 23 Feb 2016 14:56:32 +0000