SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Thu, 01 Sep 2016 03:42:09 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Sustainable Sanitation for all: experiences, challenges and innovations- new publication! - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18436-new-book-out-now-sustainable-sanitation-for-all-experiences-challenges-and-innovations#18467 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18436-new-book-out-now-sustainable-sanitation-for-all-experiences-challenges-and-innovations#18467
Describing the landscape of sustainability of CLTS and sanitation with reference to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and through examples from Africa and Asia, the book captures a range of experiences and innovations from a broad range of institutions and actors within the WASH sector, and attempts to make recommendations and practical suggestions for policy and practice for practitioners, funders, policymakers and governments.

The book is published by Practical Action and is available for purchase in hardcopy developmentbookshop.com/sustainable-sanitation-for-all or as a free download by chapter www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780449272

This short film features interviews with some of the authors and gives you an idea of the content. www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/vide...and-innovations-film]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 22 Jul 2016 10:05:23 +0000
Re: Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria - implementation, learning, research, and influence on practice and policy (WaterAid America) - by: Rbroseus http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#18459 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#18459
Please find below the most recent updates on WaterAid's Sustainable Total Sanitation project in Nigeria. Please let us know if you have any questions/comments!

- A few blogs which give an overview of WaterAid's work in Nigeria and discuss CLTS in urbanised areas:
www.wateraid.org/news/blogs/2015/decembe...as-sanitation-dreams
www.wateraid.org/news/blogs/2016/june/cl...-and-start-targeting

- A link to WaterAid's website (below) including:
www.wateraid.org/uk/what-we-do/policy-pr...a4-96cd-a370e28da5c2

a) A brief which provides evidence to improve the targeting of CLTS in Nigeria;
b) The ‘Deep Dive’ (i.e. market research) report undertaken as part of the Sanitation Marketing component of this project;
c) Two posters presented in May 2016 at the WASH Futures Conference in Brisbane (Australia), which investigate how to improve targeting and outcomes of CLTS and explore how we can accelerate sustainable sanitation coverage to achieve universal access by 2030.

Kind regards,

Romain]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 21 Jul 2016 01:12:30 +0000
Using a CLTS approach in urban and peri-urban settings - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18438-using-a-clts-approach-in-urban-and-peri-urban-settings#18438 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18438-using-a-clts-approach-in-urban-and-peri-urban-settings#18438
The outputs include a 4 page learning brief and a longer learning paper. The paper is not a straight forward record of events but focuses on what were agreed as important stages of an urban CLTS process. Each stage is explained, examples provided and advice given. The intention is not a guidebook but a set of ideas and considerations for those interested in embarking on a similar approach.

www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/reso...d-urban-environments]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 15 Jul 2016 06:44:41 +0000
New! Frontiers issue 9: CLTS in post-emergency and fragile states settings - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18437-new-frontiers-issue-9-clts-in-post-emergency-and-fragile-states-settings#18437 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18437-new-frontiers-issue-9-clts-in-post-emergency-and-fragile-states-settings#18437


Download it here www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/reso...gile-states-settings and sign up for a free webinar www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/stor...gile-states-settings]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 15 Jul 2016 06:41:31 +0000
New book out now! Sustainable Sanitation for all: Experiences, challenges and innovations - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18436-new-book-out-now-sustainable-sanitation-for-all-experiences-challenges-and-innovations#18436 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18436-new-book-out-now-sustainable-sanitation-for-all-experiences-challenges-and-innovations#18436
Describing the landscape of sustainability of CLTS and sanitation with reference to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and through examples from Africa and Asia, the book captures a range of experiences and innovations from a broad range of institutions and actors within the WASH sector, and attempts to make recommendations and practical suggestions for policy and practice for practitioners, funders, policymakers and governments.

The book is published by Practical Action and is available for purchase in hardcopy or as a free download by chapter www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/reso...nges-and-innovations]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 15 Jul 2016 06:10:45 +0000
CLTS activities at the 39th International WEDC Conference in Ghana in July - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18263-clts-activities-at-the-39th-international-wedc-conference-in-ghana-in-july#18263 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18263-clts-activities-at-the-39th-international-wedc-conference-in-ghana-in-july#18263
Participate in the CLTS Sharing and Learning workshop on the 10th July
www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/stor...ference-kumasi-ghana

Attend the launch of our book Sustainable Sanitation for All: Experience, challenges and innovations (Tuesday 12th July, evening side session)
www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/stor...ences-challenges-and

Listen to Jamie Myers' present on Using a CLTS approach and/or CLTS tools in urban environments: Themes and Trends. (Wednesday 13th July, morning session)

Join Robert Chambers and Jamie Myers for a session on The partial usage of toilets: a growing problem (Wednesday 13th July, afternoon session)

Come and have a conversation and pick up free copies of our publications at the CLTS stall in the exhibition area

Please consult the conference programme for details of the exact times and rooms for these sessions.

You can download a flyer with an overview of all these activities here www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/site...activities_flyer.pdf]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 16 Jun 2016 13:48:11 +0000
CLTS Study - Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia - by: campbelldb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18254-clts-study-teachers-and-sanitation-promotion-an-assessment-of-community-led-total-sanitation-in-ethiopia#18254 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18254-clts-study-teachers-and-sanitation-promotion-an-assessment-of-community-led-total-sanitation-in-ethiopia#18254 Sanitation Updates.

Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia. Env Sci Tech, May 2016.

Authors: Jonny Crocker, Abiyot Geremew, Fisseha Atalie, Messele Yetie, and Jamie Bartram

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation.

In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages
for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys.

Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success.

Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%.

Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low.]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 15 Jun 2016 16:18:28 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#18107 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#18107
We decided to do a very sound impact evaluation of CLTS that required a big sample size, geographically representative, and measuring many outcomes. Also, we had external finance for the evaluation, separated from the implementing team. I'm an economist by training, but teamed up with sanitation specialists in order to train the enumerators who conducted the evaluation, We don't do this sort of training unless we are doing the evaluation ourselves. Which kind of training did you have in mind?

Maria Laura]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 26 May 2016 12:17:20 +0000
Re: From Haiti to Indonesia: What’s Different; What’s the Same in CLTS Implementation - by: Marijn Zandee http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17985 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17985
I would like to try to put this thread in the spotlight again, as the report that is linked in the first post is an interesting read. Or at least I found it interesting, as I had not kept up with developments in CLTS very much.

The report gives a good insight, I think, in how CLTS –as implemented by PLAN and their partners- has evolved over time. I personally was still under the impression that CLTS was still done by small “triggering teams” in many communities somewhat disconnected from the wider governance structure. However, it seems that with the scaling-up of CLTS some things have changed. Below some of my main takeaways:

The brief presents CLTS more as one component of a sanitation strategy, which should also include building up a supply infra structure. Lack of appropriate materials (and knowledge) is recognized as a problem.

Further, the learning brief mentions that most of the projects work intensively with local governments, and that (lack of) capacity of local governments in working in the CLTS framework is often a difficulty.

Also, I found it interesting to see that Local Volunteers (the Natural Leaders of earlier publications) need a lot of Government or NGO support, and should be compensated for their time.

In general, my impression is that CLTS has moved away somewhat from the notion that communities can do this all by themselves, as long as they are motivated enough. The framework seems to have evolved into an awareness raising and demand creation technique, which works best with significant government or other support.

Finally, what I find really disturbing is finding 5, which is that sanctions for not having toilets are often administered by local officials without a legal framework. In other words, local government officials deny people access to basic government services at their discretion, without a relevant law, for not having a toilet. From anecdotal evidence I know that this can go as far as denying voter registration. As much as I want people to have toilets, I find this indefensible. My impression from the report is that this kind of punishment is quite prevalent under CLTS approaches.

Regards

Marijn]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 11 May 2016 13:41:53 +0000
Re: Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria - implementation, learning, research, and influence on practice and policy (WaterAid America) - by: AdaOkoWilliams http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17908 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17908
Apologies that we did not get back to you sooner on your queries. Thank you for your interest in the STS project in Nigeria.

The project is still on course and we have attempted to address the challenges of wide spread open defecation in Nigeria from a rigorous research perspective. Combining information from the research with demonstration of what works and carefully documenting to inform practice change among stakeholders in the country as well as to influence policy change is how we are approaching it.
Nigeria has over a decade experience of using CLTS. We have learnt a lot of lessons but they have been in the most part anecdotal. The STS research component is clearly filling the information and data gap that should help the country move forward from its position of promotion of a single approach to addressing the sanitation challenge.It is emerging now the inadequacies of the application of a single approach to addressing such a difficult problem as open defection in a complex, diverse and heterogeneous context as Nigeria ( a country of over 250 distinct ethnic groups)

One very interesting issue from the project was the assertion of communities to prefer to continually defecate in the open rather than build what they describe as make shift non durable toilets. This was a clear indication of the aspirations of the people and it clearly demonstrated why there was very low levels of latrine uptake ( construction and use) following triggering sessions. By the way in the decade plus years of application of CLTS in Nigeira, ODF attainment rate for triggered communities is about 35-40%. This had previously been almost totally blamed on poor quality of triggering.

Before now, it was also assumed that everyone in the community could not afford standard durable and aesthetically appealing toilets hence at triggering, the only form of toilet talked about was basically ones with use of local materials.
Under the project, this approach has changed in the sense that now, triggering is followed by presentation of options! Through a market research product development process a fusion of different latrine technologies emerged as the WET, Water Easy Toilet and it is being currently promoted within the project with prospects of other models already in view. The important thing is this is responding to the needs and aspirations of the people.

We envisage that post the research phase, there will be huge uptake, literal explosion of the market for the WET in Nigeria. Right now it is only available in treatment communities under the research protocol.

Another major modification to the triggering process is related to the community entry processes. These are being adapted to suit the context in each community. Literacy levels and nearness to cities or town centers is indicative of levels of education and the community's ability to perceive the direction of travel at a triggering session. Where the traditional concept of CLTS suggesting you do not disclose the mission of the triggering team and lead the people to arrive at it much later have been found to be work against the purpose in some instance where communities felt insulted and that affected trust.

On our definition of sustainable sanitation, we are looking at all that is required for anyone who gains access to sanitation to continually have access to sanitation. So we see this beyond the toilet unit installed in a home to all that is required for that toilet to continue to function and provide the desired service for which it was intended. In summary therefore we look at what is required to continuous demand, what is required to an effective supply of all that is required. A system approach is what we apply to define and assure sustainable sanitation. More importantly this is always defined in the context as we realise that what is required for sustainable sanitation in community A may well be very different for Community B.

We would like to hear more of your thoughts on Sustainable sanitation too form the work you are doing.
Very kind regards,

Ada]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Tue, 03 May 2016 17:53:46 +0000
Global Waters Radio: Darren Saywell on Community-Led Total Sanitation - by: campbelldb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17788 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17788 USAID Water Team blog.]]> Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 22 Apr 2016 18:49:56 +0000 Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17713 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17713
The Lancet Global Health paper is very interesting to read, especially considering the current Thematic Discussion on Wash and nutrition on this forum. The conclusions are interesting in terms of possible positive effects of CLTS without subsidies first on WASH behaviour and second on the height and the weight of children.

In terms of methodology I can see that four Universities were involved in the study. What is so complicated in running this kind of study? What can be shared (and not shared) with the WASH (and health, and nutrition) communities? Questionnaires? What software did you use?
In the projects I worked in, we ran WASH KAP (*) surveys several times - questionnaires, excel sheets and access software - with small teams and smaller number of respondents and very small budgets. Does this mean we did not do a good job? How can we improve our statistical treatment and how can we integrate parameters such as HAZ and WAZ and other health and nutrition indicators?

Is there any chance the study you ran can be further replicated and scaled up? Is there a possibility that your University could provide training on this topic?

Thanks!

Cécile

(*) KAP = Knowledge, attitude and practice]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 14 Apr 2016 13:38:56 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17699 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17699 I agree that partners play a big role in the success of the implementation. Unicef was very effective in working with the government. THe program was very well implemented and it showed some positive results in child stunting.

Best

maria Laura]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 14:18:42 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17698 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17698
What I meant by "pity" was not about the results, but on the contrary the fact that I could not quote the report to illustrate how a CLTS program without subsidies demonstrated good results one year after the end of implementation but then Elizabeth's reponse (and yours) made sense and I quoted the Lancet instead.

My questions about subcontracting was aimed at better understanding the role of the partners in implementing a CLTS program. In this case I understand the design and technical assistance of the program was done by UNICEF and the implementation was done by the Department of Sanitation in Koulikoro. This is interesting because institutional engagement enhances sustainability and is a sound basis for replication.

I will have more questions on the study soon but first I will need to go back to the Report.
Thanks !]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 14:15:42 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17697 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17697
thanks for taking the time to read the report. As Elisabeth mentions, the report was an internal report for Unicef and the Foundation who funded the evaluation, you can check and quote the main results from the Lancet Global Health paper.

The implementation was in the hands of the Department of Sanitation of Koulikoro with the support of Unicef. Unicef participated in all the triggering and monitoring ceremonies. They hired local people in some areas, but the job was not sub-contracted in any way.

Personally, I do not see the results as a "pity", it shows very persuasively that a well implemented program can significantly reduce OD in very poor and rural areas. Of course, conclusions may not be the same in other parts of the world, where subsidies are needed. But it shows the importance of behavioral change in terms of adoption.

We are working on some "economics" papers (I'm an economist by training) looking at what is driving adoption.

Best

Maria Laura Alzua]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 13:46:10 +0000