SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sat, 29 Aug 2015 00:15:14 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14701 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14701
++++++++

Questions/issues at the webinar included:
  1. ODF may be better suited for motivating communities than measuring success and is not a good metric for comparing communities due to its binary nature;
  2. Low overall success rates suggest we are missing an opportunity to better target CLTS to specific communities and consider alternate sanitation strategies where CLTS is not appropriate;
  3. We need better data and understanding of how to successfully change long-term social norms

+++++++

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:15:35 +0000
Re: What are your thoughts on urban CLTS? Can it work? - by: JamieMyers http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/1334-what-are-your-thoughts-on-urban-clts-can-it-work?limit=12&start=12#14674 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/1334-what-are-your-thoughts-on-urban-clts-can-it-work?limit=12&start=12#14674
Here is a paper I wrote for the WEDC conference in July on Urban CLTS. I have also attached the presentation slides.

Questions that came up after, focused on what can CLTS bring to the urban environment. I think what it can do is help trigger, raise awareness and unify the demand for sanitation. Other players will have to be involved in the process but it can mean that communities are given a equal voice and not just been seen as a group of people who need to be consulted.

It is something that I am continuing to document and think about and would appreciate any constructive criticism and comments.]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Tue, 25 Aug 2015 13:15:12 +0000
Re: Free webinar: CLTS and Sustainability - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/13698-webinar-clts-and-sustainability-summary-and-presentations-available#14666 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/13698-webinar-clts-and-sustainability-summary-and-presentations-available#14666 www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/reso...s-and-sustainability

(no recording is available due to technical problems during the webinar)

Here is the webinar summary; to get the hyperlinks to the presentations use the link above:

+++++++++++++

The CLTS Knowledge Hub hosted a webinar on CLTS and Sustainability on Wednesday 24th June 2015. Speakers included Antoinette Kome, Sue Cavill and Robert Chambers.

Sue kicked it all off by outlining what was meant by sustainability and what it is that we would like to see sustained, ie ODF status of whole communities maintained over time. She mentioned the four major studies that the edition of Frontiers was based on: Plan International’s ODF Sustainability Study, UNICEF CATS Evaluation and WSP studies in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

Robert then outlined the different types of sustainability: institutions and processes, physical and technical and social and behavioural that were identified. He ended by introducing five critical areas that need further action and research:

  1. How and when to phase in sanitation marketing?
  2. Post ODF engagement of government, NGO, donors and others?
  3. How to ensure equity and inclusion
  4. How to transform social norms
  5. Monitoring, learning and changing


Download the CLTS and Sustainability slides Sue and Robert presented:
www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/site...ity_and_CLTS_PPT.ppt

Antoinette Kome from SNV then took over and presented the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All Results Programme which is currently running in 13 countries across Africa and Asia. She listed demand creation, sanitation supply chains and finance, hygiene behavioural change communication and WASH governance as all being important to ensure long term support for household and school sanitation and hygiene. Different examples were given from programmes showing the way that SNV has been strengthening these four activities. The presentation ended suggesting that we currently do not think sufficiently enough about what happens after the finish line: post-ODF. In order to do this we should be building the capacity for sustainability into programmes, making sure we maintain sanitation and hygiene in local agendas, addressing practical problems affecting sustainability and monitoring progress.

Download Antoinette's presentation:
www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/site...A_sustainability.pdf]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 24 Aug 2015 21:58:45 +0000
Re: CLTS in Somalia - Has any agency implemented CLTS in Somalia? - by: boorso http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/2652-clts-in-somalia-has-any-agency-implemented-clts-in-somalia#14621 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/2652-clts-in-somalia-has-any-agency-implemented-clts-in-somalia#14621
Thanks for your questions about the CLTS in Somalia. Thus this program is new for Somalia since Somalia land was carried out by UNICEF Somalia and watch this link


However the majority of the regions in Somalia have not yet reached this program due to insecurity issues especially south central regions in Somalia consisted 10 regions.
Regards]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Fri, 21 Aug 2015 18:47:05 +0000
Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria - implementation, learning, research, and influence on practice and policy (WaterAid America) - by: Rbroseus http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#14553 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#14553
Please find below an introduction to our project which is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Please let me know if you have any questions or comments. I would be happy to answer them.

Regards,

Romain

Romain Broseus
Program Development Officer
WaterAid America, New York
www.wateraidamerica.org


+++++++++++++

Title of grant: Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria

Subtitle: Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria - implementation, learning, research, and influence on practice and policy

  • Name of lead organization: WaterAid America
  • Primary contacts at lead organization: Sarah Dobsevage - Director of Strategic Partnerships; Romain Broseus - Program Development Officer; Erin Flynn - Research Manager; Ada Oko-Williams - Technical Support Manager, Sanitation and Hygiene; Adeyinka Oludiran - Head of Program
  • Grantee location: USA
  • Developing country where the research is being tested: Nigeria
  • Start and end date: July 2012 - June 2016
  • Grant type: Global development
  • Grant size in USD: $7,424,868 (as per BMGF grant database here)
  • Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): yes

Short description of the project:
According to the Joint Monitoring Program, 2.3 billion people still lack improved sanitation facilities in 2015 (JMP - WHO/UNICEF. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water - 2015 Update and MDG assessment). In sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that 229 million people practice open defecation and only 30% of the population has improved sanitation facilities. Nigeria is no exception, where 130 million people practice open defecation or have an unimproved latrine. To address this situation, WaterAid undertook an ambitious project involving implementation, learning, research and wider influencing to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, inclusion and sustainability of total sanitation approaches in three States in Nigeria (Jigawa, Enugu and Ekiti). Total sanitation includes working with and mobilizing the entire community - households, schools, clinics, and public places - to completely eliminate open defecation, as opposed to working with select individuals or promoting a particular kind of latrine.

WaterAid seeks to:
  • Achieve and sustain Open Defecation Free (ODF) status at the community and household level;
  • Embed best practices derived from project implementation;
  • Undertake formal research to understand the effectiveness of community-led total sanitation (CLTS), which is a community mobilization intervention, as well as sanitation marketing, which targets suppliers of sanitation materials, in increasing the coverage and use of improved sanitation; and
  • Influence the path to scale in terms of State-wide, national and regional policy and practice.
  • The project will build on WaterAid’s experience of applying context- and culture-modified variants of community-led total sanitation* in Nigeria.


* In Nigeria, contextual variants of CLTS include exploring various facilitation approaches to address the specific cultural barriers and taboos that exist around latrines, defecation, as well as menstruation; as well as physical modifications to the structures to adapt to the specific geological terrain of Nigeria.

Goal(s):
  • To develop a robust, widely accepted and improved sanitation intervention in Nigeria;
  • To improve the effectiveness, efficiency, inclusion and sustainability of total sanitation approaches in three States in Nigeria, and through project learning, contribute to wider national and regional best practices.

Objectives:
  • Objective #1: Increase sustainable sanitation access in 500 communities using an improved Total Sanitation approach. The project seeks to attain ODF status in the target communities, enabling all households to construct affordable, improved latrines; and completing the total sanitation picture by ensuring that community and institutions (schools, clinics) are properly served.
  • Objective #2: Lessons extracted from a structured learning process result in progressive improvements to the total sanitation approach. The project seeks to derive learning from program practice; the learning process can be described as “learning by doing”, “action learning”, or “action research”. In line with the overall goal of the project, it is necessary to document challenges, successes and learnings to provide evidence necessary to influence policies and practice.
  • Objective #3: Undertake formal research to provide additional evidence on selected key questions. The project also involves a more formal research component, by testing hypotheses around how to improve total sanitation implementation strategies.
  • Objective #4: Advocate for and influence policy and practice changes at a wider scale (nationally and regionally). Lastly, the project seeks to influence at the state, national, and regional levels by presenting a replicable model of sanitation practice and policy which can be used beyond the geographical limits of this project.

Research and implementation partners: WaterAid has been implementing the project in collaboration with the Local Government Areas (LGAs) and local NGOs (Community Health Initiative; Justice Development and Peace Initiative, and Society For Water and Sanitation) in three States of Nigeria (Jigawa, Enugu and Ekiti); UNICEF and Concern Universal on the development of sanitation marketing*; and the Water and Sanitation Media Network and the National Water Research Institute. The Institute for Fiscal Studies in the UK is leading the formal research in partnership with the Nigerian consulting company Indepth Precision Consult.

* WaterAid is complementing its Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach with a Sanitation Marketing (SanMark) component. SanMark increases consumer demand for improved sanitation and encourages household investment in durable, hygienic improved latrines. Private businesses are engaged as partners and their capacity built to provide affordable, desirable sanitation products and services to customers who would have been otherwise perceived as ‘beneficiaries’. WANG has carried out a series of activities which provided in-depth insights into consumer needs and preferences as well as supply chain needs and preferences, all of which have informed the design of products and service models. Developing and testing product prototypes and understanding potential sales and distribution mechanisms are pre-requisite for getting the SanMark project off the ground. This has enabled us to understand why households build latrines, what type of features they like and don’t like in a latrine, how much they are willing to invest in an improved latrine, what financial mechanisms exist that they can access credit from, etc.

Links, further readings – results to date: www.wateraid.org/ng

Note: The following website describes a bit more the research component of the program:
www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN74165567

These two websites might also be useful if you are interested in CLTS and sanitation marketing:
www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/country/nigeria
www.sanitationmarketing.com/

Documents from this project in SuSanA library: www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2207

Current state of affairs:
Now at the end of Year 3 and under Phase 2 (Continuing implementation and research), the project is currently progressing as planned. In July 2014, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation awarded WaterAid $1,385,942 in additional funding for sanitation marketing activities under Objective #1 and the formal research component under Objective #3.

Biggest successes so far:
WaterAid and partners implemented CLTS in 15 LGAs in Ekiti, Enugu and Jigawa States, completed the research baseline in nine LGAs in Ekiti and Enugu states, and developed a sanitation marketing implementation guide. In terms of access to sustainable sanitation in our intervention communities, we have observed substantial household motivation and community participation. We expect the percentage of households with improved latrines to increase because of sanitation marketing that will bolster the supply-side of our interventions and provide affordable materials.
In addition, one of the greatest successes of WaterAid’s work in Nigeria is our comprehensive approach towards partnering, involving local communities, civil society and key stakeholders at various government levels in project activities. For example WaterAid, in partnership with UNICEF, is supporting the Government of Nigeria and the private sector to catalyze and develop the local market for sanitation to encourage low-income households in the target communities to invest in and use improved, durable toilets they want and can afford.

Main challenges / frustration:
The unprecedented violence in Abuja and northern Nigeria in 2014 and restrictions on movement and travel leading up to national elections in 2015 affected the overall project implementation. Within the 2 years of implementation, we have also observed specific challenges around CLTS-triggered communities maintaining their ODF status as well as identifying suitable and critical learning topics during action-learning sessions. In Ekiti, some community members, who had built unimproved latrines that they did not want to use, expressed a preference for standard water-based toilets despite their prohibitive cost. We expect to address this through modified triggering combined with sanitation marketing to offer an affordable and desirable mid-range solution. We are exploring solutions to see how they can accelerate uptake and latrine use.]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Tue, 18 Aug 2015 05:05:12 +0000
Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana) - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana#14522 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana#14522
Thanks for the update. Myself and the other users of this forum look forward to the results, which, as you say, would be disseminated by the end of the year.

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 16 Aug 2015 06:51:38 +0000
Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana) - by: ryanrowe http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana#14521 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana#14521
The work in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Kenya has generated a large amount of data which is still being analyzed, and therefore no reports have yet been made public. However, if you happen to be attending Stockholm World Water Week, some findings will be shared in an oral presentation at our CLTS seminar on Sunday August 23 at 09h00 in room FH 202. Additional findings will be shared at other events in September (a public access webinar) and October (the 2015 Water & Health Conference at UNC) this year.

The results are being submitted to journal publications before the end of the year in order to allow for peer review of the results and subsequent widespread dissemination (we hope this will be by early 2016). Please stay tuned to our project website: waterinstitute.unc.edu/clts. I will also add you to our mailing list.

Best regards
Ryan]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 16 Aug 2015 04:55:15 +0000
Re: New Research Summaries and Synthesis: Understanding the Implementation Context for CLTS - by: ryanrowe http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana#14520 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana#14520
Thanks for these queries and apologies for the lengthy delay in my reply.

On grey literature, we are referring to our review of 115 documents outside of scientific/academic journals such as technical reports, case studies, and briefing notes. A summary of the review is available here and the full report is available here.

To your numbered questions:

1) Those questions are probably best answered by Plan International as our implementation partner. I will follow up with Darren and our colleagues in the country offices and see if I can generate some information to address Kim's questions.

2) Sorry to disappoint you - we have not reviewed the materials on the experience of CLTS in Bolivia and therefore not familiar with the specific circumstances there.

3) Good idea to help strengthen the wikipedia article. I will have a look and see what could be added there.

Best regards,
Ryan]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 16 Aug 2015 04:44:29 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: secretariat http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14507 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14507
You can now refresh your memories regarding the CLTS webinar by listening to the audio files here:

1. Introduction - starts with the voice of Pippa Scott:
www.susana.org/images/audio/CLTSwebinar/..._Webinar_1_Intro.mp3

2. Chat Show (Part 1) - starts with the voice of Jane Bevan:
www.susana.org/images/audio/CLTSwebinar/...r_2_Chat%20Show1.mp3

3. Chat Show (Part 2) - starts with the voice of Jonny Crocket: www.susana.org/images/audio/CLTSwebinar/...nar_3_Chat_Show2.mp3

4. Chat Show (Part 3) - starts with the voice of Ada-Oko Williams:
www.susana.org/images/audio/CLTSwebinar/...nar_4_Chat_Show3.mp3

5. Chat Show (Part 4) - starts with the voice of Jane Bevan:
www.susana.org/images/audio/CLTSwebinar/...r_5_Chat%20Show4.mp3

6. Feedback from Breakout Rooms - starts with the voice of Pippa Scott: www.susana.org/images/audio/CLTSwebinar/...k_Breakout_Rooms.mp3

7. Closing Panel - starts with the voice of Jane Bevan: www.susana.org/images/audio/CLTSwebinar/..._7_Closing_Panel.mp3

The separate files should make it easier to listen/download the files also for those with a slow internet connection (they are about 10 MB large). Enjoy!

All the best,
Jona (on behalf of the the SuSanA Secretariat)

P.S. Please tell us if you any technical problems with accessing these audio files or if everything is fine?]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Fri, 14 Aug 2015 16:34:04 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: pierandrea http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14478 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14478
Whether you joined the actual webinar or not, we would also appreciate it if you could give us your feedback on the process of registering and attending the webinar, as well as on the content and facilitation of the session.

Please answer the questions in this very short feedback form. This way we can can evaluate the session and improve the delivery of future webinars.

Many thanks
Pier Andrea (for the webinar facilitation team)]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Thu, 13 Aug 2015 12:25:48 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on CLTS - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/11320-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-clts#14464 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/11320-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-clts#14464 "CLTS monitoring and measuring community outcomes".

For the webinar on 22 July on this topic (see here on the forum), Pippa Scott had asked the expert panel and chair to share their top picks and relevant resources on CLTS monitoring and measuring community outcomes. The result is shown in the list below:

  1. The Sanitation Monitoring UNICEF toolkit is an excellent resource: www.sanitationmonitoringtoolkit.com
  2. Developing and Monitoring Protocol for the Elimination of Open Defecation in Sub-Saharan Africa. UNICEF. 2013, www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/thom...b-saharan_africa.pdf
  3. Community-Led Total Sanitation in East Asia and Pacific: Progress, Lessons and Directions. UNICEF, www.unicef.org/eapro/Community_Led_Total_Sanitation.pdf
  4. Sanitation Marketing Lessons from Cambodia: A Market-Based Approach to Delivering Sanitation. Danielle Pedi, Phyrum Kov and Susanna Smets. Water and Sanitation Program. 2012, www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publicat...ering-Sanitation.pdf
  5. Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability, UNC / Plan International project website: waterinstitute.unc.edu/clts/
  6. How can a large sample survey monitor open defecation in rural India for the Swatch Bharat Abhiyan? Coffey and Spears, 2014, drive.google.com/file/d/0B6INpRxPZsYTZUJ...NjRTladEE/view?pli=1 or here: www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2176
  7. In regards to improving outcomes, diffusion theory, and natural leaders: "Association Between Social Network Communities and Health Behavior: An Observational Sociocentric Network Study of Latrine Ownership in Rural India." Holly B. Shakya PhD et al. 2014. www.bdskm.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/12..._B_Shakya-et.el_.pdf
  8. IDS in Action: Sharing and learning on CLTS and sustainability. Andy Robinson. 2014, www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/blog...s-and-sustainability
]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Wed, 12 Aug 2015 10:33:37 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 at 15:00 London time - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14461 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14461
Thanks for your points.
I agree with you about the summary. I wonder if we can find any volunteers who would listen to the recording and do up a summary? Although you know, everyone's summary would differe because what one person finds important when listening, the other one may not...
But in any case, perhaps this would be a nice task for someone's intern?

Regarding lack of access to Youtube, yes, that's a real downside. Therefore, we have also created sound files (mp3) and they will be uploaded to this thread very shortly. The idea is that people can download the files (they are also 10 MB large though) and then listen to them on their mobile phone or i-pod or similar device.

About your third point:
Also, I am not sure the webinar really focused on how I had interpreted the title (what results do we need to see before we can say that a CLTS intervention is successful).


Point taken.
I invite the experts from the webinar to make a statement about that here? Ada, Jonny, Hansi, Darren or Ryan?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Wed, 12 Aug 2015 08:14:55 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 at 15:00 London time - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14460 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14460
We have discussed open defecation in India in several threads in the sub-category called "behaviour change and user psychology issues" (you contributed to many of them which is great):
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/71-beh...er-psychology-issues

For example here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/71-beh...t-want-pit-latrinesq

Sangita from r.i.c.e wrote there:

These latrines are going unused in India, even though available evidence suggests that using these latrines is better for child health than open defecation, and emptying these latrines poses minimal risk to the emptier because the feces is given time to decompose first. If latrines like these were given away in other developing countries, they would likely be used. But not in India.

This rejection of latrines with internationally recommended pit sizes is unique to India because of caste and untouchability. India's problem is unique, and so the solutions are also likely to be unique, and we need to be experimenting as much as possible with solutions that address people's real concerns.


So no matter how "good" CLTS might be, the issues are so complex in India that one approach alone (CLTS) will not be able to solve that, I guess.

Advocates of CLTS might also say that CLTS is not sufficiently wide-spread in India or not done in the right way (see also some explanations here about the former "total sanitation campaign" in India": en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nirmal_Bharat_Abhiyan)

I actually don't know how wide spread CTLS is in India when looking at the total (rural) population.

Has anyone ever seen a world map (or table) showing the percentage of rural population triggered by CLTS? I would assume that in India it is perhaps 0.1% of the rural population whereas perhaps in some other countries it might be higher by now?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Wed, 12 Aug 2015 08:07:35 +0000
Re: CLTS Sharing and Learning workshop at AfricaSan IV i Senegal - by: WASHanna http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12834-clts-sharing-and-learning-workshop-at-africasan-iv-in-senegal-may-2015#14444 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12834-clts-sharing-and-learning-workshop-at-africasan-iv-in-senegal-may-2015#14444
My apologies for the delayed response. I'll look for them on the AfricaSan website.]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 10 Aug 2015 15:55:43 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 at 15:00 London time - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14435 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/14097-what-constitutes-success-for-clts--measuring-community-outcomes-and-behavior-change-webinar-on-wed-22-july-2015?limit=12&start=12#14435
Please help me in understanding this point: CLTS, I think, is fairly population in India. There are success stories about Uttar Pradesh and Kalyani. Despite this, in India, a large population practices OD (open defecation).

The following information, from UNICEF website, is worth noting:

Globally, India has the largest number of people still defecating in the open: more than 595
Million, which is nearly half the population of India. One in two people uses a toilet.

Half of the population excretes more than 65,000 tonnes of poo outside every day.

An even lower proportion of India’s rural population uses toilets. About 65 per cent of people in
rural areas do not have access to toilets.

Of the more than 160 million people who have access to improved sanitation, the coverage is
highly inequitable. Open defecation is actually still increasing amongst the poorest segment of the population.

Only 11 per cent of Indian rural families dispose of child faeces safely. Eighty per cent of
children’s faeces are left in the open or thrown into the garbage.

With 44 per cent of mothers disposing of their children’s faeces in the open, there is a very high
risk of microbial contamination (bacteria, viruses, and amoeba) of water which causes diarrhoea in children.

India reports the highest number of deaths due to diarrhoea in children under five in the world.
Every year, diarrhoea kills 188,000 children in this age group.

Children weakened by frequent diarrhoea episodes are more vulnerable to malnutrition, stunting,
and opportunistic infections such as pneumonia. About 43 per cent of children in India suffer from some degree of malnutrition.

The faecal-oral route is an important polio transmission pathway. Open defecation increases
communities’ risk of polio infection.


I would like to know, why the OD percentage in India is so high, despite the popularity of CLTS there?

Research by Diane Coffey and Dean Spears of RICE Institute, Delhi, shows that even among households with a working latrine, more than 40 per cent reported that at least one family member preferred to defecate in the open. Those with a government-built toilet were especially likely to choose a bush instead.

In an unpublished parallel survey of Hindu-dominated villages in north India and Nepal, respondents lauded open defecation as wholesome, healthy and social. By contrast, latrines were seen as potentially impure, especially if near the home. Men often described them as for use only by women, the infirm and the elderly.

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 10 Aug 2015 11:25:04 +0000