SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Mon, 30 Nov 2015 17:00:49 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Ideas on a new community led approaches - Youth Led Total Sanitation - by: cmampuya1990

I am braistorming on a new approach that I want to develop as a Young WASH Engineer also involved in the World Youth Parliament for Water.

The approach in french is "Assainissement Total piloté par les Jeunes". In English it may correspond to "Youth Led Total Sanitation". As you may guess, it has been inspired by the CLTS approach.
To summerize the context we can say that in Africa, many of the Young people work in the farms during the rainy season, and move to cities during the dry season to look for alternative or sesonal jobs. Once in the cities they live in bad conditions.
The main purpose is to create an approach in which Young african people could be involved in WASH facilities contsruction in the villages (mainly during the dry season when they is no farm.

I need your suggestions and feedback of what you hear from that idea. I have not started yet to develop the concept and I am still brainstorming and collecting ideas. I have no practical experience on CLTS (only theorical knowledge) so feedbacks from those who have already worked in such kind of approaches implementation would be very useful.

Thank you very much

Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:13:47 +0000
Does mobilizing communities to change behaviours improve health? Pre-webinar discussion - by: SDickin

The topic concerns an important issue - what kind of evidence do we have on the links between sanitation and health outcomes, and is it good enough. With yesterday’s World Toilet Day events highlighting the importance of sanitation for nutrition, this is clearly a growing area of interest (see Jona’s message posted yesterday). These questions build on a previous discussion on the forum about the ‘elusive effect of water and sanitation on the global burden of disease.’ .

Good evidence is needed to design appropriate strategies. With so many sanitation initiatives focusing on mobilizing communities to change behaviours, how can we show this is an effective approach to achieve the health gains that are often discussed. Is there better evidence for some health threats, such as diarrheal disease or undernutrition, but less in other areas that have been overlooked?

I think one challenge is the complexity of pathways leading from interventions in sanitation to better health. We need to get better at looking at these interactions, and sometimes new approaches may be required to provide the evidence needed. The webinar will feature presenters who will discuss findings from their work in Rwanda, Ghana, and India and hopefully this will bring up further avenues of debate for sharing experiences and knowledge on the forum.

To continue this discussion I have started with the following questions:
Where are the key gaps in sanitation and health linkages? Are they with particular health problems, or among particular groups of people, or with demonstrating a holistic picture?

What further questions do you believe need to be answered to strengthen evidence of sanitation and health linkages at a community level?]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 20 Nov 2015 15:04:31 +0000
New video + learning brief from the Water Institute at UNC and Plan International Available Now! - by: aks0813
I wanted to alert you to two new CLTS related publications on our website that may be of interest to you all:

1) A new video from Plan International and the Water Institute at UNC offers a preview of five exciting lessons on sanitation policy and practice, based on findings from operational research on CLTS in Ghana, Ethiopia, and Kenya:

2) In addition, we recently published a learning brief in which we review Plan International Nepal’s CLTS activities and the role of local actors in CLTS implementation:

I welcome your questions!


Alec Shannon
Knowledge Management Associate
The Water Institute at UNC]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 18 Nov 2015 17:02:27 +0000
Positive Deviance Initiative: Early stages show positive results - by: CFARDelhi Innovative Governance Reform Programme in Delhi, strengthening and expanding women-led empowerment strategies (CFAR, India)

Centre for Advocacy and Research’s (CFAR) experiment with Positive Deviance Initiative in a slum in the National Capital has shown encouraging results! Still in early stages, the Initiative looks promising.

Positive Deviance (PD) is a unique approach to social and behavioral change. It is premised on the belief that in every community there are certain individuals or groups whose uncommon behaviors and strategies enable them to find better solutions to problems than their peers, while having access to the same resources and facing worse challenges. These individuals are “Deviants” because their behaviors are not the norm and they are “Positive” as they model the desirable behaviors.

Started earlier this year, the activities at the NTPC Subhash Camp are based on the concept of Positive Deviance where the community itself is involved in finding solutions to their problems. The entire exercise of identifying positive deviants in the community right up to implementing solutions were based on Positive Deviance Initiative. Instead of focusing on what is wrong here, PD focuses on what is right here, “what do the 25 percent families, living in the same socio-economic conditions as their counterparts do naturally to improve their health?’’

CFAR’s entry point to NTPC Subhash Camp at Badarpur,was a meeting with the existing women’s group the ‘Mahila Pragati Manch’ and sharing with them this unique community-based process through which they would try to improve the conditions in the Camp. They were willing to come forward and involve more women in the process. There was also an existing adolescent group who were to be made responsible for awareness generation in that area by adopting different modes including `nukkad-natak’, posters and slogans on issues like sanitation.

This was followed by a walk around the area (transect) to identify the different communities, resources, existing sanitation condition, and situation of Community Toilet Complexes (CTCs). CFAR also held a meeting with men and different community leaders, including the ‘Pradhans’ (local leaders) to get their approval. Most leaders were supportive and expressed their willingness in improving the area.

In Positive Deviance, the focus of behavior change is in the `hand on practice’ – from knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) the paradigm shifts to Practice-Attitude-Knowledge (PAK) where the focus is on Practice rather than knowledge. Positive Deviance is based on the use of innate, knowledge, manpower and resources and works without external help after some time leading to sustainability.

The emphasis during training of Voluntary Health Committees was on issues like water, sanitation and hygiene among others and the community itself highlighted these problems. The importance of the issue and he need to address became stronger with training. It is important to identify individuals who are positive, who have leadership skills and time to support the initiative. Existence of women’s forums helped in identifying such people and motivating them to form groups.

``Right from the beginning we were confident that whatever we were being told would succeed. Everything got embedded in my mind and each one of us felt the same. So we got together and decided to discuss sanitation which was our priority,’’ says Shaheen, a resident of Lane 2. There were many NGOs earlier who promised many things but left without doing a thing. But we had faith in them (CFAR), she says with some sense of conviction.

So what has changed? ``Women and children did not venture out of their respective lanes earlier but now we have the confidence to move out and interact.’’ Shaheen says while assuring that the system would not collapse after CFAR moves out. ``On Eid day we cleaned the drains ourselves after festivities. Garbage was gathered at one place and residents collected Rs 300 to get the garbage removed, she cites it as an example as no one from CFAR was there to guide them on that day.

Braving a few setbacks, the NTPC Subhash Camp residents have managed to get the slum cleaned with their own initiatives. The NTPC has promised skills training for the women and young girls and Goonj has volunteer to train women for making sanitary napkins which can be sold at a price and turn them into entrepreneurs!!]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 29 Oct 2015 10:41:59 +0000
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is more than just toilets (article by WSSCC in the Guardian) - by: OUmelo
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an approach for ensuring that the rural communities have increased access to sanitation has been successful in many communities in Africa and Asia since its inception in 2005. If one takes time to take stock of gains made, the figures are impressive. While we swiftly transition from the MDGs to the SDGs, we are obviously taking stock of previous successes and failures and looking at what has been achieved in the past decade in WASH, among many other development aspects.

Read the full article on The Gaurdian's website]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:19:35 +0000
Open Defecation Ends in 32 Villages on Gandhi Jayanti (India) - by: F H Mughal Open Defecation Ends in 32 Villages on Gandhi Jayanti

According to The New Indian Express, Gandhi Jayanti witnessed 32 of 743 villages in becoming Open Defecation Free (ODF). A formal announcement in this regard was made at the Grama Sabha meeting, convened on Friday to commemorate Gandhi Jayanti.

According to Wikipedia, Gandhi Jayanti is a national festival celebrated in India to mark the occasion of the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the "Father of the Nation". It is one of the three national holidays of the country. Though the title is not officially declared, as the Constitution of India does not permit a father of nation, it is mostly conferred to him.

According to Dr Manohara Singh, project director of District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), as many as 77 villages had planned to become ODF, but only 32 were able to achieve it.

A total of 11,253 households in these 32 villages have constructed their own toilets using the government funding and have been using it since. “The remaining villages will be declared ODF soon,” he said, adding that this is part of a bigger plan to make Vellore district completely Open Defecation Free in the next three years.

This would indicate that “construction of toilets” end OD. Taken on its face value, this is a great achievement in India.

The news item speaks of some guidelines, as according to the guidelines, the households must have access to toilet facility, hundred per cent usage, fly-proofing of toilet, safe septic tank disposal, hand-washing prior to consuming food, cleaning hands after defecation, availability of soap in or near the toilet. Overall there must be no visible faeces found in the village, proper usage of school toilets, safe confinement of excreta in the toilets, proper use of anganvadi toilets to declare the villages as whole as ODF. These 32 villages have now conformed to these guidelines.

These guidelines seem interesting. Can someone from India kindly make the guidelines available on this forum?

The full news item can be seen at:
(Courtesy: Cor Dietvorst 6 Oct 2015)

F H Mughal]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Tue, 06 Oct 2015 16:50:15 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: dannyogwo I believe that behavioural change should be promoted in the CLTS approach.]]> Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 17 Sep 2015 18:14:48 +0000 Re: CLTS Sharing and Learning workshop at AfricaSan IV in Senegal (May 2015) - by: Petra
I saw that Piers Cross only accessed the folder with our presentations last week. So I hope that they will soon upload them on the website.
They are too large for me to add here.
Best wishes,
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 17 Sep 2015 10:24:08 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: edithkamundi
This is an important question considering that CLTS as an approach is one that has received a more world wide acceptance by many sectors including national/central governments and private sector than many other approaches. The missed opportunity is that we are more focused on elimination of open defecation as a practice than the aspect of behaviour change which would be more long term. Context is key, I do not think that there exist an approach that applies to all types of communities even in a single country. the next step is for practitioners to embrace the challenge and device ways to focus the approach to its core principle of changing behaviours

bringing discussions such as these to practitioners is good way to deal with the issue. Another way is to encourage sharing of experiences.

for communities that do not stop open defecation, a solution would be to understand the motivation for the current practices. could it be the triggering process applied the drivers of ‘shame’ and ‘disgust’ in a negative way that made the communities recoil back instead of being a trigger for change? could the CLTS have been applied as ‘lets-build-toilets” than lets embrace different practices? I think there is much to be learned in this practice. For example in pastoralist communities in Kenya who are nomadic in nature the elimination of open defecation did not work out well because they are in constant motion. Some NGOs have tried introducing the mobile toilets by use of same temporary materials used to construct the houses. the success of this is still to be determined…..]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Mon, 14 Sep 2015 23:36:42 +0000
Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA and Water Institute at UNC - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana) - by: egichora From the recent implication workshop in Stockholm, it was clear that local actors have a role to play in scaling up CLTS.
Form the Kenya perspective, we note that the capacity building program for CLTS managers at the sub county level enhance the involvement in CLTS interventions, incorporating of CLTS in departmental work-plans. in addition the increased capacity of the government officers can lead to increased advocacy ad lobbying for resource allocation form county governments for CLTS implementation . This was there is potential for scale up if this approach can be replicated and initiated in other counties.]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 04 Sep 2015 05:34:30 +0000
Re: CLTS Sharing and Learning workshop at AfricaSan IV i Senegal - by: muench Did you find those CLTS presentations on the AfricaSan website? I didn't. I looked here:

Petra: since there seems to be a delay with getting those AfricaSan presentations online, could you already share them in a different way? E.g. by attaching them to a post or uploading them to your website perhaps? Just wondering.

Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 03 Sep 2015 14:08:07 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: pippa
For those with a particular interest in behavior change, I've just seen a post in the LinkedIn Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries from the KM team at World Vision International.

Post reads as follows:
Interested in regular webinars on behaviour change for WASH?For those who are interested, GOAL and World Vision International gather for behaviour change-related webinars every two months or so. If you are interested in participating -- or even hosting a discussion -- please email us at We can add you to our group.


This looks like a great opportunities to continue the conversation on behaviour change.
Warmest regards,
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:45:37 +0000
Re: Determining the effectiveness and mode of operation of CLTS (EAWAG - Cambodia, Lao PRD, Mozambique and Ghana) - by: muench summary about the current status of this project in a recent report by the BMGF called "Building Demand for Sanitation - A 2015 Portfolio Update and Overview" (available here in the SuSanA library; Roshan has made a post about this report here:

As this grant is still in its early days, the write-up is not adding much new compared to the description above on this thread. Nevertheless, I thought it could be useful to remind ourselves of this ongoing work on CLTS research.

From this pdf file (file is attached below):


Research Focus:

To analyze the behavior change approaches used by CLTS and
community ODF adoption processes. The research will attempt
to determine how different elements of CLTS affect behavior,
and whether there are elements which have counter-effects
on individuals or social systems. The study will identify the
psychological determinants of behavior change triggered by the
CLTS activities. In addition, the study seeks to identify which
are the best combination of CLTS elements to attain an ODF
community, and to unpack the ODF adoption process including
assessing which community members are ending OD first, who
is doing so last, and why. Finally, the identified combinations
of CLTS elements will be compared to a data-driven behavior
change strategy.


Pre-surveys will be conducted in 3 countries (Cambodia, Lao
PDR, and Mozambique) where CLTS has been implemented
(600 households in each country). The main study to follow will
be conducted in Ghana, as the research component of a large
CLTS implementation program funded by USAID. The study
includes face-to-face interviews in 3,125 randomly selected
households using quantitative, structured interviews on three
key behaviors: OD, latrine construction, and latrine use; as
well as behavioral determinants. Spot checks will be conducted
regarding OD within households and at the village level.
The pre-surveys started in March 2015, and the main research
in Ghana will follow—starting with a baseline survey in
October 2015.


Documents in the SuSanA library:

Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Mon, 31 Aug 2015 13:02:15 +0000
Re: What constitutes success for CLTS? – Measuring community outcomes and behavior change - Webinar on Wed 22 July 2015 - by: muench

Questions/issues at the webinar included:
  1. ODF may be better suited for motivating communities than measuring success and is not a good metric for comparing communities due to its binary nature;
  2. Low overall success rates suggest we are missing an opportunity to better target CLTS to specific communities and consider alternate sanitation strategies where CLTS is not appropriate;
  3. We need better data and understanding of how to successfully change long-term social norms


Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:15:35 +0000
Re: What are your thoughts on urban CLTS? Can it work? - by: JamieMyers
Here is a paper I wrote for the WEDC conference in July on Urban CLTS. I have also attached the presentation slides.

Questions that came up after, focused on what can CLTS bring to the urban environment. I think what it can do is help trigger, raise awareness and unify the demand for sanitation. Other players will have to be involved in the process but it can mean that communities are given a equal voice and not just been seen as a group of people who need to be consulted.

It is something that I am continuing to document and think about and would appreciate any constructive criticism and comments.]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Tue, 25 Aug 2015 13:15:12 +0000