SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:25:11 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12670 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12670 Petra wrote:

In my view and experience, CLTS is not about shaming and stigmatising at all but of course this is something that may happen as an unintended consequence if badly facilitated.


On this, first paragraph of Kamal Kar's CLTS Handbook:

A new style of facilitation has evolved. In its classic form, this uses the crude local word for “shit” and encourages local communities to visit the dirtiest and filthiest areas in the neighbourhood. Appraising and analysing their practices shocks, disgusts and shames people. This style is provocative and fun, and is hands-off in leaving decisions and action to the community.


How is that not about shame?]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:23:22 +0000
Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12669 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12669 a monitoring tool? Which studies would support this contention?

F H Mughal]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:09:04 +0000
Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12668 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12668
2) The whistling is a deterrent and a monitoring tool.

3) I will wait to hear from Plan India to give them a chance to explain and respond.]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:59:06 +0000
Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12667 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12667
Petra wrote:


And no, not all community sanctions are to be condoned. However, what I was getting at is the double standard we (in the development community) employ in instances like this. The communities make their own rules, decide on sanctions, laws, social norms etc all the time in all sorts of ways and circumstances. What I am questioning is when and how outsiders judge and intervene what decisions are being taken in a community. How would we feel if someone intervened in this way in the rules and social norms that we have in our own communities in the 'developed' world? I wonder.


F H Mughal, who made the comment above about whistling is not in the 'developed' world but is in Pakistan, from what I understand.

In this particular instance, for me, the whistling is not shaming.


I don't understand this comment. If it is not shaming, what is the purpose of the whistling?]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:56:08 +0000
Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12666 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12666
In my view and experience, CLTS is not about shaming and stigmatising at all but of course this is something that may happen as an unintended consequence if badly facilitated. But does that make the approach wrong or does it call for more efforts to improve training, implementation and follow up, and more nuanced ways of engaging with issues of inclusion? For me it's the latter. And this is something we are interested in and working on and constantly discussing with those who are on the ground, working with communities in real time. Interestingly enough, a lot of criticisms are being thrown into the mix by academics and others who have never even attended a triggering.

And no, not all community sanctions are to be condoned. However, what I was getting at is the double standard we (in the development community) employ in instances like this. The communities make their own rules, decide on sanctions, laws, social norms etc all the time in all sorts of ways and circumstances. What I am questioning is when and how outsiders judge and intervene what decisions are being taken in a community. How would we feel if someone intervened in this way in the rules and social norms that we have in our own communities in the 'developed' world? I wonder.

In this particular instance, for me, the whistling is not shaming.

Regarding the division of communities along pre-existing lines of conflict- yes, that is a real risk in any intervention. The intention of pre-triggering and rapport building between facilitators and communities is to find out about such existing conflicts and different groups within communities. Even in the early days of CLTS in Bangladesh, there was recoginition that it was important to do a thorough mapping or analysis of the community's social fabric. Care Bangladesh for example, actively combined conflict mapping and analysis with CLTS. And now, with government involvement in many countries, in many cases, the HEW or other health workers involved in CLTS in communities have been working in the community on an ongoing basis, so are familiar with their make up and hopefully aware of social issues. And if they have been well trained (which, as we acknowlede, can be an issue in the case of government workers, particular with regard to professional mindsets) good facilitators will be sensitive to the needs and experiences of different community members. And yes, there will always be instances of less than good facilitation and practice- with any approach?!

As a participatory methodology, CLTS has followed a pattern similar to that of PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) from which it sprang. In the 1990s, PRA behaviours, approaches and methods spread with astonishing speed, and were innovated, adopted, adapted and renamed. The methods of group visual analysis proved amazingly versatile (there have now been millions of participatory maps, for instance). There was a great deal of bad practice as PRA was adopted by donors and Governments and taken precipitately to scale. All of this has happened too with CLTS. There has been a lot of bad practice, often in good faith. CLTS triggering and follow up require rather special aptitudes, behaviours and attitudes. Many second and third generation challenges have arisen and alongside continuing efforts to refine overall quality, we now turn towards these new and emerging challenges that the new landscape of CLTS at scale, and in many cases led by national governments, brings with it: Equity, inclusion, what happens to the poorest and most vulnerable, disability, gender issues to name only some of them. Many questions remain unanswered and much needs to be found out and analysed, and many insights and innovations shared.

As I said, much of this kind of debate is the focus of the forthcoming Frontiers.I am sorry that it is not out yet, as it will respond to the questions about shame you are posing in a more elaborate way than I have time for.

I also just remembered something that Rose George said in a discussion about this on a different thread. Again, let me say that I do not say the end justifies all means, but I find it an interesting and powerful perspective.

"[...]CLTS is an organic movement. It has to be continually fixed and perfected. That said, there is no one perfect solution to the question of why there are 2.6 billion people without a toilet, and why some of those 2.6 billion see nothing wrong with that. Every solution has its downsides. Every single one. But they should all be tried, and worked on, and improved. I don't really see the problem in relying on community-led emotional coercion. If it cuts down on soaring diarrhoea rates that kill more children than HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria put together, what does it matter if it is considered a "utopian democratic upsurge" or not?’"]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:48:01 +0000
Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12662 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12662
Do I read that to mean that anything that a community choose to employ to shame those who defecate in the open should not be 'admonished' by outside agencies? Is there no moral line at all (either of behaviours which should be discouraged or encouraged in CLTS handbooks and photo competitions)?

How does one prevent a community from dividing along pre-existing lines of conflict and from simply blaming open defecation on 'undesirable' neighbours?]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:12:20 +0000
Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12661 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12661
I will ask Plan India to respond. In the meantime, let me explain how we here at the CLTS Knowledge Hub see the issue.

The story behind the whistling is that children and youth take on the role of monitoring agents in their communities- not because anyone tells them so, but because after triggering they decided that their health and that of their families is being threatened by open defecators. So their presence, with the whistles, acts as a deterrent to any potential community members who may still consider shitting in the open.

CLTS is 'community-led' so in my mind we should be careful about judging the tactics that communities decide on as wrong. We can't say we want to empower communities to take their own collective decisions and then admonish them for choosing something that we are personally 'not in favour of'?

Provided everyone has access to /is able to build a toilet why should whistles not be used? It only becomes a problem when those without access or ability, especially if they are the poorest and most vulnerable, are not helped and then stigmatised.

I also wonder whether there is more harm being done to human dignity by using whistles to keep people from shitting in the open, or by practices ie open defecation that harm everyone's and especially children's health and lead to death, disease and stunting? CLTS is precisely about human dignity and communities reclaiming the dignity that is lost when people are shitting in the open. In many cultures women in particular bear the brunt of loss of dignity: they are forced to go in the open where other community members might come across them, boys might spy on them deliberately, they have to refrain from eating and drinking in order to avoid having to defecate during the day they face the threat of rape or sexual violence

To me, all these implications of open defecation compromise human dignity.

You might be interested in a forthcoming issue of our Frontiers publication series which will be on CLTS and human rights and include the whole debate on shame, dignity, etc. It should be available in the next month or two and I will then post it here as well as on the CLTS website. All issues of Frontiers are available here]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:01:22 +0000
Re: CLTS on wikipedia - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12277-clts-on-wikipedia?limit=12&start=12#12660 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12277-clts-on-wikipedia?limit=12&start=12#12660 CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 09:45:34 +0000 Re: CLTS on wikipedia - by: OliverJones http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12277-clts-on-wikipedia?limit=12&start=12#12657 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12277-clts-on-wikipedia?limit=12&start=12#12657 Oliver]]> CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 30 Mar 2015 09:18:12 +0000 Re: when is CLTS actually CLTS? - by: pkjha http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12566-when-is-clts-actually-clts#12652 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12566-when-is-clts-actually-clts#12652 A CLTS program was funded by GSF to Jharkhand State (India) in 5 districts, with initial technical support provided by Mr Kamal Kar. I was assigned to evaluate the program in 2013, while working with the Ministry of Drinking water and sanitation. Most of the villages were declared ODF within a few weeks of CLTS program.
Constructed toilets were all small boreholes- with pour flush but without pan and trap or brick lining, and superstructure with old plastic sheets or used cloths. My visit was just after rainy season. Superstructures were blown away, boreholes were filled/ collapsed.There was not a single toilet in operation constructed under the program. In fact households informed that they constructed toilets and also used for some days as they were informed that Government would provide subsidy for pucca toilets (two pit toilets with brick, cement super structure). Villages visited were almost 100% OD and ODF.
There are very good examples of Women SHGs in some states. They are doing well for motivating/ triggering people in construction and use of toilets. Hard subsidy is the major barrier to achieve the goal.
CLTS or SHGs will be effective only when hard subsidy is scraped (that's not possible) or supply chain of subsidy or materials is properly maintained and made available to whole community in a village or cluster during or just after triggering. Selection of suitable technology for the area should be the responsibility of the local government. A Community can't decide the technology.

Pawan]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 29 Mar 2015 11:42:31 +0000
Re: when is CLTS actually CLTS? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12566-when-is-clts-actually-clts#12650 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12566-when-is-clts-actually-clts#12650 onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wat2.1055/full]]> CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 29 Mar 2015 10:36:28 +0000 Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12648 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12648
I think your criticisms should be addressed to Plan India (who it seems took the photo) and the CLTS Knowledge Base, who ran the competition.

Elisabeth, who is a moderator of this board and posted images here to keep colleagues informed, is not responsible for either, as far as I know.]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 29 Mar 2015 09:26:39 +0000
Re: when is CLTS actually CTLS? - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12566-when-is-clts-actually-clts#12646 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12566-when-is-clts-actually-clts#12646
Could anyone kindly guide me to high-quality, authoritative publications, or peer-reviewed papers, on long-term monitoring and evaluation of CLTS, which show that the achievements, both short- and long-term, are sustainable.

F H Mughal]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 29 Mar 2015 07:13:57 +0000
Re: Photo Competition: Picturing CLTS - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12645 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/10752-photo-competition-picturing-clts#12645
I'm sorry, but your last photo, with the title: Mohd Shefar, Plan India Youth Monitoring Group- to stop people defecting in open; with boys whistling, is not in order. I do not favour such tactics - whistling. The photo seems to make fun of human dignity. You should not have posted this photo.

F H Mughal]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 29 Mar 2015 06:15:29 +0000
Recording and follow up from the webinar on Participatory Design Development - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12633-recording-and-follow-up-from-the-webinar-on-participatory-design-development#12633 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts-community-led-total-sanitation-and-other-community-led-approaches/12633-recording-and-follow-up-from-the-webinar-on-participatory-design-development#12633
Participatory design is a natural extension to the processes applied in CLTS programs. Indeed, participatory design is identified in the original CLTS handbook (Kar and Chambers, 2008) but few practitioners or researchers have explored or applied the approach.

Ben’s work in three rural districts in Malawi demonstrated the immense potential that participatory design can offer to CLTS programming. It offers a low-cost, engagement tool that can support traditional follow-up approaches to CLTS programming.

During the webinar, Ben presented the three-day design workshops he facilitated in Malawi, explaining the process, outcomes and follow-up. In addition, Ben also discussed the refinement and testing of the locally inspired designs and how the designs were used as the focal point for a social marketing approach to sanitation supported by UNICEF Malawi.

You can access a recording (audio and video or audio only) as well as download Ben's presentation here

And we (at the Hub) and Ben would love for the discussion to continue, so if you have relevant experiences, have tried participatory design development in your project or have questions, please do comment and post here!]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Fri, 27 Mar 2015 13:59:55 +0000