SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:08:08 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb CLTS activities at the 39th International WEDC Conference in Ghana in July - by: Petra http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18263-clts-activities-at-the-39th-international-wedc-conference-in-ghana-in-july#18263 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18263-clts-activities-at-the-39th-international-wedc-conference-in-ghana-in-july#18263
Participate in the CLTS Sharing and Learning workshop on the 10th July
www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/stor...ference-kumasi-ghana

Attend the launch of our book Sustainable Sanitation for All: Experience, challenges and innovations (Tuesday 12th July, evening side session)
www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/stor...ences-challenges-and

Listen to Jamie Myers' present on Using a CLTS approach and/or CLTS tools in urban environments: Themes and Trends. (Wednesday 13th July, morning session)

Join Robert Chambers and Jamie Myers for a session on The partial usage of toilets: a growing problem (Wednesday 13th July, afternoon session)

Come and have a conversation and pick up free copies of our publications at the CLTS stall in the exhibition area

Please consult the conference programme for details of the exact times and rooms for these sessions.

You can download a flyer with an overview of all these activities here www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/site...activities_flyer.pdf]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 16 Jun 2016 13:48:11 +0000
CLTS Study - Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia - by: campbelldb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18254-clts-study-teachers-and-sanitation-promotion-an-assessment-of-community-led-total-sanitation-in-ethiopia#18254 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/18254-clts-study-teachers-and-sanitation-promotion-an-assessment-of-community-led-total-sanitation-in-ethiopia#18254 Sanitation Updates.

Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia. Env Sci Tech, May 2016.

Authors: Jonny Crocker, Abiyot Geremew, Fisseha Atalie, Messele Yetie, and Jamie Bartram

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation.

In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages
for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys.

Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success.

Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%.

Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low.]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 15 Jun 2016 16:18:28 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#18107 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#18107
We decided to do a very sound impact evaluation of CLTS that required a big sample size, geographically representative, and measuring many outcomes. Also, we had external finance for the evaluation, separated from the implementing team. I'm an economist by training, but teamed up with sanitation specialists in order to train the enumerators who conducted the evaluation, We don't do this sort of training unless we are doing the evaluation ourselves. Which kind of training did you have in mind?

Maria Laura]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 26 May 2016 12:17:20 +0000
Re: From Haiti to Indonesia: What’s Different; What’s the Same in CLTS Implementation - by: Marijn Zandee http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17985 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17065-from-haiti-to-indonesia-whats-different-whats-the-same-in-clts-implementation#17985
I would like to try to put this thread in the spotlight again, as the report that is linked in the first post is an interesting read. Or at least I found it interesting, as I had not kept up with developments in CLTS very much.

The report gives a good insight, I think, in how CLTS –as implemented by PLAN and their partners- has evolved over time. I personally was still under the impression that CLTS was still done by small “triggering teams” in many communities somewhat disconnected from the wider governance structure. However, it seems that with the scaling-up of CLTS some things have changed. Below some of my main takeaways:

The brief presents CLTS more as one component of a sanitation strategy, which should also include building up a supply infra structure. Lack of appropriate materials (and knowledge) is recognized as a problem.

Further, the learning brief mentions that most of the projects work intensively with local governments, and that (lack of) capacity of local governments in working in the CLTS framework is often a difficulty.

Also, I found it interesting to see that Local Volunteers (the Natural Leaders of earlier publications) need a lot of Government or NGO support, and should be compensated for their time.

In general, my impression is that CLTS has moved away somewhat from the notion that communities can do this all by themselves, as long as they are motivated enough. The framework seems to have evolved into an awareness raising and demand creation technique, which works best with significant government or other support.

Finally, what I find really disturbing is finding 5, which is that sanctions for not having toilets are often administered by local officials without a legal framework. In other words, local government officials deny people access to basic government services at their discretion, without a relevant law, for not having a toilet. From anecdotal evidence I know that this can go as far as denying voter registration. As much as I want people to have toilets, I find this indefensible. My impression from the report is that this kind of punishment is quite prevalent under CLTS approaches.

Regards

Marijn]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 11 May 2016 13:41:53 +0000
Re: Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria - implementation, learning, research, and influence on practice and policy (WaterAid America) - by: AdaOkoWilliams http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17908 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17908
Apologies that we did not get back to you sooner on your queries. Thank you for your interest in the STS project in Nigeria.

The project is still on course and we have attempted to address the challenges of wide spread open defecation in Nigeria from a rigorous research perspective. Combining information from the research with demonstration of what works and carefully documenting to inform practice change among stakeholders in the country as well as to influence policy change is how we are approaching it.
Nigeria has over a decade experience of using CLTS. We have learnt a lot of lessons but they have been in the most part anecdotal. The STS research component is clearly filling the information and data gap that should help the country move forward from its position of promotion of a single approach to addressing the sanitation challenge.It is emerging now the inadequacies of the application of a single approach to addressing such a difficult problem as open defection in a complex, diverse and heterogeneous context as Nigeria ( a country of over 250 distinct ethnic groups)

One very interesting issue from the project was the assertion of communities to prefer to continually defecate in the open rather than build what they describe as make shift non durable toilets. This was a clear indication of the aspirations of the people and it clearly demonstrated why there was very low levels of latrine uptake ( construction and use) following triggering sessions. By the way in the decade plus years of application of CLTS in Nigeira, ODF attainment rate for triggered communities is about 35-40%. This had previously been almost totally blamed on poor quality of triggering.

Before now, it was also assumed that everyone in the community could not afford standard durable and aesthetically appealing toilets hence at triggering, the only form of toilet talked about was basically ones with use of local materials.
Under the project, this approach has changed in the sense that now, triggering is followed by presentation of options! Through a market research product development process a fusion of different latrine technologies emerged as the WET, Water Easy Toilet and it is being currently promoted within the project with prospects of other models already in view. The important thing is this is responding to the needs and aspirations of the people.

We envisage that post the research phase, there will be huge uptake, literal explosion of the market for the WET in Nigeria. Right now it is only available in treatment communities under the research protocol.

Another major modification to the triggering process is related to the community entry processes. These are being adapted to suit the context in each community. Literacy levels and nearness to cities or town centers is indicative of levels of education and the community's ability to perceive the direction of travel at a triggering session. Where the traditional concept of CLTS suggesting you do not disclose the mission of the triggering team and lead the people to arrive at it much later have been found to be work against the purpose in some instance where communities felt insulted and that affected trust.

On our definition of sustainable sanitation, we are looking at all that is required for anyone who gains access to sanitation to continually have access to sanitation. So we see this beyond the toilet unit installed in a home to all that is required for that toilet to continue to function and provide the desired service for which it was intended. In summary therefore we look at what is required to continuous demand, what is required to an effective supply of all that is required. A system approach is what we apply to define and assure sustainable sanitation. More importantly this is always defined in the context as we realise that what is required for sustainable sanitation in community A may well be very different for Community B.

We would like to hear more of your thoughts on Sustainable sanitation too form the work you are doing.
Very kind regards,

Ada]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Tue, 03 May 2016 17:53:46 +0000
Global Waters Radio: Darren Saywell on Community-Led Total Sanitation - by: campbelldb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17788 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17788 USAID Water Team blog.]]> Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 22 Apr 2016 18:49:56 +0000 Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17713 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17713
The Lancet Global Health paper is very interesting to read, especially considering the current Thematic Discussion on Wash and nutrition on this forum. The conclusions are interesting in terms of possible positive effects of CLTS without subsidies first on WASH behaviour and second on the height and the weight of children.

In terms of methodology I can see that four Universities were involved in the study. What is so complicated in running this kind of study? What can be shared (and not shared) with the WASH (and health, and nutrition) communities? Questionnaires? What software did you use?
In the projects I worked in, we ran WASH KAP (*) surveys several times - questionnaires, excel sheets and access software - with small teams and smaller number of respondents and very small budgets. Does this mean we did not do a good job? How can we improve our statistical treatment and how can we integrate parameters such as HAZ and WAZ and other health and nutrition indicators?

Is there any chance the study you ran can be further replicated and scaled up? Is there a possibility that your University could provide training on this topic?

Thanks!

Cécile

(*) KAP = Knowledge, attitude and practice]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 14 Apr 2016 13:38:56 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17699 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17699 I agree that partners play a big role in the success of the implementation. Unicef was very effective in working with the government. THe program was very well implemented and it showed some positive results in child stunting.

Best

maria Laura]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 14:18:42 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17698 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17698
What I meant by "pity" was not about the results, but on the contrary the fact that I could not quote the report to illustrate how a CLTS program without subsidies demonstrated good results one year after the end of implementation but then Elizabeth's reponse (and yours) made sense and I quoted the Lancet instead.

My questions about subcontracting was aimed at better understanding the role of the partners in implementing a CLTS program. In this case I understand the design and technical assistance of the program was done by UNICEF and the implementation was done by the Department of Sanitation in Koulikoro. This is interesting because institutional engagement enhances sustainability and is a sound basis for replication.

I will have more questions on the study soon but first I will need to go back to the Report.
Thanks !]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 14:15:42 +0000
Re: Evaluating the Impact of Community Led Total Sanitation Programs in Mali (Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina) - by: malzua http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17697 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17312-evaluating-the-impact-of-community-led-total-sanitation-programs-in-mali-universidad-nacional-de-la-plata-argentina#17697
thanks for taking the time to read the report. As Elisabeth mentions, the report was an internal report for Unicef and the Foundation who funded the evaluation, you can check and quote the main results from the Lancet Global Health paper.

The implementation was in the hands of the Department of Sanitation of Koulikoro with the support of Unicef. Unicef participated in all the triggering and monitoring ceremonies. They hired local people in some areas, but the job was not sub-contracted in any way.

Personally, I do not see the results as a "pity", it shows very persuasively that a well implemented program can significantly reduce OD in very poor and rural areas. Of course, conclusions may not be the same in other parts of the world, where subsidies are needed. But it shows the importance of behavioral change in terms of adoption.

We are working on some "economics" papers (I'm an economist by training) looking at what is driving adoption.

Best

Maria Laura Alzua]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 13:46:10 +0000
Re: Problems in Scaling Up of Sanitation Approaches - by: Nikita http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17556-problems-in-scaling-up-of-sanitation-approaches-the-example-of-clts-blog-post-by-jan-willem-rosenboom#17596 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17556-problems-in-scaling-up-of-sanitation-approaches-the-example-of-clts-blog-post-by-jan-willem-rosenboom#17596 Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Fri, 01 Apr 2016 09:38:06 +0000 Re: Problems in Scaling Up of Sanitation Approaches - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17556-problems-in-scaling-up-of-sanitation-approaches-the-example-of-clts-blog-post-by-jan-willem-rosenboom#17560 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17556-problems-in-scaling-up-of-sanitation-approaches-the-example-of-clts-blog-post-by-jan-willem-rosenboom#17560 For these kind of behaviour change interventions targeting the poorest part of the population there is a special profession: social workers. These are usually highly trained persons, but good luck finding those even for a few supervising positions in developing countries.
Not only do software interventions usually end up working with more or less randomly skilled staff, it is also not paid well enough to attract motivated persons with some personal interest in what is expected to be done by them.
In the end managers try to compensate with extremely formulaic approaches and some hardware subsidy to attract participants.

If you hit a fertile ground with a certain approach as was the case with CLTS in parts of Bangladesh (and a few other places) so that it works more or less by itself with limited intervention necessary, great!
But usually that isn't the case, and then your great software approach will not scale beyond the pilot due to the HR issues outlined above. And let's not always blame local governments here, who usually have the same issues but even less budget than NGOs trying (and failing) to do similar things.]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Sun, 27 Mar 2016 10:39:35 +0000
Problems in Scaling Up of Sanitation Approaches (the example of CLTS) - blog post by Jan Willem Rosenboom - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17556-problems-in-scaling-up-of-sanitation-approaches-the-example-of-clts-blog-post-by-jan-willem-rosenboom#17556 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/17556-problems-in-scaling-up-of-sanitation-approaches-the-example-of-clts-blog-post-by-jan-willem-rosenboom#17556 Problems in Scaling-Up of Sanitation Approaches


Generally, the documents and reports that one come across, tend to suggest that the scaling-up of the sanitation programs and approaches is possible. The views of Jan Willem Rosenboom of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation seems to suggest somewhat otherwise, though he has aired a way-out strategy: (www.devex.com/news/sanitation-for-all-sc...-is-hard-to-do-87881)

Experience has shown that a major, well-established constraint in developing countries, whether it pertains to scaling-up, or just developing some pioneering projects, is the lack of technical expertise, motivation, lack of accountability, and poor monitoring and evaluation, in the local municipal government departments.

Rosenboom, more or less, do emphasize these points. He has, however, limited his discussion to CLTS (community-led total sanitation). People have different views about CLTS, ranging from: less effective, context-specific, to part of an overall sanitation strategy. Perhaps, Rosenboom, may like to speak in terms of other initiatives and programs like a regional initiative, Sustainable Water and Sanitation in Africa (SUWASA), Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS), and WHO’s Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) approach.

Having said that, Rosenboom has drawn attention to many interesting points. Some are briefly mentioned here.

Pilot projects never fail, and they never scale: Many would have different views on this.

The following contention does make some sense, and would apply in some projects:

“Intuitively, this makes some sense. For pilot (or demonstration) projects, we select the most responsive communities, with the most supportive leadership. We use the best front line workers we can find, and there is frequent follow up from the (international) organization supporting the pilot. This is a recipe for success.”

Perhaps, most would agree on this statement:

“Making the transition from pilot to scale, however, changes everything. This requires political buy-in first of all, supplemented by — often limited — program funds. Limited budgets, front line workers with less training and experience, less follow-up, average motivation and support: over time, the conditions for success move from “outstanding” to “average,” and so do the results.”

The above point appears to be valid in the context of developing countries. Yes, political-will, especially for sanitation projects, is low; there are limited funds; operation and maintenance allocation is low, and, as I said earlier, the municipal government departments lack technical know-how.

Talking about CLTS, Rosenboom says: The results mentioned above demonstrate this to some degree, and the Learning Series report supports this also: “CLTS was widely perceived as being universally applicable … even though outcomes varied depending on community characteristics. Rather than viewing it as a comprehensive solution … CLTS should be considered as one component of a sanitation strategy.”


“Research from other countries and other organizations shows similar variations based on context, ranging from UNICEF in Mali reporting very positive CLTS outcomes (in terms of access, use and even stunting of children), to IPA in Bangladesh reporting mediocre results from CLTS (or sanitation marketing) alone, but much better results from CLTS combined with a subsidy. Recent research in India shows enduring issues with the use of sanitation facilities, and mixed results in terms of an increase in coverage.”

“Research from other countries and other organizations shows similar variations based on context, ranging from UNICEF in Mali reporting very positive CLTS outcomes (in terms of access, use and even stunting of children), to IPA in Bangladesh reporting mediocre results from CLTS (or sanitation marketing) alone, but much better results from CLTS combined with a subsidy. Recent research in India shows enduring issues with the use of sanitation facilities, and mixed results in terms of an increase in coverage.”


While Rosenboom rightly advocates for “change behavior,” as a way-out, I think the important point would be that of capacity building of the municipal governments, may be in the shape of continuing education (as government officials are transferred, typically after 3 years' of posting). Municipal officials also need to be sensitized about sanitation. This strategy should then be directed towards to decision-makers, key government functionaries and, the politicians handling the municipal departments.

F H Mughal]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Sat, 26 Mar 2016 16:38:30 +0000
Re: Webinar TOMORROW 17 Dec! Engaging Local Actors in Sanitation Behavior Change: Case Studies of CLTS (10 am EST New York time) - by: khorvath http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17533 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/12027-testing-clts-approaches-for-scalability-enhancing-the-role-of-local-actors-in-clts-implementation-plan-usa-and-water-institute-at-unc-kenya-ethiopia-and-ghana?limit=12&start=12#17533
"Thanks for your question. We have not investigated CHCs specifically, as our research focused exclusively on CLTS. Just as CLTS is context-specific and not universally applicable, the same is likely to be the case with other behavior change approaches. This is why we suggest that CLTS be considered as part of a larger toolkit, which includes efforts that have also been implemented worldwide such as sanitation marketing, CHCs, educational approaches, and even subsidies. In order to systematically answer the question, “If CLTS fails in a community, then what?”, we would have to design an experiment where different alternatives are implemented in communities where triggering has not led to behavior change and evaluate outcomes."

I have also attached a pdf of the slides used during the webinar to this response for your further reading. Best wishes,

Kris]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:52:45 +0000
Re: Sustainable Total Sanitation in Nigeria - implementation, learning, research, and influence on practice and policy (WaterAid America) - by: SDickin http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17515 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-community-led-approaches-for-example-community-led-total-sanitation-clts/14553-sustainable-total-sanitation-in-nigeria-implementation-learning-research-and-influence-on-practice-and-policy-wateraid-america#17515 Thanks for sharing this work. I would be interested in any updates regarding how you addressed the challenges you mentioned. Have you been able to develop the modified triggering approach that is combined with sanitation marketing?
I am also curious how you are defining and promoting 'sustainable sanitation,' Recently I have been working on an analysis to understand how sustainability is defined differently across different sanitation promotion approaches. It would be helpful to get another perspective.
thanks in advance,
Sarah]]>
Community led approaches, for example community-led total sanitation (CLTS) Wed, 23 Mar 2016 07:56:17 +0000