SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 28 Feb 2015 17:25:34 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: CLTS on wikipedia - by: muench

And great that you started with the CTLS page. It really was in need of improvements and more details!

It would be great if you (and others) could add some of the key findings, explanations observations, facts and references that came to light in our previous, partly heated, discussions on CLTS here on the forum:

Obvously we have to try and sort the facts from personal opinions or unproven statements. But I am sure there are some pieces of information in these threads which would be very good to capture on the Wikipedia page about CLTS, e.g. in the section on criticism:

and on recent developments:

More photos would also be good. Perhaps some photos from their photo contest could be made avaible by the CLTS Knowledge Hub?
See here:

So far, the CLTS article has just one photo in it and that's from Kamal Kar giving a presentation at the 12th SuSanA meeting. Not bad but this does not capture well what CLTS is all about. You need a photo of a village committee in heated discussions or during the triggering or during the "transect walk" or digging pits for pit latrines...]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Fri, 27 Feb 2015 12:44:34 +0000
Re: CLTS on wikipedia - by: joeturner]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Fri, 27 Feb 2015 11:28:22 +0000
CLTS on wikipedia - by: joeturner
It seems to me that there is a lot more which could usefully be said - for example there could maybe be a bigger section (or maybe even a page) with more details about triggering, post-triggering sustainability and so on.

Any thoughts or additions welcome - although please avoid copying text from other CLTS websites or just adding links to factsheets. The idea is to create an encyclopedia, so mentioning an issue from the factsheet and then referencing it is fine (in fact, it is more than fine, it is very good!), but just linking to it in the main section of the text looks a bit rubbish.

I appreciate that paraphrasing and editing is more work than just adding a link.. but it is more likely to be read if written in an interesting and consistent way. Thanks in advance.]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Fri, 27 Feb 2015 10:42:39 +0000
Frontiers Issue 4 on CLTS and Sustainability out now! - by: Petra Download Sustainability and CLTS- Taking Stock

French and Portuguese versions to follow soon.
Versions française et portugais à suivre bientôt.
Versões portuguesa e francesa a seguir em breve.]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Wed, 25 Feb 2015 10:10:23 +0000
Determining the effectiveness and mode of operation of CLTS (EAWAG - Cambodia, Lao PRD, Mozambique and Ghana) - by: moslerha
I am happy to tell you about a new 3-year grant researching CLTS (community-led total sanitation) funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation which I am leading. I am sharing the details of our project with you below. If you have any questions or comments about it, please put them in this thread by replying to this post.

Title of grant: Determining the effectiveness and mode of operation of CLTS: The DEMO-CLTS study

(CLTS stands for community-led total sanitation)

  • Name of lead organization: Eawag, Environmental and Health Psychology
  • Primary contact at lead organization: Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Mosler,
  • Grantee location: Dübendorf near Zürich in Switzerland
  • Developing country where the research is being tested: Cambodia, Lao PRD, Mozambique and Ghana
  • Start and end date: Nov. 2014 - Oct.2017
  • Grant type: (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other): Other
  • Grant size: USD 641,809 (as per BMGF grant database)

Goal: The study’s overall goal is to improve the behavioral change strategies used to eliminate OD.

in the first phase, the elements fostering or constraining the success of CLTS will be identified.
In the second phase, a cluster-randomized controlled trial will be conducted to test variations of CLTS with or without these elements; against one another; and against an evidence-based, behavioral change approach (the RANAS Model).

Research or implementation partners: Plan International with its regional offices; USAID is a partner in Ghana where they will finance the implementation

Links, further readings – results to date: None, as the project has just started; results will be available on the Eawag homepage of Environmental and Health Psychology (and in this thread) (

Short description of the project:

This study will reveal the effectiveness and mode of operation of the community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention to decrease the incidence of open defecation (OD). In particular, it will determine which elements of CLTS are highly efficient in decreasing OD, which elements have no effect, which hinder the decrease of OD, and which are the most efficient in supporting communities in the attainment of OD-free (ODF) status. Additionally, the mode of functioning for CLTS will be investigated, and an evidence-based, behavioral change approach (i.e., the Risk, Attitude, Norms, Ability, Self-Regulation [RANAS] Model) will be contrasted with CLTS to disclose the most effective method of decreasing OD through behavioral change.

In the first phase of the project, an ad hoc survey will be conducted in 90 communities of 20 households each (N=1800), located in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Mozambique where CLTS has been implemented more or less successfully. Several interesting variations of CLTS will emerge from this survey and will be tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial against one another, against the RANAS approach, and against a control arm. Therefore, baseline (before), midline (4 months after), and endline (12 months after) surveys will be carried out in 25 communities, each comprising 25 households (adjusting for panel dropout), in each of the five intervention arms within one country (N=3125). This trial will reveal which behavioral change approach is most efficient and how well the strategies are working. The study will improve behavioral change practice to foster the fight against OD.

Study Design

The study’s overall goal is to improve the behavioral change strategies used to eliminate OD. Therefore, in the first phase, the elements fostering or constraining the success of CLTS will be identified. In the second phase, a cluster-randomized controlled trial will be conducted to test variations of CLTS with or without these elements; against one another; and against an evidence-based, behavioral change approach (the RANAS Model).

In the first phase, 30 communities each in three different countries with different levels of success in CLTS and with various versions (e.g., “light” CLTS) will be analyzed ex-post. The 30 communities will necessary arrive at conclusions that are generalizable from the household level to the community level. Assuming moderate between-cluster variance in effects (intraclass correlation = 0.4), 30 clusters will allow for the detection of small effects of the CLTS elements on OD, given a sample size of 20 households per community and a power of 0.8. This research will be conducted in three countries that differ in CLTS-relevant factors (e.g., how the population deals with shame) and in which the USAID has implemented CLTS extensively, but not for a time period exceeding one year prior to the study. This approach will lead to more culturally robust conclusions.

In each of the 90 communities, the members of 20 randomly selected households (Total N = 1800) will be interviewed regarding their perceptions regarding CLTS elements, the use and cleaning of latrines, the respective behavioral determinants, etc. Regarding social dynamics, the study will identify the first households to abandon OD, the last ones to do so, which members of society promoted OD elimination, which members were hesitant, etc. The ODF status will be measured through self-reporting and observation methods. On the individual level, toilet use will be observed, whereas, on the community level, a reliable method will be developed, using a random sample of observation points. Statistical multilevel modeling will reveal which individuals, in combination with which social factors, favor an ODF community or hinder a community from becoming one. The analysis will also indicate which CLTS elements are important for success, as well as their respective significance levels. These results will serve as the basis for conducting the next phase.

In the second phase, a cluster-randomized controlled trial will be developed in Ghana with different intervention arms. To detect a 20% difference in OD rates between each intervention arm and the control arm (Cohen’s d = 0.63), each arm will consist of 25 communities. This research will take place in Ghana, since the USAID is currently implementing CLTS at scale and has agreed to apply various CLTS versions, as well as an evidence-based behavioral change strategy. If possible, the study will also be carried out in a second country with a different cultural background.

First, a baseline survey will be conducted in all communities for which defecation habits will be recorded (i.e., reported and observed), and social interactions, social institutions, and existing social networks will be identified. At the individual level, face-to-face interviews will be conducted with 25 caretakers of children (adjusting for a 25% panel dropout) in each of the 25 randomly selected communities in each intervention arm in order to assess behavioral determinants using the RANAS model. Multilevel modeling of OD behavior will reveal which of the behavioral determinants and social factors are most significant for directing OD behavior. These behavioral and social determinants will be targeted within the experimental arm, employing an evidence-based behavioral change strategy.

Following the baseline survey, the 25 communities will each be randomly assigned to the following four intervention arms and one control arm, respectively:
1) full CLTS according to the handbook,
2) CLTS variation A,
3) CLTS variation B,
4) an evidence-based behavioral change strategy, and
5) control without any behavioral change measures.

Variations A and B of CLTS will be determined by the results of the post-hoc survey of the first phase. The evidence-based behavioral change strategy will be established using the results of the baseline survey of the second phase. The implementation process of CLTS will be standardized and recorded in detail, since it is well known that the facilitator’s attitude and approach play a key role in success (CLTS Handbook, p. 22). In all selected communities, ongoing social processes will be monitored via weekly cell phone interviews (if feasible) with key persons in the communities (10 persons in each community), and the progress toward reaching the ODF status will be monitored weekly until four months after the implementation of CLTS. To control for reactivity, this step will also be performed in the control arm. Four months after CLTS, one mid-term survey will be conducted with the same participants as in the baseline to reveal changes in behaviors and behavioral determinants. An end-term survey will be conducted 12 months after the interventions to reveal the sustainability of the behavioral changes.

In summary, the surveys in the first phase will reveal the first evidence of the individual and social factors related to toilet use and the attainment of the ODF status, as well as provide hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of specific CLTS elements. The cluster-randomized controlled trial will generate data from 125 communities and 3,125 individuals through three surveys (baseline, 4 months, and 12 months after CLTS), as well as weekly monitoring data over a four-month period. These data will reveal the differential effectiveness of the various versions of CLTS, as well as that between CLTS and an evidence-based behavioral change strategy. Data from the monitoring will disclose the processes of both individual and societal behavioral changes.

Overall, the results will show a) the mode of functioning of CLTS, b) the most effective CLTS strategy, c) how CLTS can be optimized, d) whether or not CLTS is the best behavioral change strategy, and e) how societal processes should be facilitated for communities to reach the ODF status.

Ethical approval for the entire study will be requested from the Ethical Board of the Department of Psychology at the University of Zurich. Ethical approval from the respective countries will be sought as required. Informed consent will be solicited from each interviewee and from the authorities of each community.

Current state of affairs: Actually the questionnaire was finalized and is ready to be implemented in Cambodia, the first study region. The survey will start 16th of march with 600 households in Siam Reap and Kampong Cham. Next steps are the pre-phase surveys in Lao PDR and Mozambique.

Biggest successes so far: Having established a stable contact with local project partners and being ready to start the first phase in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Mozambique

Main challenges / frustration: Having to fight with the floods burdening our partners in Mozambique and therefore the postponement of the first survey in their region.

I am also attaching the same information as a pdf file below.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Prof. Dr. phil. et dipl. zool.
Hans-Joachim Mosler
Eawag, Environmental Social Sciences
Environmental and Health Psychology
Überlandstrasse 133
CH-8600 Dübendorf / Switzerland

CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Wed, 25 Feb 2015 09:58:16 +0000
Re: Innovative Governance Reform Programme in Delhi, strengthening and expanding women-led empowerment strategies (CFAR, India) - by: arno Best wishes
--Arno Rosemarin/SEI]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 22 Feb 2015 14:23:41 +0000
Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana) - by: F H Mughal
Interesting output - I assume this is a summary. Do you have a detailed report?

In addition to Kenya, Ethopia and Ghana, a word "worldwide" has been used. I suggest inclusion of South Asian countries (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh), if that is possible at this stage, so that you have review from African and South Asian countries. I reckon, the findings of this research would interest many developing countries.


F H Mughal]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Sun, 15 Feb 2015 16:07:43 +0000
Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana) - by: Darrens
Title of grant:

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability

Subtitle: Enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation

  • Name of lead organization: Plan International USA
  • Primary contact at lead organization: Darren Saywell, Senior Director—Water, Sanitation and Health Practice
  • Grantee location: Washington DC, USA
  • Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: The project is being implemented in Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana (plus 7 additional case studies of the sanitation context in: Cambodia, Nepal, Laos PDR, Indonesia, Niger, Uganda and Haiti)
  • Start and end date: October 2011-September 2015
  • Grant type (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other): Part of the Building Demand for Sanitation (BDS) portfolio
  • Grant size in USD: $7,080,753 (as per grant database)
  • Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): yes

Short description of the project:

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) was developed in 2000 as a way to generate change in sanitation behaviors, which can then stimulate both demand and supply for improved sanitation and sustainable reductions in open defecation (OD). While CLTS has shown promising results, there are elements and challenges inherent in the CLTS approach that hinder the overall effort to efficiently and effectively scaling the intervention. In particular, the requirement of labor-intensive facilitation, community by community, makes CLTS slow and costly to scale. NGOs most commonly lead facilitation, dependent on donor funding and geographic coverage. Efforts to transfer CLTS facilitation to relevant government entities have also struggled to secure sufficient motivation and resources to effectively implement the approach at scale. Removing these obstacles through modified CLTS methodologies and practices could significantly improve the coverage of the approach.

Plan USA and its research partner, The Water Institute at UNC, are implementing a rigorous, research-based project with the overall goal of advancing global sanitation efforts by improving the cost-effectiveness and scalability of the CLTS approach. This goal will be pursued by collecting, evaluating, and disseminating practical lessons learned about overcoming common challenges to implementing CLTS at scale, based on applied research from pilot interventions in rural Kenya, Ghana, and Ethiopia.

In response to the primary challenge of costly, labor-intensive CLTS facilitation, our approach tests identified strategies to enhance the roles of local actors at the community, facilitator, and government levels in CLTS implementation. In line with the CLTS approach to address both supply and demand for sanitation, the project will generate sustained and community-led demand for improved sanitation along with basic levels of supply of sanitation solutions, to eliminate OD in the short term and achieve further sanitation improvements over time. By identifying ways to enhance the cost-effectiveness and scalability of the CLTS approach within a variety of contexts, it is anticipated that the proposed project will contribute substantially to the overall global efforts to address both the supply of and the demand for improved sanitation, and thus advance the achievement of the MDG for improved sanitation.


To advance rural sanitation efforts in Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana and worldwide by improving the cost-effectiveness and scalability of the CLTS approach through increased engagement of local actors, such as teachers, local government officials and natural leaders.

Objectives (set at project start in 2011):

  • Objective 1: Learning. Plan and UNC designed and implemented applied research pilot projects that test solutions to locally-relevant global CLTS scaling challenges in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Kenya. Plan International has implemented CLTS for several years in each of these countries; based on this knowledge and analysis of existing barriers to implementation at scale, the pilots were designed to address three strategic challenges. The project applies experimental research standards and deliberate project design guidelines to test modified CLTS methodologies for local actor engagement that address these challenges, in a manner that will allow the partners to evaluate, document, and disseminate its experiences and innovations.
  • Objective 2: Capturing. The collection of knowledge, tools, and lessons learned is a central activity of the project, and is conducted with the extensive support of researchers at UNC. This includes the systematic capture and evaluation of results from the pilot interventions, supplemented by innovations and expertise from Plan International’s global CLTS experience. UNC also supports Plan in conducting a broad literature review, and collecting and developing standardized metrics for sanitation programming.
  • Objective 3: Sharing. We disseminate the knowledge collected and the results of the research pilots to internal and external practitioners and researchers in the sanitation sector. Specific dissemination activities will include publication of research pilot results, exchange visits among pilot countries, publication of knowledge collected (leading practices, methods, tools, case studies, etc.) through both traditional publications and web-based resources, and coordination of learning events at the regional and global levels

Research or implementation partners: The Water Institute at the University of North Carolina, Plan Kenya, Plan Ethiopia, and Plan Ghana

Links, further readings – results to date:

Project website:

Current state of affairs:

The project is being implemented according to the plan. To date the project has completed a range of scheduled activities: rigorously assessed CLTS operating context in all three pilot countries; reviewed literature worldwide to inform the project approach; conducted community-based implementation of CLTS (treatment vs. control groups) in pilot countries; conducted rapid assessments of CLTS programming in seven comparison cases worldwide; and completed process-learning focused workshops with regional stakeholders in Africa and Asia.

Biggest successes so far:
  • Data analysis still underway, so premature to identify results from the pilot evaluations as yet
  • In process terms, building an effective partnership between a research oriented organization (UNC) and a practice based organization (Plan) has been a strong lesson learning exercise, the insights from which will be documented and made available from this grant.

Main challenges / frustration:

  • Identification of serious confounding issues for the research in Kenya led to a complete re-design of research objectives and approach in 2012. These confounding factors were: complex institutional arrangements in which NGO and government roles are often indistinguishable; mixed financing of WASH from government, NGOS, and bi- and multi-laterals; expectations of and dependency on NGOs by district governments; low similarity of treatment and control districts; and upcoming elections and redistricting. This has impacted the available timeline to implement and monitor outcomes in that country;
  • Survey contractors in Ghana produced poor quality work, compromising the confidence that the research team had in the baseline prepared for the study. Surveys had to be re-commissioned using alternative contractors, impacting scheduled timeline for activities;
  • Interpretation of rigorous research protocols by practitioners has at times led to spillover effects between treatment and control groups.

Very best,


Darren Saywell, PhD
Senior Director – Water, Sanitation and Health Practice
Plan International USA
1255 23rd Street NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20037, USA

Note by moderator:
A list of all the sanitation grants by the BMGF is now available here in the project database on the SuSanA website, filtered by funding agency BMGF:;vbl_22%5B%5D=612]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Thu, 12 Feb 2015 14:33:37 +0000
Innovative Governance Reform Programme in Delhi, strengthening and expanding women-led empowerment strategies (CFAR, India) - by: CFAR
Title of grant: Partnering with Mission Convergence an Innovative Governance Reform Programme in Delhi, strengthening and expanding women-led empowerment strategies

Name of lead organization: Centre for Advocacy and Research

Primary contact at lead organization: Akhila Sivadas, Executive Director, email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Grant details:
  • Grantee location: India
  • Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: New Delhi, (New Delhi), Jaipur (Rajasthan) and Kolkata (West Bengal)
  • Start and end date: June 2012 to June 2015
  • Grant type: (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other): Other
  • Grant size in USD:(as per BMGF grant database entry) Global Development, Global Policy & Development; $635,762
  • Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Yes

Short description of the project:
The focus of the project has been to improve the access of marginal and at risk communities, living in unauthorized and under-served settlements, to sanitation services through constructive engagement with government spearheaded by Women’s Forums in Delhi, Jaipur and Kolkata.

Towards this end we are working at multiple levels to crystallize the demands of the community and using programmatic spaces and opportunities to partner with the government bodies to advance the twin objectives of impacting behaviour change, and strengthening convergence of services for the poor and in particular for women and girls. We have used multiple strategies: Capacity building to advocacy with decision and policy makers to implementing demonstrative, innovative and collaborative processes on the ground.

We have succeeded in catalyzing some modicum of behaviour change, and mainstreamed the Women’s Forums, thus ensuring participatory processes and women’s forum inputs into many critical processes.

In Delhi the Women’s Group is readying itself to take the responsibility for the operation and maintenance of toilet complexes and doing this in partnership with the Nodal agency- Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board (DUSIB). And in the process ensuring that marginal populations across the authorized and unauthorized slum clusters have a voice in the matter

Enable government mandated community structures to play a pro-active role in bringing about behavior change amongst 30 % of the total population across these three cities. Simultaneously, use the Convergence Program spearheaded by Mission Convergence, the State Water and Sanitation Mission and Urban Livelihood Mission to scale up sanitation services for poor and unauthorized settlements with specific focus on vulnerable populations such as women, girls and marginal communities.

1. Behavior change of end-users through community-led sanitation efforts
2. Partner with Mission Convergence in scaling up Sanitation Services for unauthorized settlements in Delhi and replicate the key learning and good practices from Delhi in Kolkata and Jaipur
3. Improving responsiveness of planners using community based scoring, to set standards on sanitation behaviour and service delivery

Research or implementation partners: None

Links, further readings:
Our facebook page:

Current state of affairs:
Across the three cities we are playing critical role in scaling up the issue of sanitation and the need for gender-responsive program and influencing the process from planning, enhancing participation and strengthening the implementation of services on the ground.

Biggest successes so far:
Impacting Behaviour Change
With involvement and participation of the women’s groups we saw a major change with communities adopting health-seeking behaviour. This is evident in the fact that a significant increase in the proportion of households that consulted healthcare providers (baseline-72% to post-intervention-92%)

Similarly there were changes in personal and menstrual hygiene practices (the proportion of women who disposed off the cloth during menstruation after one usage has increased from 32% to 72%; 17% increase in number of people practicing hand-washing). Through various enabling processes the critical linkages between sanitation and health is best evidenced by the fact that the practice of open defecation has also decreased from 18% to 16% and also a greater clamour and more concerted demand for more consistent service delivery

Realizing Rights
Over the past years the community groups have successfully worked towards realizing rights. This has led to major renovation and reconstruction of public facilities such as Community Toilet Complexes (CTCs). In this period we ensured that two CTCs were renovated, 7 water tankers and mobile toilets installed and drainage system permanently corrected and repaired. This has brought relief to 6350 residents of six slums in North Delhi and Northeast Delhi.
Similarly in cities of Jaipur and Kolkata such collective efforts by the women’s forums have helped to resolve long term problems related to supply of drinking water, garbage disposal among others.

Community-Government Partnerships
In Delhi Self Help Groups and Women’s Forum are entering into a formal Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the DUSIB the Nodal agency for managing the operation and maintenance of the Community Toilet Complex in a cluster settlement of Kalyanpuri with about 1200 households.

Main challenges / frustration:
Major challenges that urban poor dwellers stems from lack of tenurial rights, weak accountability structures, multiplicity of agencies and each working in silos and not willing to converge resources and services and women subjected to the double burden of caring for family and being a bread winner having little time for community work or strengthening their associations and forums.

We would be happy to answer your questions here in this thread.

Akhila Sivadas and Shramana Majumder]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Fri, 06 Feb 2015 13:51:04 +0000
Re: Sowmyas Indian Community Sanitation Project - by: denniskl
If we look at any given situation, how do the set of questions strike you for defining a baseline?


Too much?

Missing something?

Your comments are in line with the philosophy vehind our JigSaw Puzzle Programme

* give enough project management and "technical/subject matter" training, information, confidence, tools and capability for local community Puzzlers to identify problems in their community (sanitation, power, nutrition, healthcare etc)

* and enough soft skills training so they can work with their community (and external support resources we marshall and make easy to access) to develop suitable solutions - and the appropriate skills to facilitate project acceptance and implementation

The standard plan is to physically deploy the JigSaw Puzzle Training Programme via in-country local partners/agents (ngo's, training companies, etc) as a viable business model (green off grid living as you and i have discussed)

So this process with Sowmya is a type of pre-cursor, allowing us to build out a project step by step and incorporate the learnings in our JigSaw programme

Thanks Sowmya:)!! Looking forward to srepping along this path with you, the community, the involved ngo - and, of course, the susana members]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 19 Jan 2015 22:55:22 +0000
Re: Sowmyas Indian Community Sanitation Project - by: canaday
This is a great idea. Most of my posts here and on my blog are aimed at making sanitation accessible to whoever wants it, such that it is more a matter of paradigm shift than capital investment. I suggest our goal should be to make available good do-it-yourself manuals on the internet, promote these amply, and be ready as persons to help people figure out complicated situations and answer questions. To some extent this already exists, but the idea would be to strengthen each component.

Count me in.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 19 Jan 2015 20:26:53 +0000
Re: Sowmyas Indian Community Sanitation Project - by: denniskl
Great point - I went back to the form to see how I could express the question better (while including religion) - but just kept digging myself deeper and deeper into a hole:)

so took it out and left it at Race / ethnicity / culture - which while it may cover any cultural taboos, also provides the demographic data that is useful

Basic Questionnaire modified:

Thanks again]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 19 Jan 2015 15:32:21 +0000
Re: Sowmyas Indian Community Sanitation Project - by: denniskl
What we need is a general consensus from the community as to how the majority of people see the problems and impacts of the current sanitation practices; if they recognise serious impacts, it makes the next phase (wanting to change) easier for people to accept. (If I don't see a problem, why will I change?)

The other questions I have listed can be addressed (I believe) from an observational and community group aspect, so don't need individual responses (I may be wrong about this; I often am:)]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 19 Jan 2015 15:21:23 +0000
Re: Sowmyas Indian Community Sanitation Project - by: Sowmya
Firstly, thank you so much for all that you are doing. Yes, I would be happy to work on a CLTS model also. I will send my inputs in a couple of days but, in the meantime, a quick question. You had mentioned this:

Sanitation Impacts - what type of health and other impacts are seen by community members as a result from the current sanitation practices? *
What do they see as the problem of the current sanitation systems and practices? (this will need a community group and / or household and / or individual survey - we can discuss options for this (paper, mobile phone etc)

Would the survey cover only this question or all the questions and present the results for way forward decision?

Warm regards,

CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 19 Jan 2015 15:01:38 +0000
Re: Sowmyas Indian Community Sanitation Project - by: MGuenard
My concern is to NOT stygmatise any religion.
Thus the questionnaire should be very clear as to why there is a question related to religion.
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) and other community led approaches Mon, 19 Jan 2015 13:14:20 +0000