SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 03 Sep 2015 19:10:59 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Greywater manual on greywater reuse in Spanish by Greywater Action, USA - by: LauraAllen
Thank you for moving my post to "greywater reuse," I agree that fits better.

To answer your questions:

1. Our target audience is Spanish speakers in the US, as well as people wanting to install greywater irrigation systems in Spanish speaking countries like Spain, Mexico, etc.

2. We use mulch basins to filter and absorb the greywater (shallow basins filled with woodchips that filter greywater before it absorbs into the soil). These are very simple, low maintenance, use local resources, and work really well. We design the distribution piping in the systems to use large outlets to prevent clogging, so that we can send unfiltered greywater through the system until it enters the mulch basin. Since these systems are for irrigation we don't want to remove nutrients from the water- the nutrients feed the plants- a different situation than ecological disposal systems.

3. The majority of people installing greywater systems in the US keep their flush toilet and only use the greywater for irrigation, except for off-grid people and a few who want to conserve more and/or recycle the nutrients from the composting toilets.

4. We are seeing a huge increase in interest and demand for greywater systems. More water agencies and cities are promoting these systems as well now. Greywater installers are extremely busy! I think the drought is probably causing some people to consider dry toilets, but not very many (at least I haven't noticed an increase in interest from the drought).

Kind regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 03 Sep 2015 18:37:24 +0000
Re: Invitation to join the network on Sustainable Water and Nutrient reuse option in Europe (SuWaNu) - by: fabio
As requested , I would like to post a summary on the outputs of SuWaNu, as it might be usefull for some of you.

Recently the Marketplace Map has been opened to regions all over the world, as water shortage and reuse is a global concern, where new partners show immediately on the map and can easily see other activities around them or outside their regions, thus stimulating the development of new research-driven clusters with the focus on wastewater treatment and reuse applications and expanding cluster formation at international level. SuWaNu has created also a research public library listing activities and similar projects in wastewater treatment for reuse, compiling the existing research outside the SuWaNu consortium and creating an open research database which is easily accessible and open to the public.

In regards to the material produced by SuWaNu, during the first phase of the project, the SuWaNu team have analysed and compiled the existing situation of wastewater reuse in the target regions into several reports. A current wastewater reuse state-of-play analysis included existing available technologies for treatment targeting reuse of water and nutrients, relevant public and private key actors in the sector and a technological state-of-the-art map. A policy guideline included policy issues, barriers and limiting factors for wastewater reuse and the expansion potential in the target regions of SuWaNu. Then a SWOT analysis on the use of reclaimed water in agriculture has been performed by each RTD within the consortium, supported by the SMEs and SMEs associations, representing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats from an economical and regional market perspective providing a picture of real opportunities in these markets for technological SMEs.

In the second phase of SuWaNu, the cluster has also developed a Research Agenda which identified 4 “research topics” or knowledge areas as follows: legislation on wastewater reuse, financials and RTD needs, consumer concerns & lack of communication, and mismatch between the amount of wastewater and irrigation/ fertilization needs.

Furthermore SuWaNu has developed its own Joint Action Plan (JAP) with a common strategy to enhance synergies leading to the completion of its goals and targeting relevant stakeholders in the field of agriculture and wastewater treatment including public authorities, private companies, universities and research centres as well as associations and NGOs. The JAP was based on developing 13 crucial Research Actions for the research topics listed above.

I hope this is interesting for you.

Best regards,

Fabio Pereira, PM of SuWaNu]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 27 Aug 2015 09:46:53 +0000
Re: Greywater manual on greywater reuse in Spanish by Greywater Action, USA - by: muench
Thanks for posting this document here. You had put it under "new publications" which is perfectly fine, but I have now moved it to the thematic category on "greywater reuse" which is where it fits better, I think. Do you agree?

I have a few small questions:
  1. You have translated it into Spanish but you are based in the U.S. which makes me think who is your target group? Is it mainly Spanish speaking people in the U.S.?
  2. Are you mainly using constructed wetlands and soil filters to treat the greywater or are you also advocating other technologies for treatment or perhaps even promoting reuse of untreated greywater?
  3. For the toilets would you recommend composting toilets (as shown here on your website: instead of flush toilets, or do the people who follow your greywater manuals normally stick to their flush toilets and focus only on the greywater reuse (which is also still a good step forward)?
  4. We hear a lot about the drought in California; are you seeing increased interest in California about such household greywater reuse schemes (and possibly even increased interest in dry toilets (composting toilets or UDDTs) although this is hard to imagine)?

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 23 Aug 2015 19:30:41 +0000
Feasibility of ‘Greenhouse System’ for Household Greywater Treatment in Nomadic-Cultured Communities in Peri-Urban Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia - by: nazimuddin
Following study has just been accepted and published by the Journal of Cleaner Production:
"Feasibility of ‘Greenhouse System’ for Household Greywater Treatment in Nomadic-Cultured Communities in Peri-Urban Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Way to Reduce Greywater-Borne Hazards and Vulnerability" Uddin et al. (2015) (Link for the accepted manuscript:

For this research, greenhouse technology was designed and implemented successfully in the Coldest Capital (Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) of the world. The study has following novelty statement and the idea can be also fully or partially applied in other parts of the world with similar context.

•Greywater treatment & reuse option has been tested in Nomadic-cultured communities.
•GH-GWTU may have potentiality to significantly reduce greywater-borne hazards.
•Concentration of chemicals in greywater is higher than industrial effluents.
•GH-GWTU may extend the period of treatment in winter cold climate regions.
•Ger settings & nomadic-culture may influence highly on greywater.

There are limited studies that focus on greywater treatment and reuse options, particularly in nomadic societies with unique cultural and climatic conditions. Studies relating to household greywater treatment in nomadic-cultured societies are limited. This study aims to address this gap in examining a case with a high concentration of chemical components in the greywater (e.g. where chemical oxygen demand ranged between 35-70032 mg/L). Specifically, an upgraded greenhouse greywater treatment unit (GH-GWTU) was designed and constructed during the summer of 2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in order to assess the technical feasibility, and up-scaling capability, of the system at the community level. Chemical and biological test results indicated that most parameters (e.g. PO43-, NO2-, NH4+) had a high removal rate of up to 98%. Moreover, the greenhouse may extend the treatment period up to 8 months. This study has shown that GH-GWTU is a potential technology that can significantly reduce the chemicals and biological agents in greywater in Mongolian Ger contexts which may reduce the greywater-borne hazards and vulnerability in the area. It can be replicable both at the household and community scale according to resources available for system operation and maintenance.

Thanks a lot

Best regards
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sat, 22 Aug 2015 17:45:49 +0000
Re: The High Level Panel Report on Water for Food Security and Nutrition - by: madeleine If you are attending World Water Week please join us in our high level seminar where the CFS HLPE report on Water, Food Security and Nutrition will be presented.
If you have not the possibility to join us in Stockholm you can watch this seminar on the web
More about the event here
The weblink to the seminar :

Invitation card]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Fri, 21 Aug 2015 04:18:19 +0000
Re: Invitation to join the network on Sustainable Water and Nutrient reuse option in Europe (SuWaNu) - by: antonini
Elisabeth forwarded the link to your post to me. We are currently not working within Europe and not promoting the reuse of wastewater (we rather find that households living in wastewater irrigation areas have poor health/water quality) – this is why I don’t think the Suwanu network is related to our study at this stage.

In our so-called "WATSAN-Agriculture" project, the settings in 4 countries are looked at from an economics perspective: what is the situation (diarrhea prevalence, water quality etc.) in multi-water use settings (i.e. areas where irrigation is being practiced)? We then look at whether a series of interventions (e.g. poster intervention, distribution of water testing kits etc.) had an impact on the health or water quality of the households that were questioned in a baseline survey. The aim is to find out which intervention is the most efficient in changing WASH behavior (e.g. education of kids or adults, are kids agents of change, does it make sense to use water testing kits or is a poster sufficient etc.) in order to make recommendations for policy makers. In one of our study areas (Gujarat, India), untreated wastewater is typically used for irrigation so our PhD student is comparing the health status and water quality of households located in wastewater irrigation areas vs. non wastewater irrigation areas.

However, I think the outcomes or activities in Europe (and the SuWaNu) network could be very relevant to the actors in our study countries. I look forward to hearing more about your work!

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Tue, 18 Aug 2015 08:22:22 +0000
Re: A Business Plan of Action for Blackwater/Greywater Separation and Recycling Systems Letter - by: clint
Mayor Steve Kane
City of St. Francis
23340 Cree Street NW
St. Francis, MN 55070
Dear Mayor Kane,

RE: Decentralized/Onsite Alternative to Piped Water and Sewer Proposal Request

On the City of St. Francis, MN website, I recently read about your water and sewer customers being presented with a 100% increase in their future water and sewer rates based upon the design, permitting, financing, construction and operation of a traditional/conventional piped water and sewer system. Human Endeavors Company and Foundation can offer your community a much more economical, natural and environmental solution to prevent that increase. The Human Endeavors solution is financially responsible, environmentally sound, and produces immediate positive results and is sustainable.

As Human Endeavors founder, I would appreciate the opportunity to present a decentralized/onsite water and wastewater treatment and recycling proposal/option to the Community of St. Francis. Since 1972, I have been involved in sustainable construction practices and have specialized in environmental water and wastewater supply, treatment and recycling technologies.

When compared to existing and proposed sewer and septic treatment capabilities, Human Endeavors installations above and below the Arctic Circle in Alaska, in Minnesota, and as far south as Belize, have exceeded economic, operational and environmental performance expectations.

From time long past, human bodily excretions and all organic kitchen scraps were considered WASTES to be removed from the site of origin. However, that thinking is obsolete as the assumed WASTE can now be organically and naturally converted ONSITE into a SAFE FERTILIZING RESOURCE. When installed, operating, and maintained, Human Endeavors technologies will become an entirely new 'green' market for the agricultural industry utilizing Mother Nature’s principles of biological decomposition to produce a rich soil amendment out of the RESOURCES previously considered WASTES. Returning those organic/natural soil amendments to our farm fields will also eliminate the need for synthetic fertilizers from petroleum products.

Human Endeavors' technology adheres to R. Buckminster Fuller’s philosophy of being ‘Productive instead of Consumptive.’ Following Fuller's lead, by converting waste into a resource, the Human Endeavors decentralized approach to water supply and wastewater treatment will serve as the technological cornerstone for economic development. More than just providing local management with recycling water and organic resources, this approach will produce countless new job opportunities; will be more effective, efficient, and environmentally-friendly; will save money for the customers; and produce income instead of debt for the City of St. Francis.

Human Endeavors offers two separate technologies that can be used independently or in conjunction with each other. The Blackwater Composting System aerobically converts human and organic kitchen refuse naturally into a safe agricultural soil amendment with no odor. The Aerobic Greywater Recycling System filters and disinfects the greywater, which can then be safely reused for irrigation. The addition of reverse osmosis filtration membranes can further recover 95% of the treated and disinfected greywater, which can then be safely recycled for total potable reuses, to include drinking.

15244 68th Place North, Maple Grove, MN 55311 – 763-519-0114 OFFICE – 612-562-3867 CELL – This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Mayor Steve Kane
Page 2

The Benefits of the Human Endeavors Technology Packages are;

1. No federal, state, county or city money/permits are involved, needed and/or required.
2. Each Package would include water storage, wastewater treatment, and greywater recycling systems, all to be contained in an 8’ x 8’ x 20’ steel building or concrete vault situated above or below-ground with outside accessibility and communication, heating and plumbing piping connected to the residence.
3. Under a Human Endeavors’ license, the City of St. Francis leases the Package to the customer and establishes a monitoring and maintenance contract between the customer and the City of St. Francis.
4. With the leasing contract in place, at least one Human Endeavors Package would be installed in every residence and building. By the City of St. Francis, the customer would initially be charged less than the existing rate per gallon of internet monitored water utilized for both blackwater composting and greywater treatment and recycling. As manufacturing quantities and efficiencies increase, the price of water and wastewater manufacturing and associated services provided to the customer would proportionally decrease.
5. The underground vaults would serve dual purposes, both as water systems and also as separate emergency shelters for families and business owners from extreme weather events such as tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, etc.
6. Packages are individually designed based upon the estimated amount of water to be used. The Packages are completely pre-manufactured, assembled, installed onsite in a decentralized configuration, where they are monitored, and serviced by locally trained City of St. Francis employees.
7. For both residential and business customers, onsite recycled greywater is aerobically treated, then filtered, disinfected with ozone, and finally treated to the highest quality in the water industry utilizing reverse osmosis with a 95% recovery rate. No chemicals are needed.
8. Human Endeavors’ installed Monitoring Packages have the capability of adding many additional features and services to the customer’s residence/business. Monitoring can also include security and fire, with savings for the customer and increased revenue for the City of St. Francis.
9. Septic pumping, organic garbage removal, and disposal industries would convert their heavy trucks to lighter-weight vehicles because in the natural, organic, and composting process, the volume and weight are reduced dramatically by over 90%. Public wastewater-related health issues no longer apply because composting is Mother Nature’s ‘Time and Temperature’ aerobic process of natural transformation, and therefore, can be safely removed for reuse on crops without concern.
10. Those previously wasted RESOURCES then can be safely sold to the agricultural industry as fertilizer. This not only reduces the impact on the highway infrastructure, but it also produces revenue in sales and reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers. Existing sewer disposal options cost money, require land acquisition, maintenance, legalities, promote run-off and pollute our water supplies.
11. The Human Endeavors Technologies also will be able to solve any existing and/or future water and sanitation issue because every system would be uniquely decentralized and self-sustaining.
12. If there is an operational issue, the source of the problem is immediately identified via the internet and a service person is dispatched. The expense would be minimal to either the customer or the City of St. Francis, and any individual malfunction does not affect ANY other property.
13. Human Endeavors technologies eliminate the threat of bio-terrorism of our centralized water resources/supplies. They also reduce household and business organic resources currently being sent to landfills by at least 50% compared to hauling and disposal costs. The need for water is reduced by 40-95% and wastewater pollution to the environment by 95-100%.
14. Last, but not least. Human Endeavor's performance is guaranteed.

Mayor Steve Kane
Page 3

While on your City's website, I also discovered the ‘Liquid Asset Minnesota’ video. That video shares the replacement and planning problems faced by Minnesota communities, yours included, when trying to finance and construct the outdated infrastructures of piped water and sewer systems. According to the projected estimate on the video, taxpayers will simply not be able to afford the billions of dollars required to continue the existence of piped water and sewer technologies in Minnesota or anywhere.

To help you better understand my position, I'm including a quote from a short article entitled, Farewell to ‘FLUSH AND FORGET’, by Lester R. Brown, a renowned Environmental Activist.

“In urban settings, the one-time use of water to disperse human and industrial wastes is becoming an outmoded practice, made obsolete by new technologies and water shortages. Water enters a city, becomes contaminated with human and industrial wastes, and leaves the city dangerously polluted.
The current engineering concept for dealing with human waste is to use vast quantities of water to wash it away, preferably into a sewer system where it will be treated before being discharged into the local river.

The ‘flush and forget’ system is expensive, water-intensive, disrupts the nutrient cycle, and is a major source of disease in developing countries. For cities, the most effective single step to raise water productivity is to adopt a comprehensive water treatment/recycling system, reusing the same water continuously.

The existing water-based waste disposal economy is not viable. There are too many households, factories, and feedlots to simply try and wash waste away on our crowded planet. To do so is ecologically mindless and outdated – an approach that belongs to an age when there were many fewer people and far less economic activity.”

Enclosed is a packet of information and testing documentation for your review to give you a little background on the accomplishments achieved by the Human Endeavors Company. You'll find:
- Information on the Human Endeavors’ innovative technologies of greywater recycling, and wastewater treatment through blackwater composting
- Historical documentation of successful ‘Energy Efficient’ projects I have designed and created in construction
- My resume’ of accomplishments containing:
1) A 1988 US Department of Energy National Award for ‘Energy Innovations’.
2) A 1988 Alaskan Legislative Award for my ‘Environmental Achievements.’
3) Newspaper/magazine articles documenting the historical development of my Blackwater and Greywater ‘Separation and Treatment’ technologies.
4) Over the past 25 years, I have been awarded three US Environmental Process Patents for my earlier water and wastewater treatment and recycling inventions.

If you need additional information or copies prior to my presentation, just let me know. I look forward to presenting the Human Endeavors opportunity to the City of St. Francis.


Clint Elston
Executive Officer

cc: City of St. Francis Board Members and City Administrator]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 16 Aug 2015 02:17:20 +0000
A Business Plan of Action for Blackwater/Greywater Separation and Recycling Systems - by: clint
After trying to communicate with the regulatory and academic communities for over 40 years with very little success because of job protectionism I am attaching a letter* sent to the City of St. Francis, MN describing the contract and lease agreements associated with private industry eliminating the roadblocks for alternative water and sanitation decentralized onsite recycling technologies.

This is possible because Human Endeavors has the potential for 'No Discharge' and Total recycle of all resources.

As R. Buckminister Fuller taught, designing 'Productive Dwelling Units instead of Consumptive' is sustainable.

Thank you,

Clint Elston

* See following post (note added by moderator)]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sat, 15 Aug 2015 12:02:29 +0000
Invitation to join the network on Sustainable Water and Nutrient reuse option in Europe (SuWaNu) - by: Katie
I would like to announce the successful European network promoting agricultural reuse options for reclaimed water in Europe - SuWaNu (

SuWaNu aims at providing a transnational network for interested personnel and actors from all over Europe and the Mediterranean Area involving practitioners from the water treatment and agricultural sectors, as well as the corresponding supply chains, public authorities, private companies (SMEs) and the scientific community carrying out research and technology development with relevance to wastewater treatment and agricultural practice.

Currently we are looking at expanding the network by inviting related organisations, initiatives and persons to join the network in order to promote reuse of treated wastewater. The SuWaNu website ( provides a market place in which organisations and initiatives can register and establish links to other actors in the field. Registered members are informed of the network’s progress and increase their visibility online. Registration is entirely free and doesn’t involve any commitment of personal resources. It simply is a great tool for networking and representation. Therefore we would like to invite you to register on the SuWaNu marketplace ( in order to increase visibility of your organisation. Registration only takes 2 minutes and is a free marketing opportunity for future project collaborations (e.g. research, implementation).

Attached you find a letter of invitation with more information (in English, French, and Turkish). Please feel free to forward this to your partners and potentially interested organisations and personnel.

If you have any question please feel free to contact us!

Thank you very much and kind regards
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 10 Aug 2015 13:41:11 +0000
Decentralized greywater to drinking quality water for total recycle - by: clint
I just found this forum while searching in Costa Rican water and wastewater issues and would like to add some my own personal history and philosophies.

I believe that a good business foundation needs a logical and proven sustainable technology in order to even begin to create a successful model.

For over 45 years I have developed a decentralized blackwater (composting) large treatment tank and a grey water aerobic treatment system and a grey water filtration, ozone disinfection and reverse osmosis recycling system capable of recovering 95% of the grey water into potable drinking quality water without the yuck factor. Utilizing ultra-ultra low flushing toilets and recycling the grey water has reduced the need for water by 97% and wastewater pollution to the environment by 100%.

Entire systems are installed in a buried or above ground 8' x 8' x 20' container next to the residence or business and monitored via the internet.

Rates of usage are calculated upon total amount of water utilized, treated and recycled. Financing with home improvement loans based upon a maintenance and monitoring contract.

With the monitoring via the internet all security and any other business services can be provided and will expand the market base based upon WATER.

Please Google, AlasCan and Equaris Corporation and WCCO News Project Energy Equaris Corporation, Afton, MN.

Thank you,

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 30 Jul 2015 01:47:17 +0000
Announcement for the International Conference on Innovations in Sustainable Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems (ISWATS) - by: Katie
Please find more information at Registration is open until the 15th of October 2015 (abstract submission deadline: September 15, 2015).]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:45:29 +0000
Re: The Hgh Level Panel Report on Water and Food Security - by: muench
I am glad your are happy about this. Note that we have long had this sub-category here:

which is where topics about wastewater reuse and irrigation can be discussed (although admittedly purely irrigation topics with e.g. groundwater and with no links to wastwater were not usually part of this sub-category - but at the end of the day the whole water cycle is all connected, isn't it).

Note we also have a big thread on wastewater irrigation and nutrition here:

It's called: "WATSAN-AGRICULTURE: Improving on the Nexus among Water Quality and Quantity, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Agriculture"

I would have put it here in this category, but the person who started the thread said she'd rather have it in the other thread to emphasis the link with health and nutrition.
You might find it interesting if you haven't seen it yet.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 26 Jul 2015 11:44:02 +0000
Toilet-to-Tap Water Project of India (wastewater treatment and reuse) - by: F H Mughal Toilet-to-Tap Water Project of India

India has developed a project that converts sewage to treated drinkable water.

In the post, Sanchaita Gajapati Raju, founder and managing trustee of SANA, is pictured as she drinks the treated water at Keshopur Sewage Treatment Plant in Delhi. The Delhi chief minister Arvind Kejriwal is also pictured tasting the treated water. I tried to copy-paste the 2 photos here, but it did not work - may be the moderators can help

Note by moderators: here you are (I used the image link button above and truncated the URL so that it stops after ".jpg"):

Treated water from sewage is not uncommon. In fact, this happens all the time. For example, Indus River in Pakistan receives untreated wastewater discharges in its upstream reaches. The river then becomes the raw water source of the towns in downstream reaches.

I think, it is far better, if the polluted waters, both, the surface water and the ground water, are treated and made drinkable. In many towns in Sindh province of Pakistan, people get water for drinking that is not quite wholesome.

F H Mughal]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 26 Jul 2015 11:18:56 +0000
Re: The Hgh Level Panel Report on Water and Food Security - by: F H Mughal
It is encouraging to see that you are now taking posts on water, agriculture and irrigation.


F H Mughal]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 26 Jul 2015 07:41:01 +0000
Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India - by: saurabhkale
The NaWaTech project is a joint implementation and research project between India and EU and is funded by the Department of Science and Technology (Government of India) and the European Commission. The idea is to assess and enhance the potentials of natural and technical water treatment systems to suit to the local hydro-geological conditions. The systems will also be able to treat variable flows of wastewater in order to reuse it and to supplement traditional sources to cope with urban water shortages today and in the future.

The project implementation will take place in the cities of Pune and Nagpur. This paper aims to focus on the site implementation in Pune. These sites are: College of Engineering, Pune; Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran Office; Amanora Park Town; Indradhanushya Environment and Citizenship Centre.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Fri, 24 Jul 2015 05:26:54 +0000