SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Tue, 06 Oct 2015 22:45:00 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: mwaniki
I don’t think I contradicted myself in the treatment of wastewater with ozone for reuse.

In fact some companies use ozone-enhanced biologically active filtration system and multi-barrier solution combines ozone, filtration and analytical instrumentation to deliver optimal wastewater treatment for water reuse.

As for greywater treatment it’s recommended to use ultrafiltration for the reduction of turbidity.

Kindly comment on this.

Regards / Mwaniki]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Tue, 06 Oct 2015 20:59:42 +0000
Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: clint
The logical reuse of greywater, not blackwater, is more than possible right now with the use of a whole bunch of ozone.

We initially used UV but found ozone to be much more useful in many different aspects.

Creating ozone with the addition of an oxygen generator, venturi, sealed container and an ozone dis-struct (converts back to 02) has worked very well for us in not only disinfection but also in breaking up any remaining organics after 1 micron filtration.

From ozone to RO with a monitoring and recycle of the concentrate up to extremely high levels until discharging a modest 10% instead of the standard 50% to the composter.

The secret is having a good greywater treatment system capable of not only treating but also dealing with the hydrocarbons, which we do in the composter as well.

Human Endeavors]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Tue, 06 Oct 2015 19:54:21 +0000
Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: mwaniki
As you may be aware due water scarcity researchers are looking into ways whereby wastewater will be drinkable in future.

Several solutions that wastewater and water utilities are turning to is Ozone. They say, Ozone also offers a solution for utilities looking to move away from chlorine and reduce disinfection byproducts (DBPs).

They say ultraviolet disinfection technology may not offer drinking water quality but it may be clean enough for reuse in agriculture.

And of course there is nanotechnology has long been important in providing clean drinking water and irrigation for food crops.

Kind regards / Mwaniki]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 05 Oct 2015 17:13:06 +0000
Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: F H Mughal
Thank you for your post. I note that in the Egyptian experimental article, treated wastewater is considered safe for use.


F H Mughal]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 05 Oct 2015 15:54:04 +0000
Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: mwaniki
Please address me simply as Mwaniki. Am not a qualified engineer and wish I were one. Kindly note I inadvertently omitted an article in the current edition of the Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Sept-Oct 2015 Vol.10 # 5.

This article is entitled ‘Egyptian Experimental Farm Reveals Possible Market for 'Sewage Farming' Agricultural Products’ and findings in the experiment in this Egyptian farm, say the treated wastewater is safe.

Kindly go to our journal in the system and perusal the article.

Best regards / Mwaniki]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 05 Oct 2015 13:32:38 +0000
Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: F H Mughal
Thank you for posting an interesting paper. One of the recommendations in your paper is:

Awareness building on health and environmental risks for farmers using untreated wastewater or reclaimed water

A good paper indeed! Thank you,

Kind regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 05 Oct 2015 02:32:40 +0000
Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: mwaniki
Kindly note that we reprinted a related paper entitled “Investing in the Reuse of Treated Wastewater” in the May-June 2014 edition of the Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene”.

The paper was prepared by Chris Scott of International Water Management Institute (IWMI). It was revised by Salah Darghouth, Water Adviser for the Agriculture and Rural Development Department (ARD) of the World Bank, and Ariel Dinar, Lead Economist in ARD at the World Bank—both part of the Water for Food Team.

The paper was reprinted with permission and the pdf version is enclosed in the attachment.

Kind regards,

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 04 Oct 2015 19:32:41 +0000
Reuse of Wastewater (interview with Dr. Valentina Lazarova) - by: F H Mughal Reuse of Wastewater

Reuse of treated municipal wastewater is normally taken as an intervention that supplements water supply. That is rightly so, since in most cases in developing countries, the treated municipal wastewater is used for irrigation of road greenbelts, golf courses, parks and playgrounds.

I recently came across an interview of Dr. Valentina Lazarova, an expert with over 25 years of research and practical experience in the field of Environmental Engineering. She is the chair of the IWA (International Water Association) Water Reuse Specialist Group. The interview was conducted by Dr. Vidhya Chittoor Viswanathan, Impact Director at AquaSPE, Zurich, Switzerland. Dr. Vidhya has a strong technical background in civil and environmental engineering. Her doctoral thesis was on studying the impact of river restoration on surface water quality across various scales (from river reach-scale to catchment-scale).

On the constraints in the reuse of wastewater, Dr Valentina said:

“The main constraints for the development of potable water reuse are inadequate communication, misunderstanding of the efficiency and reliability of the available treatment technologies and water quality control tools. As a consequence, public opposition and concerns of unknown micropollutants or pathogens were the key arguments against the development of some potable reuse projects. In fact, unplanned potable reuse is a wide uncontrolled practice worldwide associated with higher health risks compared to planned water reuse. For these reasons, the major challenges for indirect potable reuse remain the public support, regulatory approval, high capital and operation costs, including very high monitoring costs for emerging micropollutants.”

Dr. Valentina’s response is useful as the efficiency of treatment technologies and, monitoring of treated effluents are the two important adjuncts that has to be considered seriously, if risks, associated with the use of treated wastewater, are to be avoided.

As regards the fears of presence of pathogens, Dr Valentina says:

“We have also many examples where misunderstanding of water reuse is blocking the development of projects for irrigation with well treated wastewater, while many rivers used for irrigation are much more polluted that recycled water. Independent of the type of reuse application and the country, the public’s knowledge and understanding of the safety and suitability of recycled water is a key factor for the success of any water reuse programme. Consistent communication and easy to understand messages need to be developed for the public and politicians explaining the benefits of water reuse for the long term water security and sustainable urban water cycle management.

There are few proven solutions available to convince the public at large and the project stakeholders regarding the safety and relevance of water reuse. Undoubtedly, the use of a clear and positive terminology and simple explanations on water quality, treatment technology and water reuse benefits are necessary to build-up credibility and trust in water reuse. Existing experience and lessons learned are very important to convince decision makers. Finally, the most important recommendation is to inform and involve the public, politicians and all stakeholders from the beginning of any water reuse project. The increasing media impact and the new communication tools via internet should also be taken into account.”

While many rivers are polluted and receive untreated wastewater discharges, Dr. Valentina’s point of knowledge and understanding of the safety and suitability of the recycled water merits attention.

On treatment technology, she says: “The combination of microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO - recognised as a “multiple barriers” polishing of municipal effluents - is considered as the best available technology for potable water reuse applications.”

For large scale operations, e.g., NeWater Project in Singapore, her point of view is correct, but in case of small-level situations in developing countries, it would be rather difficult to go for MF and RO technologies, if the treated wastewater is to be used for irrigation.

The details of the interview can be accessed at:

While still on the same note, I came across a by article by Gary Chandler titled: Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemic Fueled By Sewage Contamination. The article sent shivers through my spine. It is available at:

The article is rather long. Briefly, the article says:

People are dying of neurological disease at an accelerating rate;

Pathogen associated with neurological disease is spreading uncontrollably. Research suggests that food and water supplies around the world have been contaminated with an unstoppable form of protein known as a prion (PREE-on);

The prion problem is getting worse with rising populations, rising concentrations of people, intensive agriculture, reckless sewage disposal policies and other mismanaged pathways. As the epidemic strikes more people, the pathways for prion exposure explode and intensify. Reckless sewage disposal policies and practices alone are putting billions of innocent people in the crossfire right now. Entire watersheds are endangered thanks to a deadly pathogen that migrates, mutates and multiplies;

Although there are many causes and pathways contributing to the prion disease epidemic, many pathways are being mismanaged, including sewage, biosolids and reclaimed wastewater. As stated earlier, blood, saliva, mucas, urine, feces, milk and cell tissue all carry infectious prions. These human discharges are flushed down toilets and sinks billions of times every day. We all have flushed away toxic or infectious waste that we would never throw on our garden or in our water well. The magic wand at the sewage treatment plant doesn’t phase most of these elements;

Sewage treatment plants can’t detect or stop prions in municipal waste streams. Despite this important technical detail, we’re dumping tons of infectious sewage on crops, gardens, pastures, golf courses, playgrounds and open spaces in our forests every day. Wind, rain and other natural dynamics put the sewage right back into our air, food and water supplies;

Spreading sewage sludge, biosolids, and reclaimed wastewater anywhere is a risk. Dumping them directly into our food and water is reckless, incompetent and criminal. We’re dumping prions into our lifecycle by the trainloads daily. Every nation is guilty;

The condensed sludge from all of these places is then dumped on our farms and ranches by the truckload. Plastic packaging and other large items are often visible in this waste, which means that treatment is extremely minimal. If the Pope waved his hand over the sewage, it would likely receive better treatment than what we see today. Nothing stops a prion, but you would hope that billions of dollars of wastewater treatment would at least take out pill bottles, syringes, needles and used prophylactics;

Thanks to more and more people dying from TSEs, sewage systems are more contaminated with prions than ever. Wastewater treatment systems are now prion incubators and distributors. Sewage sludge, wastewater reuse, biosolids and other sewage byproducts are biohazards causing bioterror. Thanks to questionable policymakers and profiteers, you are eating and drinking from your neighbor’s toilet–and the toilets at the local nursing home and hospital. We might as well dump sewage out of windows again;

Thanks to more and more sewage mismanagement, we’re dumping more deadly prions on farms and ranches than ever. The wastewater industry and their consultants have convinced agricultural operations around the world that sewage and biosolids are safe, effective and profitable for all involved;

As it turns out, today’s sewage isn’t safe. Sewage sludge isn’t an effective fertilizer. The business is profitable, though—until the sickness and disease sets in for the farmers, workers and the consumers. Until the land is condemned for being hopelessly contaminated—making everyone downstream sick.

After reading Gary’s article, I was just wondering whether one should think twice before reusing treated wastewater for irrigation.

Can anyone comment on this?

F H Mughal]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 04 Oct 2015 16:02:45 +0000
Re: Announcement for the International Conference on Innovations in Sustainable Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems (ISWATS) - by: Katie Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 21 Sep 2015 09:59:10 +0000 Re: Greywater manual on greywater reuse in Spanish by Greywater Action, USA - by: LauraAllen
Thank you for moving my post to "greywater reuse," I agree that fits better.

To answer your questions:

1. Our target audience is Spanish speakers in the US, as well as people wanting to install greywater irrigation systems in Spanish speaking countries like Spain, Mexico, etc.

2. We use mulch basins to filter and absorb the greywater (shallow basins filled with woodchips that filter greywater before it absorbs into the soil). These are very simple, low maintenance, use local resources, and work really well. We design the distribution piping in the systems to use large outlets to prevent clogging, so that we can send unfiltered greywater through the system until it enters the mulch basin. Since these systems are for irrigation we don't want to remove nutrients from the water- the nutrients feed the plants- a different situation than ecological disposal systems.

3. The majority of people installing greywater systems in the US keep their flush toilet and only use the greywater for irrigation, except for off-grid people and a few who want to conserve more and/or recycle the nutrients from the composting toilets.

4. We are seeing a huge increase in interest and demand for greywater systems. More water agencies and cities are promoting these systems as well now. Greywater installers are extremely busy! I think the drought is probably causing some people to consider dry toilets, but not very many (at least I haven't noticed an increase in interest from the drought).

Kind regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 03 Sep 2015 18:37:24 +0000
Re: Invitation to join the network on Sustainable Water and Nutrient reuse option in Europe (SuWaNu) - by: fabio
As requested , I would like to post a summary on the outputs of SuWaNu, as it might be usefull for some of you.

Recently the Marketplace Map has been opened to regions all over the world, as water shortage and reuse is a global concern, where new partners show immediately on the map and can easily see other activities around them or outside their regions, thus stimulating the development of new research-driven clusters with the focus on wastewater treatment and reuse applications and expanding cluster formation at international level. SuWaNu has created also a research public library listing activities and similar projects in wastewater treatment for reuse, compiling the existing research outside the SuWaNu consortium and creating an open research database which is easily accessible and open to the public.

In regards to the material produced by SuWaNu, during the first phase of the project, the SuWaNu team have analysed and compiled the existing situation of wastewater reuse in the target regions into several reports. A current wastewater reuse state-of-play analysis included existing available technologies for treatment targeting reuse of water and nutrients, relevant public and private key actors in the sector and a technological state-of-the-art map. A policy guideline included policy issues, barriers and limiting factors for wastewater reuse and the expansion potential in the target regions of SuWaNu. Then a SWOT analysis on the use of reclaimed water in agriculture has been performed by each RTD within the consortium, supported by the SMEs and SMEs associations, representing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats from an economical and regional market perspective providing a picture of real opportunities in these markets for technological SMEs.

In the second phase of SuWaNu, the cluster has also developed a Research Agenda which identified 4 “research topics” or knowledge areas as follows: legislation on wastewater reuse, financials and RTD needs, consumer concerns & lack of communication, and mismatch between the amount of wastewater and irrigation/ fertilization needs.

Furthermore SuWaNu has developed its own Joint Action Plan (JAP) with a common strategy to enhance synergies leading to the completion of its goals and targeting relevant stakeholders in the field of agriculture and wastewater treatment including public authorities, private companies, universities and research centres as well as associations and NGOs. The JAP was based on developing 13 crucial Research Actions for the research topics listed above.

I hope this is interesting for you.

Best regards,

Fabio Pereira, PM of SuWaNu]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 27 Aug 2015 09:46:53 +0000
Re: Greywater manual on greywater reuse in Spanish by Greywater Action, USA - by: muench
Thanks for posting this document here. You had put it under "new publications" which is perfectly fine, but I have now moved it to the thematic category on "greywater reuse" which is where it fits better, I think. Do you agree?

I have a few small questions:
  1. You have translated it into Spanish but you are based in the U.S. which makes me think who is your target group? Is it mainly Spanish speaking people in the U.S.?
  2. Are you mainly using constructed wetlands and soil filters to treat the greywater or are you also advocating other technologies for treatment or perhaps even promoting reuse of untreated greywater?
  3. For the toilets would you recommend composting toilets (as shown here on your website: instead of flush toilets, or do the people who follow your greywater manuals normally stick to their flush toilets and focus only on the greywater reuse (which is also still a good step forward)?
  4. We hear a lot about the drought in California; are you seeing increased interest in California about such household greywater reuse schemes (and possibly even increased interest in dry toilets (composting toilets or UDDTs) although this is hard to imagine)?

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 23 Aug 2015 19:30:41 +0000
Feasibility of ‘Greenhouse System’ for Household Greywater Treatment in Nomadic-Cultured Communities in Peri-Urban Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia - by: nazimuddin
Following study has just been accepted and published by the Journal of Cleaner Production:
"Feasibility of ‘Greenhouse System’ for Household Greywater Treatment in Nomadic-Cultured Communities in Peri-Urban Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Way to Reduce Greywater-Borne Hazards and Vulnerability" Uddin et al. (2015) (Link for the accepted manuscript:

For this research, greenhouse technology was designed and implemented successfully in the Coldest Capital (Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) of the world. The study has following novelty statement and the idea can be also fully or partially applied in other parts of the world with similar context.

•Greywater treatment & reuse option has been tested in Nomadic-cultured communities.
•GH-GWTU may have potentiality to significantly reduce greywater-borne hazards.
•Concentration of chemicals in greywater is higher than industrial effluents.
•GH-GWTU may extend the period of treatment in winter cold climate regions.
•Ger settings & nomadic-culture may influence highly on greywater.

There are limited studies that focus on greywater treatment and reuse options, particularly in nomadic societies with unique cultural and climatic conditions. Studies relating to household greywater treatment in nomadic-cultured societies are limited. This study aims to address this gap in examining a case with a high concentration of chemical components in the greywater (e.g. where chemical oxygen demand ranged between 35-70032 mg/L). Specifically, an upgraded greenhouse greywater treatment unit (GH-GWTU) was designed and constructed during the summer of 2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, in order to assess the technical feasibility, and up-scaling capability, of the system at the community level. Chemical and biological test results indicated that most parameters (e.g. PO43-, NO2-, NH4+) had a high removal rate of up to 98%. Moreover, the greenhouse may extend the treatment period up to 8 months. This study has shown that GH-GWTU is a potential technology that can significantly reduce the chemicals and biological agents in greywater in Mongolian Ger contexts which may reduce the greywater-borne hazards and vulnerability in the area. It can be replicable both at the household and community scale according to resources available for system operation and maintenance.

Thanks a lot

Best regards
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sat, 22 Aug 2015 17:45:49 +0000
Re: The High Level Panel Report on Water for Food Security and Nutrition - by: madeleine If you are attending World Water Week please join us in our high level seminar where the CFS HLPE report on Water, Food Security and Nutrition will be presented.
If you have not the possibility to join us in Stockholm you can watch this seminar on the web
More about the event here
The weblink to the seminar :

Invitation card]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Fri, 21 Aug 2015 04:18:19 +0000
Re: Invitation to join the network on Sustainable Water and Nutrient reuse option in Europe (SuWaNu) - by: antonini
Elisabeth forwarded the link to your post to me. We are currently not working within Europe and not promoting the reuse of wastewater (we rather find that households living in wastewater irrigation areas have poor health/water quality) – this is why I don’t think the Suwanu network is related to our study at this stage.

In our so-called "WATSAN-Agriculture" project, the settings in 4 countries are looked at from an economics perspective: what is the situation (diarrhea prevalence, water quality etc.) in multi-water use settings (i.e. areas where irrigation is being practiced)? We then look at whether a series of interventions (e.g. poster intervention, distribution of water testing kits etc.) had an impact on the health or water quality of the households that were questioned in a baseline survey. The aim is to find out which intervention is the most efficient in changing WASH behavior (e.g. education of kids or adults, are kids agents of change, does it make sense to use water testing kits or is a poster sufficient etc.) in order to make recommendations for policy makers. In one of our study areas (Gujarat, India), untreated wastewater is typically used for irrigation so our PhD student is comparing the health status and water quality of households located in wastewater irrigation areas vs. non wastewater irrigation areas.

However, I think the outcomes or activities in Europe (and the SuWaNu) network could be very relevant to the actors in our study countries. I look forward to hearing more about your work!

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Tue, 18 Aug 2015 08:22:22 +0000