SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Mon, 25 May 2015 17:26:24 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Health survey verses health education of wastewater users in Mexico - by: jannaowens http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11789 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11789 I always learn so much on the forum, but this well-written response above and the video were just the perfect fit. All the key elements are included, and to those that have not done this before it is logical.
Yes, some actions have been tried in the past, but not as part of an organized campaign that spread out to include other things. I convey the thanks also of the community we are advising. I will let you know how this evolves with bringing all stakeholders into the game!

Best wishes;
Janna]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Wed, 28 Jan 2015 23:51:09 +0000
Re: Health survey verses health education of wastewater users in Mexico - by: KaiMikkel http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11763 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11763
Christoph recently posted a link to the following video in another post but it aligns, I think, beautifully with the challenges that you are facing in your community in Mexico:



The concept of the "social audit" is pretty much what I was advocating on behalf of although, admittedly, I hadn't heard the term before. Does this help?]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Tue, 27 Jan 2015 20:54:24 +0000
Re: Health survey verses health education of wastewater users in Mexico - by: KaiMikkel http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11642 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11642
This sounds like an organizing challenge to me. In other words, one that requires (not necessarily in this order) first, an educational component that focuses on the widespread dissemination of information critical to raising people's understanding of the problem - identifying the various players and the problems's causes and effects - and the various methods by which the problem can be overcome. Second, a capacity building exercise aimed at growing leaders young and old from amongst the population(s) most affected. Local people need to care about this issue and they need to step forward themselves and reach out with other affected people and groups, otherwise you're just yelling into the void. And they are there, likely already at work on this issue and simply in need of support. Third, meetings, meetings, meetings - all conducted in Spanish and all led by local Mexicanos/as. Fourth, locating and learning from people who have faced and overcome similar struggles in nearby communities (or, if no nearby examples exist, than further afield in other parts of Mexico). Fifth, a combination of letter writing, signature gathering (vis-a-vis a petition, etc.), street theater, marches, (and, if need be, direct action) coupled with media exposure and fundraising, all focused on applying increasing amounts of pressure onto local and state officials and onto area businesses (the really big ones) who are no doubt benefiting from the lax enforcement environment (and at least some of whom, I'm betting, are owned and operated by US or other western corporations). Is industrial agriculture at all in play here? They are a powerful but not entirely unresponsive sector of the economy in Mexico as they are often part- or fully-owned by foreign entities and can be shamed into action.

And for some background, there's good history in contemporary Mexico of promoting and constructing sustainable alternatives to legacy water delivery and legacy wastewater management systems. I'd learn all I could about these successes and seek out the folks who are behind them.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Fri, 16 Jan 2015 23:58:53 +0000
Re: Health survey verses health education of wastewater users in Mexico - by: jannaowens http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11555 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11555 there is no enforcement. Three years of attempts have brought no actual relief for a city that does not process 50-70% of its municipal wastewater. Its just dumped into the river or networks into the fields through a dedicated system. No control by the people, no municipal concern despite numerous requests for meetings.

The poor ejido farmers are grateful for this untreated wastewater at no cost. However, there is also no practical instruction on protective strategies of its use, or regulation enforced as to the fate of the crops grown this way. I once watched a child pick a squash blossom drooping into the dirty water, a woman tucked it in her bag, and touched the child's face with contaminated hands. They simply don't know the full risk involved!

As to your reply, maybe an educational focus would instill them with some precautions to health risks, and bring this reclusive group into the larger stakeholders group. But what is a good protocol to follow in health risk education?]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sat, 10 Jan 2015 22:05:07 +0000
Re: Health survey verses health education of wastewater users in Mexico - by: denniskl http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11554 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11554
My first question is whether the residents have any control on the outflows - is waste water management a centralised system or decentralised?

If they have control, then sure, behavioural change-directed awareness programmes are a good idea because they can decide, based on new knowledge, if the change is warranted (and what the changes can be)

But if they don't and can't control, how is educating the people of any help to the situation?

Unless that is a pre-cursor to gaining a groundswell of community support to pressure the authorities (which is ok too provided the strategy us clear:)]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sat, 10 Jan 2015 21:36:28 +0000
Health survey versus health education of wastewater users in Mexico - by: jannaowens http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11553 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11553-health-survey-versus-health-education-of-wastewater-users-in-mexico#11553 The NGOs are debating funding a survey of the affected populace to establish detrimental health affects because of this exposure. As that is not my area of expertise, I can only surmise the assets needed for this, as well as experienced surveyors. Our organization would prefer using those same assets to educate the affected community in measures that can be taken to reduce the impact of the exposure to the wastewater and its crops.
The primary goal is to open the entire community in conversation on managing wastewater, more appropriate irrigation options and reducing impairment of the local waters. Until that happens, I'd like to see the users of this untreated waste having a better chance! Please advise on approaches.
Best regards,
Janna Owens]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sat, 10 Jan 2015 16:34:19 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11433 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11433
Dennis, the idea would be to treat this blackwater just as well as if we were dumping it into the environment, only never dump it into the environment, so maybe somewhere between 0 and 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml. It would be key to eliminate any smell or color, so users do not enough notice the difference.

Detlef, thanks for these details. I think with so much rain falling on the constructed wetlands here, we should be able to keep the same amount of water cycle after cycle, and there would be plenty of greywater that could be added whenever needed.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 21 Dec 2014 04:43:58 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11413 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11413
On the example of Mr. Pollmaecher's blackwater ABR-CW + slow sand-filter all on gravity, you may skip the swimming pool/koi-fish pond to may have a much simple system you may looking for, which will run for years without any maintenance. Gravity systems need a pump for reticulating water. At least this pump needs maintenance sooner or later. If you give any system to people who are not see a DIRECT benefit for them self, they will not maintain it. Maybe a hotel/resort owner will not be a lazy "user" and will have economical interest in it and will organize regular maintenance through low paid care-takers.

My own greywater-CW and reuse-system for WC, garden and washing-machine did no "produce" enough water. Maybe I am smelly and do not wash my self enough . I had to top up with automatic rainwater blending and in the beginning to maintain it very often. E.g., I redesigned it partly, taking off all the "security against clogging" (pre-filter)in front of CW. At the moment, after 6 years the automatic rainwater level switch is broken as it was permanent exposed to tank-moister.

Having this experiences by my self it told me, it needs much-much more simplified systems (low-tech) as I was doing it as a so called low-tech water-"expert"...

Good luck
Detlef]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Fri, 19 Dec 2014 07:46:47 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: denniskl http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11407 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11407
yes it does seem sensible to re-use blackwater as toilet flush greywater (after on site processing) in a continual loop, topped up as required from rainwater collection systems, other greywater diversions or mains as the case may be.

How much treatment and to what level of pathogen kill is required for this type of re-use? 100% or lower?

I guess the question is (for most settings), can it be done at household level with a system technology that is low cost, low maintenance, low impact and has a low "behavioural change? requirement?

Perhaps can be designed for commercial settings as a scaled up pilot then "slimmed down" for households?]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 18 Dec 2014 21:50:48 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11402 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11402
Thanks for this spectacular example. Many, however, would be worried about pharmaceutical drugs and potentially even normal, natural human hormones.

I would like to find cases where the flush water is simple recycled as flush water, especially at a large, public institution (and preferably with normal employees and not only super DIY homeowners).

Reclaimed Water, after wastewater treatment, sometimes gets used even for drinking water in more and more places in the world.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reclaimed_water
(This is a wikipedia page that could stand some serious editing.)
This is much more worrisome, in terms of pharmaceuticals, etc., than using this reclaimed water for flushing toilets once again.

Why is this not standard procedure? Why is it not listed among the options in the Eawag Compendium? Is there any reason not to do this, beside people's mindset?

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 18 Dec 2014 13:58:23 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11398 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11398
Under our "cold" condition, my close colleague Mr. Pollmaecher is doing this kind of "up-scale applications" for him self (6-8 pe) via AV-ABR, vCW (4m2/pe), slow sand filter (cascading), Koi-fish pond/swimming pool, using the wwtp effluent outlet water for pond, wash-machine, WC and vegetable garden and tree irrigation. He needs supplementing with rainwater. In other words, his property do not "supply" sewage to outside.
See: aqua-verde.de/bilder-galerien/nutzwasser...ur-abwasser-kosten/#

AV-ABR and vCW:

Slow-sand filter:




The wwtp-effluent do not have any e-coli's at all.

I hope this helps...

Mr. Pollmaecher is a very "handy man" (DIY)!
I would not suggest this kind of systems for any kind of lazy "users", just maintained by bad paid domestic care takers (gardeners).

All the best
Detlef]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Wed, 17 Dec 2014 20:14:14 +0000
Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11393 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11393-closed-loop-recycling-of-flush-water-through-abr-and-constructed-wetland#11393
I am looking for cases of direct reuse of processed blackwater for flushing the same toilets again. This would resolve many problems at the same time:
-- People can use the same flush toilets that they are used to.
-- Demand for water would be greatly reduced.
-- Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants that cannot be entirely removed during treatment do not go into rivers or anywhere else in the open environment.

This would be safe and acceptable because:
-- Biological treatment (e.g., ABR + CW) reliably eliminates pathogenic bacteria, smell and color.
-- Users would not have contact with this water.
-- Those who clean flush toilets already apply precautionary measures, such as long-handled brushes, gloves, etc.

It seems that the only real obstacle is people's linear, disposable, one-use, throw-away mind-set.

This would involve some additional piping and pumping, the latter of which could be done with pumps that also serve as exercise equipment, such as Treadle Pumps
()

So far, I propose processing the blackwater in ABRs (Anaerobic Baffled Reactors) for 24 hours (and maybe recover biogas), then at least 3 days in a Vertical-flow, Subsurface Constructed Wetland. All suggestions are welcome. (The idea is for there to also be UDDTs that users can opt to use if they prefer.)

I am proposing this to an institution here in Ecuador and would like to find more support for this, especially up-scale applications where people are doing this with no problems.

This would be true / re use /.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Wed, 17 Dec 2014 13:48:12 +0000
Re: New project - Sustainable freshwater supply for Urbanizing Maputo, Mozambique - TU Delft, Unesco-IHE, UEM - by: AndreMA http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/10433-new-project-sustainable-freshwater-supply-for-urbanizing-maputo-mozambique-tu-delft-unesco-ihe-uem#11240 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/10433-new-project-sustainable-freshwater-supply-for-urbanizing-maputo-mozambique-tu-delft-unesco-ihe-uem#11240 sustainablewatermz.weblog.tudelft.nl/201...month-in-mozambique/]]> Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Wed, 03 Dec 2014 14:21:19 +0000 Re: New project - Sustainable freshwater supply for Urbanizing Maputo, Mozambique - TU Delft, Unesco-IHE, UEM - by: AndreMA http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/10433-new-project-sustainable-freshwater-supply-for-urbanizing-maputo-mozambique-tu-delft-unesco-ihe-uem#11180 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/10433-new-project-sustainable-freshwater-supply-for-urbanizing-maputo-mozambique-tu-delft-unesco-ihe-uem#11180
I would like to thank you for your warm welcome and apologize for this late reply but the past few months have been hectic and some tasks were left behind.

1) Water reuse vs sustainable sanitation
I found the discussion about the system in Braunschweig, Germany very interesting. However, we do not define our project as ecosan but as sustainable and that is very different; I do agree that ecosan implies urine and feces separation and the absence of industrial waste.

In our case, we still know very little about the sewerage system, what arrives at the plant and how is the plant operating. Once we have it fully characterized we will be able to decide what should be done in order to produce safe water for irrigation: what kind of treatment should be built and what type of use can be made.

Btw, there is an "real" ecosan project in Maputo, with about 60 eco latrines, and I am planning to study it in more detail next year.

2) The "nasties" in the water
We have not yet quantified this for the case of Maputo but there are not many big industries connected to the WWTP. The big gas, oil, coal industries are based in the center and north of the country. In Maputo there's an Aluminum smelter that treats its own wastewater and discharges it directly to the the river. In the city, very close to the WWTP, there are beer and beverage factories but I don't think that these pose serious problems regarding quality of effluent (eg, presence of heavy metals).

However, there are indeed some problems, with trucks bringing illegally solid-waste to the premises of the plant and discharging car oil into the lagoons. And these are the problems that we know of - because we see the oil and the solid waste. There's still plenty of work to be done in order to fully understand the system, how it's being operated and how it should be improved.

3) The WWTP and unsafe water reuse
Simply put: the plant is not working; an example, it's a system of four lagoons (two anaerobic + two facultative) that were de-sludged for the last time in 2007. I had a student characterizing its operation; check our webpage for an overview of the available publications.

The farmers in the vicinity of the WWTP are indeed using the effluent of the plant. We have seen it and we have talked to farmers who say they do it (check this blog post). I am planning to study this in more detail next year.

4) SPLASH project
I've not yet had contact with them.

Finally, I'm working on a blog post regarding the month I spent in Mozambique and this will be available on our blog on Tuesday (02/12/2014). So check it if you wish to know more.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Fri, 28 Nov 2014 13:34:58 +0000
English Video about the Hölö Urea treatment plant South of Stockholm (blackwater treatment and reuse) - by: madeleine http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11121-english-video-about-the-hoeloe-urea-treatment-plant-south-of-stockholm-blackwater-treatment-and-reuse#11121 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/11121-english-video-about-the-hoeloe-urea-treatment-plant-south-of-stockholm-blackwater-treatment-and-reuse#11121 Here is a nice video (english) about the Swedish Urea treatment plant in Hölö south of Stockholm.
Some of you might have visited this treatment plant on study visit organized by World Water Week in 2012 . For the rest of you this is a very good and educative video to learn more about how urea treatment technology works in practice. Jan Christer Carlsson a farmer takes care of the treatment plant and receives currently black water from 400 households. After 2 weeks of treatment, the waste is ready use on the fields. The part of the small wastewater plant starts at after 10 minute in the video.
Enjoy watching it :
Cheers
madeleine

madeleine]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Mon, 24 Nov 2014 16:46:14 +0000