SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 30 Jul 2016 11:11:07 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Nexus reuse project - what is it about? - by: Susanne Project Nexus

Food Production and Settlement Hygiene in Poor Peri-Urban Regions in India

The three-year-project Nexus started in January 2015 with the overall objectives to:

1. Improve health through reduction in undernourishment and safe sanitation
2. Reduce environmental degradation and protect natural resources
3. Improve living conditions for poor peri-urban communities

The project promotes of safe reuse practices of sanitation products in agriculture.

Key component is the establishment of practical demonstration projects that show various ways of safely reusing sanitation products, from treated as well as untreated water and faecal sludge up to urine and dried faeces from UDDT. This process is supported by a knowledge base, created through an extensive literature review, interdisciplinary expert consultation meetings, guest lectures and trainings on topics related to sanitation, health, nutrition, agriculture, policy and community mobilization.

The demonstration projects are to be established under four main concepts:

DEWATS (Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems)
Intervention for enhancing nourishment among children and women in peri-urban communities.

Faecal Sludge Treatment
Intervention for Settlement Hygiene and reuse of treated and co-composted sludge in agriculture

UDDT (Urine Diverting Dry Toilets/”EcoSan”)
Intervention for reuse of EcoSan products in agriculture

Risk Mitigation measures
Intervention in reuse of untreated wastewater in food production

For details on our activities accomplished in 2015, please visit:

Monthly newsletters are up on our webpage (to be found in the bottom of the page):

DEWATS for reuse in Beedi Workers Colony, Kengeri, Bangalore

Within walking distance from CDD Society’s headquarters, a DEWATS now provides irrigation water for 400 square meters of land where vegetables are grown in a peri-urban community. In coordination with the local people’s association and its leader, the infrastructure for agricultural production was created, such as pipelines, storage capacity and a polishing pond to ensure a pathogen die-off prior to irrigation.

The site was designed to answer open questions. One of them is the required retention time for the treated water in the polishing pond under South-Indian conditions to ensure a sufficient pathogen die-off. Another question is about the optimisation of the nutrient content in the water while assuring a reliable hygienization and dealing with limited space for UV-treatment in the pond.

With the CDD’s project partner St. Johns Medical College, the project team was trained on nutrition assessment among children from 0-5 yrs and 6-14 yrs to evaluate the need for food supplements. Furthermore a household survey on nutrition and sanitation has been conducted by students from NIMS College Bangalore.

EcoSan: Reuse of urine and humanure in Tamil Nadu

CDD’s partner organisation EcoPro in Auroville implements UDDT products in. The objective is to ensure the reuse of EcoSan by-products in Tindivanam-Botheri and Kalrayan Hills as an incentive to use UDDT. The potential of these products are is demonstrated against the use of chemical fertilisers.

Challenges faced till now

a.monitoring and assessing linkages between sanitation, health and nutrition
b.low awareness among public about the topic
a.grey areas in policy and regulations on reuse literature focusing on Indian scenario
c.little research on long term impacts of reuse
3. Planning & Implementation
a.limitations of laboratories that test waste water, sludge, crops
b.operational hurdles in communities and local leaders and institutions due
to low knowledge and therefore interest

For more information, please get in touch under This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 15 Apr 2016 12:51:58 +0000
CDD Nexus project - linking sanitation to agriculture - Newsletter February 2016 - by: Susanne
next to planning in the project, we are optimizing the polishing pond in one of our demo projects towards aquaculture as complementary use.
Furthermore we organized a training on the practical application of the WHO Safety Sanitation Planning manual held by Biome Solutions from Bangalore.

For more information get in touch with us and visit:

Best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Thu, 07 Apr 2016 07:48:26 +0000
Re: CuveWaters: Sanitation & Water Reuse in Namibia - by: milli
Additionally, I want to point out the CuveWaters report with the results of the research project. It was published in December 2015 as the project ended and can be found here:

Further publications can be found at the CuveWaters project website:

Best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Thu, 24 Mar 2016 13:23:35 +0000
Re: CuveWaters: Sanitation & Water Reuse in Namibia - by: clint
I want to compliment you on your method of financing with the pre-paid cards. Money up front! Great idea!!

We also share the same philosophy in making our technologies available via a leasing agreement and the compensation being derived on how much water the client utilizes. This includes our technology's ability to totally recycle the greywater into drinking quality water with continuous reuse instead of just once or twice.

We also compost the blackwater resources and utilizing Mother Nature and our vermi-composter we totally transform all of the toilet and kitchen organic scraps into odorless water vapor, carbon dioxide and liquid and fertile soil amendments for agriculture.

Fecal sludge management is best managed by aerobic organisms and redworms in a pre-fabricated, accessible, aerobically designed vessel, in our opinion.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:15:11 +0000
Re: CuveWaters: Sanitation & Water Reuse in Namibia - by: CuveWaters
Regarding your questions of O&M costs of the plant. The coverage of the O&M costs is as followed organized:

There are three main sources of revenue creation: First by the payment of water users (water bills for the used water in the settlement with household connections, pre-paid cards to buy water in the settlement with the individual washhouses and admissions/vouchers of the community washhouse). The second source of revenue creation is the selling of the treated waste water to the farmer who uses the nutrient-rich water for irrigation of his crops and third the rent of the municipality land to the farmer. The O&M of the infrastructure and facilities is done by two technicians who are employed by the municipality. At full capacity (90 m³/day of wastewater) the system is self-financed.

Best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Sun, 20 Mar 2016 12:45:46 +0000
CDD Nexus project - linking sanitation to agriculture - Newsletter February 2016 - by: Susanne
we are happy to announce that we are successfully harvesting safely grown vegetables from fertigation with treated water, preparing for co-composting faecal sludge and that we could be present at the National Conference on Peri-urban Agriculture and Ecosystems in Delhi.

You will find more on this in our Newsletter:

For any questions, please use the forum or contact us directly: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Tue, 08 Mar 2016 11:25:02 +0000
Re: question about optimising compost and irrigation on SuSanA discussion forum - by: NS01RZS

Apologies for the delayed response. I attach a paper that we have published. I am doing some work on this aspect but related to provision of training in Malta and also a research project in Qatar for application in arid conditions. I would be interested to carry this research further with new collaborators. Would you be interested and do you know of any funding sources ?



Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Tue, 01 Mar 2016 06:15:53 +0000
Re: CDD Nexus project - linking sanitation to agriculture - by: Susanne
the Nexus project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development within the scope of a special feature “One world – no hunger” of its contribution to achieve food security (BMZ Sonderinitiative „Eine Welt ohne Hunger“).

It was proposed by Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA e.V.), CDD's project partner, who are managing the funds of 600.000 EUR. The project started in January 2015 and continues until the end of 2017. Thank you for asking, Elisabeth.

Under the following links you can find the 2015 annual newsletter

...and the monthly newsletter from January 2016.

Best regards,

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Tue, 16 Feb 2016 09:30:29 +0000
Key documents for the sub-category on greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse and irrigation - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation".

The selection of documents is based on my searches in the SuSanA library and looking through previous forum threads.
I am open to feedback if others think that another document should be selected here.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation", in reverse chronological order:

WHO (2016). Sanitation safety planning. Manual for safe use and disposal of wastewater, greywater and excreta. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN 978 92 4 154924 0

Sanitation Safety Planning is a tool to help sanitation system operators maximise health benefits and minimise health risk of their system. It guides operators to prioritize and target risk management efforts to where it will have the most impact and to improve over time. The outputs can be used to provide assurance to the public and authorities of the system performance based on sound risk based management.

This document is based on the WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater from 2006, which consists of four volumes; the two most relevant volumes for this sticky post are:
Volume II: Wastewater Use in Agriculture,
Volume IV: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture,

HLPE, 2015. Water for food security and nutrition. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome, Italy

This report explores the relations between water and food security and nutrition, from household level to global level. It investigates these multiple linkages, in a context of competing demands, rising scarcities, and climate change. I t explores ways for improved water management in agriculture and food systems, as well as ways for improved governance of water, for better food security and nutrition for all, now and in the future.

Huhn, L. (2015). Greywater Treatment in Sand and Gravel Filters - Low Tech Solution for Sustainable Wastewater Management - Manual for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance. Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF)

This manual provides the background of greywater characteristics and gives guidance how to construct and operate a low-tech sand filter for onsite greywater treatment. It describes all aspects to be considered in the process of planning, construction and maintenance of greywater filters on the household level in rural areas. This manual is made for practitioners, technicians and interested households who want to design, construct and operate a low-tech greywater filter.

Drechsel, P., Scott, C. A., Raschid-Sally, L., Redwood, M., Bahri, A. (eds.) (2010). Wastewater Irrigation and Health - Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Earthscan, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), ISBN 978-1-84407-795-3

This book is written for practitioners, researchers and graduate students in environmental and public health, sanitary and agricultural engineering, and wastewater irrigation management in developing countries. It helps to assess and mitigate health risks from the use of wastewater and faecal sludge in agriculture, under conditions where wastewater treatment is absent or inadequate to safeguard public health.

Morel, A. and Diener, S. (2006). Greywater management in low and middle-income countries, review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. Sandec Report No. 14/06. Sandec (Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries) at Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), Dübendorf, Switzerland

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. In urban areas of LMIC, greywater is commonly discharged untreated into drainage channels, use untreated greywater for agricultural purposes, thereby leading to environmental degradation and exposing the population to health risks. Though greywater is generally less polluted than domestic or industrial wastewater, it may still contain high levels of pathogenic microorganisms, suspended solids and substances such as oil, fat, soaps, detergents, and other household chemicals.

Actually I am a bit undecided. Perhaps this one should replace the one that I have currently selected as Number 3?

Alternative for (3)
EPHC, NRMMC, AHMC (2006). Australian guidelines for water recycling: managing health and environmental risks (Phase 1). Environment Protection and Heritage Council, Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Australian Health Ministers Conference

Pressure on freshwater supplies is increasing in many cities and regional areas of Australia, due to widespread drought and movement of population to large centres near capital cities. Several reports have suggested to use water more efficiently; for example, by reusing water that has traditionally been seen as wastewater. In response to this situation, the Environment Protection and Heritage Council and the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council developed these national guidelines on water recycling. An important feature of these guidelines is that they use a risk management framework, rather than simply relying on post-treatment testing as the basis for managing recycled water schemes.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here:

Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time, too. It's a broad topic and therefore not easy to pick out the most important documents and links for newcomers.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 12 Feb 2016 04:18:55 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India - by: secretariat
4 of the 5 NaWaTech case studies are now available in the SuSanA Library.

Find them here:

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Dayanand Park, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse at the Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Wastewater Reuse in an Urban College Hostel, Pune, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Indradhanushya Center, Pune, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Jasmin (on behalf of the SuSanA secretariat)]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:09:40 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India - by: Katie
The NaWaTech consortium is pleased to inform you a new date and location for the International Conference on Innovations in Sustainable Water and wastewater Treatment Systems (ISWATS) has been fixed. The conference will take place on April 21st – 23rd, 2016 in Pune (at the Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration YASHADA).

The conference will include presentations of findings from all four projects supported under the framework of the India – European Union Science & Technology Cooperation in water technology and management by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and the European Commission (i.e. NaWaTech, SARASWATI, SWINGS, and Eco India).

The strategic objectives of the conference are to exchange knowledge, technologies, guidelines and tools for implementation and operation among academia and public authorities, skilled service providers and SMEs, enabling research partnerships and creating favourable environments for the application of treatment systems and technologies for sustainable water / wastewater treatment, reuse and recycle.

Please find more information in attached brochure and at Interested participants may submit their abstracts for oral and/or poster presentation on any of the conference themes (abstract submission deadline: February 29th, 2016).

Kind regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:53:16 +0000
Re: Optimising compost and irrigation with wastewater to meet crop nutritional requirements - PhD thesis in Soil Chemistry at Cranfield University, UK - by: joeturner]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 05 Feb 2016 16:54:23 +0000
Re: Optimising compost and irrigation with wastewater to meet crop nutritional requirements - PhD thesis in Soil Chemistry at Cranfield University, UK - by: muench
I came across your post from three years ago. I am wondering if you could please also make the whole PhD thesis ('Optimising compost and irrigation with wastewater to meet crop nutritional requirements') available, not just the abstract? We could also put it in the SuSanA library if you agree.

Also, have you continued down this path since then, did you find research partners and continue down the path of this research?

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 05 Feb 2016 07:24:20 +0000
Re: Turning Sewage into Clean Water – “Toilet-to-Tap” - by: YoviToni The practices are only limited in Jakarta, where the regulation is tighter, the limitation groundwater extraction and the cost of treating sewage is cheaper than water price from city utility. However, although the quality is superior, public still negatively perceived so the use limited for secondary purposes: toilet flushing, landscape watering, and machine cooling. They are about 15-40% of total water in a building.
I see that in the near future, the membrane technology will go cheaper thanks to the advance in China manufacturers. Now in Jakarta, the RO cost for further treating the STP effluent is $0.7 per m3, in Jakarta water price for commercial purposes is $1, while for household only $0.4.
The primary condition for membrane recycling is the reliability of sewage treatment facility. Without that the membrane will disrupt prematurely and the recycling cost not financially feasible.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Sun, 31 Jan 2016 05:00:37 +0000
Re: CDD Nexus project - linking sanitation to agriculture - by: muench
Thanks for introducing your Nexus project ("Nexus - Food production and settlement hygiene in poor peri-urban regions in India") here. You have a nice website ( I couldn't find though:
  • What is the project's time period?
  • Who is funding it, and how large is the budget?

With that knowledge, we could also include it in the SuSanA project database:

And I see you've done extensive literature reviews. Therefore, you should be in a good position to help with identifying 5 key documents for the sticky posts in the sub-categories on reuse? E.g. did you see this one:

Any comments in that thread?
And I would like to set up similar sticky posts with 5 key documents and key links for these two forum sub-categories:
  • Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture
  • Safety of reuse aspects, legislation, guidelines, policies

(See which sticky posts I've already set up here:
Could you help me with those? I only want the Top 5 (for newcomers), not a list of 20 or more.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 29 Jan 2016 09:07:26 +0000