SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 12 Feb 2016 09:44:54 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Key documents for the sub-category on greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse and irrigation - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation".

The selection of documents is based on my searches in the SuSanA library and looking through previous forum threads.
I am open to feedback if others think that another document should be selected here.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation", in reverse chronological order:

WHO (2016). Sanitation safety planning. Manual for safe use and disposal of wastewater, greywater and excreta. World Health Organiziation (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

Sanitation Safety Planning is a tool to help sanitation system operators maximise health benefits and minimise health risk of their system. It guides operators to prioritize and target risk management efforts to where it will have the most impact and to improve over time. The outputs can be used to provide assurance to the public and authorities of the system performance based on sound risk based management.

This document is based on the WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater from 2006, which consists of four volumes; the two most relevant volumes for this sticky post are:
Volume II: Wastewater Use in Agriculture,
Volume IV: Excreta and greywater use in agriculture,

HLPE, 2015. Water for food security and nutrition. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome, Italy

This report explores the relations between water and food security and nutrition, from household level to global level. It investigates these multiple linkages, in a context of competing demands, rising scarcities, and climate change. I t explores ways for improved water management in agriculture and food systems, as well as ways for improved governance of water, for better food security and nutrition for all, now and in the future.

Huhn, L. (2015). Greywater Treatment in Sand and Gravel Filters - Low Tech Solution for Sustainable Wastewater Management - Manual for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance. Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF)

This manual provides the background of greywater characteristics and gives guidance how to construct and operate a low-tech sand filter for onsite greywater treatment. It describes all aspects to be considered in the process of planning, construction and maintenance of greywater filters on the household level in rural areas. This manual is made for practitioners, technicians and interested households who want to design, construct and operate a low-tech greywater filter.

Drechsel, P., Scott, C. A., Raschid-Sally, L., Redwood, M., Bahri, A. (eds.) (2010). Wastewater Irrigation and Health - Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries. International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Earthscan, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), ISBN 978-1-84407-795-3

This book is written for practitioners, researchers and graduate students in environmental and public health, sanitary and agricultural engineering, and wastewater irrigation management in developing countries. It helps to assess and mitigate health risks from the use of wastewater and faecal sludge in agriculture, under conditions where wastewater treatment is absent or inadequate to safeguard public health.

Morel, A. and Diener, S. (2006). Greywater management in low and middle-income countries, review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. Sandec Report No. 14/06. Sandec (Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries) at Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), Dübendorf, Switzerland

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. In urban areas of LMIC, greywater is commonly discharged untreated into drainage channels, use untreated greywater for agricultural purposes, thereby leading to environmental degradation and exposing the population to health risks. Though greywater is generally less polluted than domestic or industrial wastewater, it may still contain high levels of pathogenic microorganisms, suspended solids and substances such as oil, fat, soaps, detergents, and other household chemicals.

Actually I am a bit undecided. Perhaps this one should replace the one that I have currently selected as Number 3?

Alternative for (3)
EPHC, NRMMC, AHMC (2006). Australian guidelines for water recycling: managing health and environmental risks (Phase 1). Environment Protection and Heritage Council, Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Australian Health Ministers Conference

Pressure on freshwater supplies is increasing in many cities and regional areas of Australia, due to widespread drought and movement of population to large centres near capital cities. Several reports have suggested to use water more efficiently; for example, by reusing water that has traditionally been seen as wastewater. In response to this situation, the Environment Protection and Heritage Council and the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council developed these national guidelines on water recycling. An important feature of these guidelines is that they use a risk management framework, rather than simply relying on post-treatment testing as the basis for managing recycled water schemes.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here:

Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time, too. It's a broad topic and therefore not easy to pick out the most important documents and links for newcomers.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 12 Feb 2016 04:18:55 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India - by: secretariat
4 of the 5 NaWaTech case studies are now available in the SuSanA Library.

Find them here:

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Dayanand Park, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse at the Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Wastewater Reuse in an Urban College Hostel, Pune, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Indradhanushya Center, Pune, Maharashtra, India (NaWaTech)

Jasmin (on behalf of the SuSanA secretariat)]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:09:40 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India - by: Katie
The NaWaTech consortium is pleased to inform you a new date and location for the International Conference on Innovations in Sustainable Water and wastewater Treatment Systems (ISWATS) has been fixed. The conference will take place on April 21st – 23rd, 2016 in Pune (at the Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration YASHADA).

The conference will include presentations of findings from all four projects supported under the framework of the India – European Union Science & Technology Cooperation in water technology and management by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and the European Commission (i.e. NaWaTech, SARASWATI, SWINGS, and Eco India).

The strategic objectives of the conference are to exchange knowledge, technologies, guidelines and tools for implementation and operation among academia and public authorities, skilled service providers and SMEs, enabling research partnerships and creating favourable environments for the application of treatment systems and technologies for sustainable water / wastewater treatment, reuse and recycle.

Please find more information in attached brochure and at Interested participants may submit their abstracts for oral and/or poster presentation on any of the conference themes (abstract submission deadline: February 29th, 2016).

Kind regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:53:16 +0000
Re: Optimising compost and irrigation with wastewater to meet crop nutritional requirements - PhD thesis in Soil Chemistry at Cranfield University, UK - by: joeturner]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 05 Feb 2016 16:54:23 +0000
Re: Optimising compost and irrigation with wastewater to meet crop nutritional requirements - PhD thesis in Soil Chemistry at Cranfield University, UK - by: muench
I came across your post from three years ago. I am wondering if you could please also make the whole PhD thesis ('Optimising compost and irrigation with wastewater to meet crop nutritional requirements') available, not just the abstract? We could also put it in the SuSanA library if you agree.

Also, have you continued down this path since then, did you find research partners and continue down the path of this research?

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 05 Feb 2016 07:24:20 +0000
Re: Turning Sewage into Clean Water – “Toilet-to-Tap” - by: YoviToni The practices are only limited in Jakarta, where the regulation is tighter, the limitation groundwater extraction and the cost of treating sewage is cheaper than water price from city utility. However, although the quality is superior, public still negatively perceived so the use limited for secondary purposes: toilet flushing, landscape watering, and machine cooling. They are about 15-40% of total water in a building.
I see that in the near future, the membrane technology will go cheaper thanks to the advance in China manufacturers. Now in Jakarta, the RO cost for further treating the STP effluent is $0.7 per m3, in Jakarta water price for commercial purposes is $1, while for household only $0.4.
The primary condition for membrane recycling is the reliability of sewage treatment facility. Without that the membrane will disrupt prematurely and the recycling cost not financially feasible.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Sun, 31 Jan 2016 05:00:37 +0000
Re: CDD Nexus project - linking sanitation to agriculture - by: muench
Thanks for introducing your Nexus project ("Nexus - Food production and settlement hygiene in poor peri-urban regions in India") here. You have a nice website ( I couldn't find though:
  • What is the project's time period?
  • Who is funding it, and how large is the budget?

With that knowledge, we could also include it in the SuSanA project database:

And I see you've done extensive literature reviews. Therefore, you should be in a good position to help with identifying 5 key documents for the sticky posts in the sub-categories on reuse? E.g. did you see this one:

Any comments in that thread?
And I would like to set up similar sticky posts with 5 key documents and key links for these two forum sub-categories:
  • Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture
  • Safety of reuse aspects, legislation, guidelines, policies

(See which sticky posts I've already set up here:
Could you help me with those? I only want the Top 5 (for newcomers), not a list of 20 or more.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 29 Jan 2016 09:07:26 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India - by: Katie
I am happy to announce that a special issue of the Sustainable Sanitation Practice Journal(ISSN 2308-5797) on the NaWaTech project has been published (issue 25, see pdf-file).

The 14 papers presented in this issue are:
  1. Meinhold, K.; Labhasetwar, P. K. (2016): Introduction to the NaWaTech Project. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 5-11.
  2. Pophali, G.R.; Sahu, N.; Khilnani, A.; Kaur, H.; Yadav, S.; Labhasetwar, P.K.; Bresciani, R.; Masi, F.; Meinhold, K. (2016): Domestic Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 12-16.
  3. Masi, F.; Bresciani, R.; Winkelmeier, P.; Pophali, G.R.; Khilnani, A.; Sahu, N.; Kaur, H.; Labhasetwar, P.K.; Yadav, S.; Nagarnaik, P. (2016): Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Irrigation in an Urban Park: the Dayanand Park Treatment Wetland System in Nagpur. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 17-20.
  4. Patil, S.; Edathoot, A.; Patwardhan, N.; Bresciani, R.; Panse, D.; Masi, F. (2016): Natural and Cost Effective Way of Treating Domestic Wastewater with Reuse in Non-Potable Purposes: The College of Engineering Pune (COEP) Hostel Campus Case Study. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 21-27.
  5. Masi, F.; Rizzo, A.; Bresciani, R.; Edathoot, A.; Patwardhan, N.; Panse, D. (2016): Greywater Treatment and Reuse in a Municipal Office in Pune by Vertical Gardens. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 28-33.
  6. Zapata, P.; Bribián, J.L.; Caballero, A.; Lorenzo, A. (2016): Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Amanora Park Town, Pune. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 34-41.
  7. Joshi, S.; Patil, P. (2016): Treatment of Contaminated Ambil Stream Water and Reuse in Indradhanushya Environment Education and Citizenship Centre, Pune. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 42-47.
  8. Winkelmeier, P.; Kretschmer, M.; Tauscher, A. (2016): Landscape Architecture and Wastewater Management in the Indian Context. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 48-51.
  9. Nicolics, S.; Langergraber, G. (2016): Safety and O&M Planning. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 42-59.
  10. Ávila, C.; Pelissari, C.; Sezerino, P.H.; García, J.; Garfí, M. (2016): Nature-Based Solutions for Wastewater Treatment in Peri-Urban Areas of India: Pilot-Scale Experiments. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 60-66.
  11. Barreto Dillon, L. (2016): Understanding the Market Opportunities of New Indian Based SMEs in the Wastewater Sector. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 67-75.
  12. Barreto Dillon, L. (2016): Supporting NaWaTech Entrepreneurs and SMEs Tapping the Indian Wastewater Market. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 76-83.
  13. Kale, S.; Nagarnaik, P. (2016): NaWaTech Community of Practice (CoP). Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 84-90.
  14. Meinhold, K.; Labhasetwar, P. K. (2016): NaWaTech: Summary and Outlook. Sustainable Sanitation Practice 25, 91-95.

It will also be available shortly from the journal website (

With best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Mon, 25 Jan 2016 09:21:10 +0000
Re: Turning Sewage into Clean Water – “Toilet-to-Tap” - by: SusannahClemence Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 20 Jan 2016 23:02:37 +0000 Turning Sewage into Clean Water – “Toilet-to-Tap” - by: F H Mughal Turning Sewage into Clean Water – “Toilet-to-Tap”

Treated or untreated wastewater is, quite often, discharged into the receiving streams in most developing countries. These receiving streams then become the raw water sources for the downstream water treatment plants.

Most of the towns in the Sindh province, Pakistan, discharge their untreated wastewater in Indus River. At the downstream reaches, the Indus River becomes the raw water source for the city of Hyderabad, and through a canal, the Indus River water is used for Karachi water treatment plants.

In other words, it is known that wastewater become drinking water, through water treatment, and unknowingly, people drink the water. But, if there is a packaged water treatment plant that convert wastewater into drinking water, psychologically, nobody would drink it.

As indicated in the Bloomberg feature (, sewage at Orange County Sanitation District facility gets converted into drinking water, through reverse osmosis (RO) system.

RO systems are used for converting saline waters into drinking waters, but for a poor developing country, the operation and maintenance costs are high. The membranes are also to be changed at regular intervals.

The feature also informs that, in drought-hit areas, there will be increasing use of treated wastewater. It says: “Recycled wastewater will probably be the single largest source of water for California over the next quarter century,” says Tim Quinn, executive director of the Association of California Water Agencies. “And it isn’t just happening here—the same goes for many water-strapped regions of the world.” San Diego recently announced plans to produce 33 percent of its water from recycled sewage by 2035, up from none today, and is designing a toilet-to-tap facility even bigger than Orange County’s.”

F H Mughal]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:40:59 +0000
CDD Society India: Nexus project - linking sanitation to agriculture (Food production and settlement hygiene in poor peri-urban regions in India) - by: Susanne
I hereby would like to present the Nexus project, which is implemented by Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination (CDD) Society in Bangalore, India.

Nexus – Food Production and Settlement Hygiene in Poor Peri-Urban Regions in India - creates the missing link between safe sanitation and food production, reusing the products from various sanitation systems. The goal is to implement a demonstration project for further dissemination and capacity building on practical and safe nutrient recycling.

Please visit our website:

I am happy to share our experience and the upcoming questions with you, as we proceed!

Best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Thu, 24 Dec 2015 12:58:53 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India (+ 5 case studies) - by: dorothee.spuhler
For your info: the URL is NaWaKit (there was a dot included in the one in your post - I corrected it now).
Cheers, Dorothee]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 23 Dec 2015 09:15:20 +0000
Re: Different urban scenarios for Wastewater Treatment and Recycling - NaWaTech project in Pune and Nagpur, India (+ 5 case studies) - by: Katie
in the attachments below you can find more information about all the case study implementation sites within the NaWaTech project (documents are in draft version, final versions will be available soon). At six locations in Nagpur and Pune, in the Indian state of Maharashtra, different combinations of natural and compact technical wastewater treatment technologies were combined in a modular fashion to better be able to cope with water shortages in urbanized areas in India.

Furthermore, our NaWaKit has gone online at The NaWaKit is a knowledge platform for water practitioners in India, containing all the key results and information of the project. It has been designed to provide the needed technical and business strategy tools to support water practitioners (such as local SMEs, service providers, entrepreneurs and consultants working in the water and sanitation sector in India) when conceiving, launching and growing a new venture in the water and wastewater sector as well as to guide them during the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of decentralised water and wastewater treatment systems in urban India.

The NaWaTech team hopes you will find this information useful!

Best wishes,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Mon, 21 Dec 2015 09:40:25 +0000
Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: clint
Thank you for including me in your message and information.

From what you are explaining I ASSUME that your toilets are plumbed with all of the remaining greywater plumbing.

If that is the case and you are then aerobically trying to get the toilet resources out of the greywater, my question is why do you not consider separating the toilets and setting multiple composters to do the real aerobic work and get 90% of your pollution issues out of the water immediately and reduce your need for water flushing by at least 50- 90%?

I think it is admirable that you are trying to recycle the blackwater for non-potable purposes but if you utilize separation of the blackwater and greywater a whole new world of opportunity exists.

From my experience, (45 years of hands on inventing and testing) you will never achieve sustainability by comingling the blackwater and greywater. Mother Nature works 24 hours a day with no energy required. Mother Nature did not teach the animals to back up to a stream and defecate but uses the animal excrement to support life for future generations instead of considering it a WASTE.

Even though the BMGF termed their challenge as "Reinventing the Toilet", I believe that the toilet is not the problem, it is our lack of knowledge about the simplicity of composting. An example is one of the Alliance pictures showing a person depositing lime and/or ashes on top of a feces pit. If everyone just placed a handful of a carbon source (pine bedding, leaves etc.) onto the pile after each use the pit and/or outhouse would compost naturally with absolutely no odor because is is now porous and allows oxygen to flow naturally, making it aerobic.

Now the greywater is relatively easy aerobically, but we only utilize an 80 watt linear air compressor 24/7 making the extended aeration system very energy efficient with very good results.

The initial assumption was that recycling greywater into drinking water would be difficult and it was because of the bacteria in the greywater.

We initially utilized filtration, UV, ultra-filters and RO and had fairly good results but when we changed to ozone everything else changed dramatically. We no longer needed the ultra-filters and the RO has lasted much longer. Handling the ozone was the challenge but was overcome with containment and an ozone destruct.

The real discovery was that once you get the minerals and all of the nasty stuff out of the aerobically and RO treated and recycled greywater all you have in the new recycled greywater coming into the greywater system from the sinks and showers, kitchen and laundry is soap and organics. NO MINERALS or any other hard to filter stuff from unknown incoming new water.

Therefore, first and foremost, do not reinvent the toilet, reinvent the plumbing system and educate humanity on resource development instead of resource destruction.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 11 Dec 2015 13:28:22 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: YoviToni Thank you for your kind and meaningful discussion.

Mr. canaday,
I assume recycling practices for watering the landscape has been practiced since 1990s, maybe 1980s, where I see the recycled facility in old building which having large landscape.
After 2000, it become more widely since the rapid growth of membrane technology which is more affordable.

The psychological is still the biggest barrier, so it is the reason that the purpose of recycling is for secondary usage, as I mentioned before, for cooling water, landscape/garden, and toilet flushing. Not for drinking, cooking, bathing and washing and even anal cleansing. The building has dual plumbing in toilet to separate the water for flushing and for anal cleansing. For flushing use recycled water and for anal cleansing as well as urinoir use public water supply. It seems that all building have dual plumbing system in the toilet since its construction, mainly building constructed after year 2000; so far, I found only 1 building has no dual plumbing (built 1990s) for instance.

Aerobic system, which is designed, constructed and operated properly, is the most reliable system in building setting, where the space is limited but the highest quality of effluent is a mandatory. Altough the system is energy-intensive (the most disadvantage), but it is stable for longer time without any major disruption.

For closing loop system as you are confident with, I am doubtful. Learning from practices in Jakarta –I am quite sure the maximum recycling between 60-70% where it is still affordably feasible. Since there is no study on this, I predict the cost rising in a logarithmic scale, where beyond its optimal level the cost rising much more higher in the same volume of recovered water than under the level. Even in my experince, I still not knowing where the optimum point lies. The experiences teach me that the lower recycling percentage, we just like separate the solid out from the water, but in higher level it is like extracting water out from the solid.

A case to think about. In 2005, when new regulation from Jakarta EPA was released, where NH3 (ammoniac) was put to the mandatory effluent standard of from STP, so many facilities failed to comply and led to totally overhauled, or at least major modification. The lesson is to reduce NH3 from 60-80 ppm to 20 ppm is much easier, it's bussines as ussual, but when the standard down to 10 ppm, old facility to be overhauled.

But science is growing, everything is possible for future. As practitioner in the field, we do what is possible for our actual situation by leveraging all kinds of best available technology, experiences, policy, social perception, trends…. May be by taking into account all kinds of recovery: nutrients, energy, water in one process then the system is feasible.

Yovianus Toni]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 11 Dec 2015 05:39:41 +0000