SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 28 Oct 2016 10:17:40 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Greywater Reuse for Irrigation Purposes - by: clint
Having worked with aerobic treatment of greywater for over 45 years I would recommend that you utilize at least a three chambered septic type tank or three separate tanks connected in series.

With minimal energy the first two chambers and/or tanks are aerated to immediately provide oxygen to the "Good" Guys, the aerobic ones!

By installing plumbing T's, in our case 2", at each interior effluent port, the fats and grease that floats remains in the tank to be eaten up by the "Good" Guys, and the heavy stuff settles to the bottom for easy removal with a bottom discharge for maintenance, in our tanks, or pipe installed to suck those settleable solids out to be further composted in a separate composting system for total resource recovery.

Google AlasCan and Equaris Corporation and you will find drawings of our greywater patented technologies if you wish to utilize a system that has proven its performance under Arctic and Caribbean conditions.

If you really want to get into it, think about ozone and reverse osmosis and total reuse of the greywater to drinking water qualities and then utilize the RO concentrate to irrigate and/or flush water consuming toilets.

El Hombre de La Lluvia

A basic septic tank works or even on a residential level three plastic 30 gallon or larger tanks connected in series.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Sun, 02 Oct 2016 13:27:19 +0000
Re: Greywater Reuse for Irrigation Purposes - by: canaday
This is an important issue, but we need to know more about the situation. What country is it? What is the climate? What crops are being grown?

At first glance, it seems the greywater could first pass through an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) to separate solids, grease, and maybe even biogas. Next, if food crops that are eaten raw are to be irrigated, I would put the greywater through some sort of Vegetated Sand Filter (= Constructed Wetland, Phytoremediation) to control the pathogens and produce fodder for animals and potentially other useful products.

Please post more information on the case in question.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Thu, 29 Sep 2016 13:01:41 +0000
Greywater Reuse for Irrigation Purposes - by: MarinaAndj
In our ​project area, ​we are ​generating 35 ​MLD greywater ​daily. ​

What is the ​best technology ​available to ​treat greywater ​and reuse for ​irrigation ​purposes? ​

I would like ​to know the ​feasibility of ​these ​technologies, ​as well as ​economical ​details.
Please share ​your case experiences and ​treatment ​details. ​

Thank you!

Originally posted on The Water Network:]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 28 Sep 2016 14:07:57 +0000
Re: California is considering Toilet-to-Tap and we can comment on the process - by: canaday
Here are my comments on the draft document entitled,

(Also attached here below.)

In summary, I would say that are a number of things to improve. In particular, there seems to be no reliable way to eliminate or monitor the chemical pollution which would be present in the sewage that they want to recycle back to people's faucets. They also did not discuss these chemicals in much depth, lumping them under the category of 'Constituents of Emerging Concern (CECs)'. These would include pharmaceuticals, recreational drugs, cleaning products, disinfectants, and disinfection by-products.

With the current drought, California is facing serious water shortages. Hopefully we can help them find more sustainable and healthful solutions than Toilet-to-Tap. It would be excellent for economic incentives to be put in place to encourage individuals, apartment complexes, communities and municipalities to install UDDTs, Closed-loop Flushwater Recycling, and other sustainable technologies.

Are there any Forum members based at universities in California? It would be spectacular to demonstrate, research, fine-tune, and spread the word about these technologies there.

There is still time to comment on this draft.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Mon, 26 Sep 2016 23:03:45 +0000
Re: California is considering Toilet-to-Tap and we can comment on the process - by: canaday
Feel free to post your comments here in addition to mailing them to the California State Water Resources Board.

As you have seen before, I promote a safer kind of water recycling:
Closed-loop Flushwater Recycling

Who wants to be first? I would be glad to help.

Best wishes,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 16 Sep 2016 02:13:42 +0000
California is considering Toilet-to-Tap and we can comment on the process - by: canaday
I saw on the internet that California is considering Direct Potable Reuse (= Toilet-to-Tap), which should turn on various warning lights.

There is a 43-page draft that we can comment on, if we move fast:

I invite anyone who is interested to participate.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Tue, 13 Sep 2016 02:42:34 +0000
Re: Lack of knowledge about wastewater. And where did the quotation come from that 90% of the world’s wastewater goes untreated? - by: mwaniki
It’s impossible to measure the amount of untreated wastewater due to many sources that it comes from. From industrial waste to human excreta, rainfall runoff from roads, storm drains, domestic washing water, etc etc

Again as far back as 2009, the UN University was quoted as having reported that “out of 181 countries studied only 55 have information on three key aspects of wastewater: generation, treatment, and reuse. Another 69 countries have data on one or two aspects, 57 countries show no information on any aspect”

It’s also not possible to track amount of wastewater in agricultural reuse due to the rising trend in many countries.

The bottomline is that the world lacks data on wastewater for complete and reliable facts and figures.

Regards / Mwaniki]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Sun, 14 Aug 2016 23:06:06 +0000
Re: Lack of knowledge about wastewater. And where did the quotation come from that 90% of the world’s wastewater goes untreated? - by: arno
National donor agencies very often fund UN agencies with core funds without requiring rigorous proposals nor do they request accountability reports as to how the funds have been used. This will unfortunately breed this sort of sloppy research and reporting that may misrepresent sincere efforts being made around the world by local stakeholders.

The 90% untreated wastewater superlative is probably just the top of the iceberg.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 12 Aug 2016 19:20:15 +0000
Re: Lack of knowledge about wastewater. And where did the quotation come from that 90% of the world’s wastewater goes untreated? - by: muench
Thanks for pointing this out! I must admit that I've also quoted this statement in the past (I mean this one: "Right now more than 90% of the world's wastewater is discharged untreated into oceans, rivers or wherever else it can go") - I will now think twice before quoting it!

You find the statement also here in the Wikipedia article on sewage, together with the source as that UN report that you also mentioned:

Proper collection and safe, nuisance-free disposal of the liquid wastes of a community are legally recognized as a necessity in an urbanized, industrialized society.[1] The reality is, however, that most wastewater produced globally remains untreated causing widespread water pollution, especially in low-income countries: A global estimate by UNDP and UN-Habitat is that 90% of all wastewater generated is released into the environment untreated.[2] In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only.

Should we change this statement on Wikipedia?

Making such a global estimate must be very difficult anyhow...

By the way, I once tried to find the original source for this often quoted figure:
50% of hospital beds in developing countries are taken up by patients suffering from water-borne diseases due to lack of WASH.

There is no original source for this either, everyone just copied from everyone else, so please don't use it! Speaking to doctors about this figure, they also told me that it would be impossible to estimate this figure and that it's highly unlikely to be anywhere near that.

So just a word of caution about these "popular figures".

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 12 Aug 2016 12:22:32 +0000
Activities in Nexus project: co-composting, wastewater irrigation from DEWATS, BSFL, evaluation of soil contamination, vortex, ecological hygiene... - by: Susanne
I'm sending you an update on activities in the Nexus project at CDD Society Bangalore as we are...

...obtaining our second harvest of vegetables grown with wastewater from a DEWATS plant in Beedi Workers Colony, Bangalore

...analyzing the treatment efficiency of a vortex with regard to reuse

...starting the operation of a co-composting plant in Devanahalli (on the outskirts of Bangalore, Karnataka) for the treatment of faecal sludge through thermophilic composting

...evaluating farmers practices of using untreated faecal sludge, e.g. making use of local plants with antimicrobial properties

...exploring the option of using black soldier flies for the conversion of faecal sludge and biowaste into protein

...dealing with a potentially contaminated site for agricultural use where municipal solid waste was deposited

...creating a dialogue between farmers, sanitation and medical professionals

- among many other activities.

The project provides good learning for us and we would be happy to enter into discussion on the topics above, share our experiences and listen to yours.

Please find our newsletters under the following links or on our website

Best regards from CDD Society Bangalore

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 10 Aug 2016 06:29:01 +0000
Lack of knowledge about wastewater. And where did the quotation come from that 90% of the world’s wastewater goes untreated? - by: arno .

Quoted by the heads of UNEP and UNHabitat in the 2010 publication “SickWater” “An estimated 90 per cent of all wastewater in developing countries is discharged untreated directly into rivers, lakes or the oceans.” (Corcoran et al 2010).

Quoted in UN Water reports:
“An estimated 90 per cent of all wastewater in developing countries is discharged untreated directly into rivers, lakes or the oceans” (UN Water, 2008).

And UNESCO has quoted other similar data:
“It is estimated that 70% of industrial discharges in developing countries is dumped untreated”(UNESCO, 2009).

After several hours of searching for the published source I came to a dead end. The earliest source of this quote is an unreferenced 2-page factsheet written for the UN Int’l Year of Freshwater from 2003 containing a bullet point as follows:
About 90 per cent of sewage and 70 per cent of industrial wastes in developing countries are discharged without treatment, often polluting the usable water supply. From

The point to make here is that the knowledge base for this sector especially when it comes to data on wastewater treatment is far from well established. And much greater efforts are required to provide a clearer view of what the status is of wastewater treatment all around the world. Take a look at the UN database Aquastat dealing with municipal wastewater (and operated by FAO with input from CGIAR-IWMI because reuse of wastewater is so widespread in the world)

Global water quality monitoring is not the answer (especially now that UN GEMS/Water was dismantled in 2014). Sanitation may no longer be a top priority for the UN Secretary General since UNSGAB was terminated in 2015
The sector has benefitted from several studies initiated by UNEP but more is necessary.

There’s a major challenge lurking behind the messages from the UN. On the one hand there are statements that most of the developing world’s wastewater goes untreated (whatever that actually means in technical terms). And on the other hand there is a rudimentary database set up by FAO because of the growing need to reuse wastewater to irrigate crops for urban consumption. And as the world goes more and more urban (60% by 2030) this question will become more and more apparent. How then to narrow this gap and make wastewater reuse safer? Sustainable wastewater practices will become a central focus for many decades to come.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 10 Jun 2016 22:21:59 +0000
Nexus reuse project - what is it about? - by: Susanne Project Nexus

Food Production and Settlement Hygiene in Poor Peri-Urban Regions in India

The three-year-project Nexus started in January 2015 with the overall objectives to:

1. Improve health through reduction in undernourishment and safe sanitation
2. Reduce environmental degradation and protect natural resources
3. Improve living conditions for poor peri-urban communities

The project promotes of safe reuse practices of sanitation products in agriculture.

Key component is the establishment of practical demonstration projects that show various ways of safely reusing sanitation products, from treated as well as untreated water and faecal sludge up to urine and dried faeces from UDDT. This process is supported by a knowledge base, created through an extensive literature review, interdisciplinary expert consultation meetings, guest lectures and trainings on topics related to sanitation, health, nutrition, agriculture, policy and community mobilization.

The demonstration projects are to be established under four main concepts:

DEWATS (Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems)
Intervention for enhancing nourishment among children and women in peri-urban communities.

Faecal Sludge Treatment
Intervention for Settlement Hygiene and reuse of treated and co-composted sludge in agriculture

UDDT (Urine Diverting Dry Toilets/”EcoSan”)
Intervention for reuse of EcoSan products in agriculture

Risk Mitigation measures
Intervention in reuse of untreated wastewater in food production

For details on our activities accomplished in 2015, please visit:

Monthly newsletters are up on our webpage (to be found in the bottom of the page):

DEWATS for reuse in Beedi Workers Colony, Kengeri, Bangalore

Within walking distance from CDD Society’s headquarters, a DEWATS now provides irrigation water for 400 square meters of land where vegetables are grown in a peri-urban community. In coordination with the local people’s association and its leader, the infrastructure for agricultural production was created, such as pipelines, storage capacity and a polishing pond to ensure a pathogen die-off prior to irrigation.

The site was designed to answer open questions. One of them is the required retention time for the treated water in the polishing pond under South-Indian conditions to ensure a sufficient pathogen die-off. Another question is about the optimisation of the nutrient content in the water while assuring a reliable hygienization and dealing with limited space for UV-treatment in the pond.

With the CDD’s project partner St. Johns Medical College, the project team was trained on nutrition assessment among children from 0-5 yrs and 6-14 yrs to evaluate the need for food supplements. Furthermore a household survey on nutrition and sanitation has been conducted by students from NIMS College Bangalore.

EcoSan: Reuse of urine and humanure in Tamil Nadu

CDD’s partner organisation EcoPro in Auroville implements UDDT products in. The objective is to ensure the reuse of EcoSan by-products in Tindivanam-Botheri and Kalrayan Hills as an incentive to use UDDT. The potential of these products are is demonstrated against the use of chemical fertilisers.

Challenges faced till now

a.monitoring and assessing linkages between sanitation, health and nutrition
b.low awareness among public about the topic
a.grey areas in policy and regulations on reuse literature focusing on Indian scenario
c.little research on long term impacts of reuse
3. Planning & Implementation
a.limitations of laboratories that test waste water, sludge, crops
b.operational hurdles in communities and local leaders and institutions due
to low knowledge and therefore interest

For more information, please get in touch under This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 15 Apr 2016 12:51:58 +0000
CDD Nexus project - linking sanitation to agriculture - Newsletter February 2016 - by: Susanne
next to planning in the project, we are optimizing the polishing pond in one of our demo projects towards aquaculture as complementary use.
Furthermore we organized a training on the practical application of the WHO Safety Sanitation Planning manual held by Biome Solutions from Bangalore.

For more information get in touch with us and visit:

Best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Thu, 07 Apr 2016 07:48:26 +0000
Re: CuveWaters: Sanitation & Water Reuse in Namibia - by: milli
Additionally, I want to point out the CuveWaters report with the results of the research project. It was published in December 2015 as the project ended and can be found here:

Further publications can be found at the CuveWaters project website:

Best regards,
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Thu, 24 Mar 2016 13:23:35 +0000
Re: CuveWaters: Sanitation & Water Reuse in Namibia - by: clint
I want to compliment you on your method of financing with the pre-paid cards. Money up front! Great idea!!

We also share the same philosophy in making our technologies available via a leasing agreement and the compensation being derived on how much water the client utilizes. This includes our technology's ability to totally recycle the greywater into drinking quality water with continuous reuse instead of just once or twice.

We also compost the blackwater resources and utilizing Mother Nature and our vermi-composter we totally transform all of the toilet and kitchen organic scraps into odorless water vapor, carbon dioxide and liquid and fertile soil amendments for agriculture.

Fecal sludge management is best managed by aerobic organisms and redworms in a pre-fabricated, accessible, aerobically designed vessel, in our opinion.

Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:15:11 +0000