A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households
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TOPIC: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households

Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 19 Aug 2014 19:29 #9803

  • Ababu
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  • I am a lecturer from the University of Swaziland. I have interest in research and/or development dealing with water and sanitation and that may address any issue from the spectra of technical, economic, environmental , cultural,social and O&M aspects.
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Dear HA
No the planted filter is supposedly a horizontal flow filter. We control the outlet pipe to regularly lift the water level and lower it to allow alternately water and air into the root zone. I also suspect the root zone might be anaerobic but the plants do grow still as u said. The soil has some manure in it. We are thinking of chlorination for other household uses such as laundry, cleaning, etc. where there is a health risk tat should not be ignored just because it may not be as high as toilet water and not for plantation. From the way it appears, the effluent water after chlorination may achieve a potable quality in terms of aesthetic acceptability and pathogens risk.
Ababu
Ababu Teklemariam Tiruneh (PhD)
Lecturer, Water Resources Engineering and the Environment
Department of Environmental Health Science
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Swaziland
P.O.Box 369, Mbabane H100
Swaziland
Telephone 00-268-782-78-075 (Mobile)

Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 19 Aug 2014 19:42 #9805

  • HAPitot
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OK, thanks for the clarification!
H-A
Hanns-Andre Pitot
Technical advisor water and sanitation
presently in Moroto, Uganda

Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 20 Aug 2014 07:13 #9813

  • fppirco
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Dear Ababu

your design is very interesting but I have sebstain similar questions about its safety do you had any output analysis for example TOC (Total organic Carbon) for washing material use in laundry, bath in both shampoo ,soap, washing powder ,etc) heavy metal ,TOC and BOD , you know there are household material which are not biodegradable and will accumulated in both biological environment (human being ,animal, plants) and even ecosystem and environment such TOC ,Heave metal ,pesticides and addition medicine residual is execrate from Urine or fecal.

your design very interesting and easy practical for rural area.

Regards
Mohammad Mojtabae
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Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 20 Aug 2014 22:34 #9828

  • Ababu
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  • I am a lecturer from the University of Swaziland. I have interest in research and/or development dealing with water and sanitation and that may address any issue from the spectra of technical, economic, environmental , cultural,social and O&M aspects.
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Dear Mohammed:

Thank you for your interest in the grey water dam. Yes quality and characterizing the possible health risk is part of our research concern. We believe the grey water dam set up provides a better barrier against pathogen compared to the vertical grey water tower because the grey water tends to get soaked up in the vertical grey water tower from my experience. We are not including fecal and urine wastes in the dam. We are using grey water. We do not therefore anticipate heavy metals, pesticides, urine products such as endocrine disruptor, hormones, etc as some thing to worry about assuming of course grey water that is being used in the grey water dam comes from the kitchen, baths and washing and some control is exercised although cross contamination is possible. The effect of BOD/TOC is indirect in the sense that bacterial count may increase with availability of organic matter in grey water. However, there are not many documented cases of effects of chemicals on grown plants from grey water application although i do not mean to discount that. How much of these chemicals ends up in the plants is another question because the risk is in eating the plants unlike drinking water and this risk might be low because plants do have barriers. While some control on what should be taken to the dam is necessary and while pretreatment might be considered to improve the water quality going into the grey water dam, we, however, think that our main concern in relation to the grey water dam should be pathogen risk (bacteria, virus, protozoa and helminth) because grey water might contain pathogen although to a lesser degree compared to fecal waste. The grey water dam can be considered as a form of restricted irrigation and the WHO guideline of achieving 3-4 log reduction of E.coli ( 99.9 and 99.99% removal)within the soil in addition to <1 helminh/egg per 100gm of soil with an infection risk of 1 in 1000 might be the appropriate guideline to apply. The most probable risk is in our case direct ingestion of the soil containing pathogens in the course of dealing with harvesting plants and maintenance or contamination of plants by the soil and here proper hygiene also plays a role. There are reports of 2-7 log removal of ecoli by soil depending on how fine the soil is and in this connection we would like to see how the mixture of ash, manure and fine/coarse mixture we used fares in terms of pathogen removal.There is a need to establish the effectiveness of the grey water dam soil as a pathogen barrier.
Ababu Teklemariam Tiruneh (PhD)
Lecturer, Water Resources Engineering and the Environment
Department of Environmental Health Science
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Swaziland
P.O.Box 369, Mbabane H100
Swaziland
Telephone 00-268-782-78-075 (Mobile)
Last Edit: 20 Aug 2014 23:10 by Ababu. Reason: additional points

Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 21 Aug 2014 04:51 #9830

  • fppirco
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Dear Ababu

Thank you so much for your comprehensive explanation , I am very interested in water recycled and reusing on bio remediation and wetland based but I am laboratory technologist as well as I teach material safety data sheet(MSDS) to university students (B.Sc.M.Sc and (Ph.D)
yes you work on grey water ,but today kitchen washing(Dish washing) and laundry washing manufacturers widely use of Enzyme and other strong chemical in their formulation which I wrote in my last mail are not biodegradable I believe for any waste water treatment in addition pathogen bio hazard ,chemical hazards determination must be lunched because their risk are higher(long term) than bacteria pathogen(short term) which I believe they will removed with considering growth log (limitation of nutrients ,competition with aerobic non pathogen bacteria) in water dam and wetland.
and yes the water dam is being to used for irrigations but we face with ecosystem chain ,Plants ,human being and animal so we must be assured of (integrated) total safety in waste water treatment although I am sure dam process reduces chemical hazard but in how extend?
In conclusion I congratulate you for your innovative design which I am very interested in it because of it wide applicable in water scarce region.
Thank you again for your mail.

with best regards
Mohammad
Last Edit: 21 Aug 2014 05:23 by fppirco. Reason: Dictation mistake
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Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 21 Aug 2014 09:08 #9832

  • HAPitot
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Dear Ababu, dear Mohommad,

thanks for your detailed explanations from my side, too, Ababu. I would agree with Mohammad that risks are also coming from the chemicals used in detergents. I think it is essential that these are biodegradable, otherwise they can accumulate in the soil and affect the growth of the plants. I have heard of cases where plants that have been irrigated with water from washing clothes or dishes (I don't quite remember) have died. But then, many people are totally overusing such products and are using much more than what is required. In any case, we should strive that detergents are completely biodegradable (and not just partially as may be the case for many such products), and then teach users about the appropriate dosage.

In fact detergents have been my biggest worry when I have constructed my grey water garden, but it has turned out to be unfounded looking at how healthy the papaya plants are growing. But then, we attempt to minimize the use of detergents and only buy good brands (even though an investigation about biodegradability would be very helpful).

Kind regards, H-A
Hanns-Andre Pitot
Technical advisor water and sanitation
presently in Moroto, Uganda
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Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 21 Aug 2014 09:12 #9833

  • Ababu
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  • I am a lecturer from the University of Swaziland. I have interest in research and/or development dealing with water and sanitation and that may address any issue from the spectra of technical, economic, environmental , cultural,social and O&M aspects.
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Dear Mohammad:

Thank you again for your points. I quite agree with you on the need to look at quality of grey water from broader perspectives in context of grey water reuse because the chemical hazards may also affect the growth of plants.

Best regards
Ababu
Ababu Teklemariam Tiruneh (PhD)
Lecturer, Water Resources Engineering and the Environment
Department of Environmental Health Science
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Swaziland
P.O.Box 369, Mbabane H100
Swaziland
Telephone 00-268-782-78-075 (Mobile)

Re: A grey water dam for the treatment and reuse of grey water for single and multiple households 21 Aug 2014 09:35 #9835

  • Ababu
  • CONTACT
  • I am a lecturer from the University of Swaziland. I have interest in research and/or development dealing with water and sanitation and that may address any issue from the spectra of technical, economic, environmental , cultural,social and O&M aspects.
  • Posts: 14
  • Likes received: 4
  • Karma: 1
Dear HA

Thank you again for the information especially on detergents and on the need for monitoring the use of chemicals in washing. I also agree with your suggestion and with that of Mohammad as well. The problem may also occur at a later stage due to accumulation although apparently for now the plants seem to grow well.
Best regards
Ababu
Ababu Teklemariam Tiruneh (PhD)
Lecturer, Water Resources Engineering and the Environment
Department of Environmental Health Science
Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Swaziland
P.O.Box 369, Mbabane H100
Swaziland
Telephone 00-268-782-78-075 (Mobile)
Last Edit: 21 Aug 2014 09:36 by Ababu.
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