SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Wed, 14 Oct 2015 04:01:52 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Beyond Retirement - Still in my garden laboratory (wells, pumps, toilets, gardening) in Harare, Zimbabwe (by Peter Morgan) - by: morgan
Whilst I am now almost retired, I still continue to tinker about in the back yard with developments which may have some value in the WASH sector. I sent this document (see below) to Elisabeth recently and she thought those who view the susana files may be interest to view this account, although most of the works are related to water. Then water supply, hygiene and sanitation are closely related - or they should be.

So I am sending this account from someone who has been tinkering for over 40 years and beyond.

From the table of content:

1. Simple improved family wells
2. Hand Drilling and the bailer bucket
3. The Blair Pump – new developments
4. The Zimbabwe Bush pump – new developments
5. Rainwater harvesting in the homestead
6. Saving water in the homestead
7. Ring beam gardens – an update
8. Blair VIP. Recent trials

Best wishes
Peter Morgan]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 13 Oct 2015 07:50:18 +0000
“Delaying of Sewerage Projects is Dangerous,” or, is it? - by: F H Mughal “Delaying Sewerage Projects is Dangerous,” or, is it?

During my long association with working in government departments, especially the line departments dealing with water and sanitation, I found that it is fairly common in the office to delay the project, processing of contractors’ bills, and the movement of files.

Delaying a project before it is yet to take off, or during execution significantly impacts the cost of the project. Just the other day, on 8 Oct, a new item in local newspaper, read:

“The cost of the Greater Karachi Sewage Treatment Project, better known as the S-III project, which is funded by the federal and provincial governments, has increased from Rs8 billion to Rs39 billion due to a delay in its completion…”

Imagine a nearly five-fold increase in the cost of project! Sewerage projects, especially when they involve components that are to be procured from other countries, are quite often delayed. In other cases, when there is, say, heavy demand of sewer pipes, the local manufacturing capacity is unable to meet the demand.

However, there are cases, where projects are purposely delayed for person gains. And, in the process, it is the government who suffers (in case of government-funded projects). This is where the common phrase coined, applies: "Delay in Dangerous."

I came across the following (it was probably in some blog), which I want to share – take this in a lighter vein!!

"Sufi legend holds that the venerable Mullah Nasruddin irked the king once too often with his trenchant wit and was condemned to die. “Sir,” he bargained, “if you spare my life for a year, I will teach your horse to fly.” Incredulous but intrigued, the king agreed. Next day, Nasruddin’s friends remonstrated, “You must be nuts—that old nag will never fly.” The sage replied: “A year is a long time. Many things could change. The king could die. I could escape. I could die. The horse could die. And maybe the damned horse will fly.”

Is delay really dangerous??!!

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 11 Oct 2015 17:21:55 +0000
Sanitation and COP21 - by: F H Mughal Sanitation and COP21

According to the COP21 website:

“In 2015, France will be hosting and presiding the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21/CMP11), otherwise known as “Paris 2015” from November 30th to December 11th. COP21 will be a crucial conference, as it needs to achieve a new international agreement on the climate, applicable to all countries, with the aim of keeping global warming below 2°C. France will therefore be playing a leading international role to ensure points of view converge and to facilitate the search for consensus by the United Nations, as well as within the European Union, which has a major role in climate negotiations.”

Perhaps, it might be helpful, if the moderators can make some arrangements to distill the outcomes of the event, as they relate to sanitation and water. How does the COP21 view the impacts of climate change (CC) on sanitation and drinking water quality? Such outcome from the COP21 event would profoundly impact the concerns on sanitation and water, as far as the governments are concerned.

Since Germany is close to France, the moderators may consider assignment someone to cover the sanitation and water-related aspects of the event.

It would also be help, if the moderators collect some publications and make them available on this forum, on the impacts of CC on sanitation and water, and how to adapt to CC, and build resiliency. Such documents, for sure, would be very helpful for people in poor developing countries.

COP21, after all, is a major, major event.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 11 Oct 2015 16:40:32 +0000
Open Defecation Ends in 32 Villages on Gandhi Jayanti - by: F H Mughal Open Defecation Ends in 32 Villages on Gandhi Jayanti

According to The New Indian Express, Gandhi Jayanti witnessed 32 of 743 villages in becoming Open Defecation Free (ODF). A formal announcement in this regard was made at the Grama Sabha meeting, convened on Friday to commemorate Gandhi Jayanti.

According to Wikipedia, Gandhi Jayanti is a national festival celebrated in India to mark the occasion of the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the "Father of the Nation". It is one of the three national holidays of the country. Though the title is not officially declared, as the Constitution of India does not permit a father of nation, it is mostly conferred to him.

According to Dr Manohara Singh, project director of District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), as many as 77 villages had planned to become ODF, but only 32 were able to achieve it.

A total of 11,253 households in these 32 villages have constructed their own toilets using the government funding and have been using it since. “The remaining villages will be declared ODF soon,” he said, adding that this is part of a bigger plan to make Vellore district completely Open Defecation Free in the next three years.

This would indicate that “construction of toilets” end OD. Taken on its face value, this is a great achievement in India.

The news item speaks of some guidelines, as according to the guidelines, the households must have access to toilet facility, hundred per cent usage, fly-proofing of toilet, safe septic tank disposal, hand-washing prior to consuming food, cleaning hands after defecation, availability of soap in or near the toilet. Overall there must be no visible faeces found in the village, proper usage of school toilets, safe confinement of excreta in the toilets, proper use of anganvadi toilets to declare the villages as whole as ODF. These 32 villages have now conformed to these guidelines.

These guidelines seem interesting. Can someone from India kindly make the guidelines available on this forum?

The full news item can be seen at:
(Courtesy: Cor Dietvorst 6 Oct 2015)

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 06 Oct 2015 16:50:15 +0000
Wastewater Treatment Plants in Karachi - by: F H Mughal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Karachi, Pakistan

A news item appeared in today's (20 Sep 2015) newspaper, Dawn ( which speaks volumes of the pathetic scenario of the wastewater treatment plants in Karachi. I'm reproducing the news below:

City’s sewage treatment plants remain shut for ‘rehabilitation’

KARACHI: None of the sewage treatment plants of the Karachi Water Sewerage Board (KWSB) are functioning and there is no sign when the plants, closed for rehabilitation, will resume operation.

Sources told Dawn on Saturday that the city’s two sewage treatment plants located in the Site and Mauripur areas were shut down more than a year ago while the third one in Mehmoodabad had been lying closed since 2008.

The Site and Mauripur plants, the sources said, were closed for maintenance and renovation whereas the Mehmoodabad plant came to a halt after the now defunct city government used its land to resettle people affected by the Preedy Street project.

A recent visit to the Site and Mauripur plants showed that work on their rehabilitation and maintenance was yet to pick up pace.

Some officials told Dawn on condition of anonymity that the government had unnecessarily closed the entire Site plant as it only required replacement of old machines.

“Strangely, the plan includes reconstruction of the main operating room, though there is no need. It only requires replacement of the pumping machines,” said a staff member, adding that the Site and Mauripur plants had been built only to treat domestic sewage through a biological process.

The problem with Karachi, according to him, is that most gutter lines are not connected to the KWSB drainage network and most sewage directly flows into storm drains and from there into the sea.

Therefore, he argued, the government should have fixed this problem before closing the treatment plant for renovation.

“The plant could never run to its full capacity of 51MG per day. It used to receive only about 20MG of liquid waste daily or even less when it was operational,” said another official.

The sources said that a major cause of the degradation of the plant built with German support in 1960 was its so-called upgrade in the 1990s during which the machines of good quality were sold as junk and replaced with substandard equipment. The plant used to generate biogas, too, they said.

Some KWSB officials expressed surprise over the plants’ closure at the same time and said the rehabilitation work should have been carried out in phases without affecting their operation.

Others expressed doubts over credibility of the company which had been awarded the project to rehabilitate the plants and said the company’s selection had been made purely on political grounds.

No KWSB staff was found at the Mauripur plant during the visit to provide details about the plant designed on anaerobic pond system. It was set up in 1998 with a capacity to treat 54MG sewage per day but is lying closed these days.

The plant, the sources said, encountered a number of problems during its operation as it was not suitable for treating urban waste water. Both the Site and Mauripur plants lacked systems to utilise the ‘treated’ water, they said.

KWSB managing director Misbahuddin Farid, who has recently rejoined the board as its head, declined to comment on progress of the plants’ rehabilitation and only said that the project had been awarded.

“I have joined the board only a few days ago and can’t comment on events that happened during my absence,” he said while admitting that the discharge of untreated sewage into the sea was a major issue and should be addressed on a priority basis.

He saw the costly maintenance of the plants as one major reason for their failure.

About the KWSB’s S-III project under which new sewage plants were to be built and old ones rehabilitated, he explained that the Greater Karachi Sewerage Plan (S-III) conceived in 2003 could not be implemented in time because the land required for the scheme was not provided to the board.

“Now, we plan to rehabilitate the two old plants in Site and Mauripur and build a new one in Korangi. The total capacity of these plants will be 500MG per day,” he said.

The Mehmoodabad plant, he said, had been encroached upon and could not resume operation.

According to sources, the project for the sewage treatment plants has been awarded to Pak Oasis, the same company involved in other water related projects of the government especially in Tharparkar and has attracted a lot of criticism.

Project director Imtiaz Magsi was not available for comments.

Dr Mirza Arshad Ali Baig, former director general of the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research currently providing consultancy services on environmental issues, said that it was not just the closure of the plants that should be of concern but the plants’ capacity to effectively treat waste water also required attention.

“Apart from a few private establishments that have treatment plants, domestic and industrial sewage by and large is not being treated at all in Karachi. Our analysis of the water ‘treated’ by KWSB plants had shown that there was no major difference in the levels of contaminants after treatment,” he said.

He was of the opinion that the city should have primary treatment plants at the waste generating points and secondary plants for cleansing the treated water to the extent that it could be utilised for industrial purposes.

Technical adviser on fisheries working with the World Wide Fund for Nature–Pakistan, Mohammad Moazzam Khan, said that high levels of coastal pollution had completely destroyed marine life in the port’s and the city’s backwater areas.

“These channels were once home to diverse marine flora and fauna that helped fishing communities earn a livelihood. But all of it has been destroyed and regretfully there is no possibility of their rehabilitation as the pollution level it too high,” he said, adding that studies had shown that fish caught from the polluted waters was also toxic.

The impact of pollution, he warned, was on the increase and if nothing was done to control discharge of untreated waste from Malir and Lyari rivers into the sea, the situation would get worse by the day.
Published in Dawn, September 20th, 2015

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 20 Sep 2015 07:10:10 +0000
Sandec has a new name - by: F H Mughal Sandec has a new name!

Sandec’s name has changed to the Department of Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development. The new name acknowledges a major area of its research, solid waste, and reflects contemporary development discourse

(From: Paul Donahue Editor/Communication Specialist at Eawag/Sandec)

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 17 Sep 2015 02:54:16 +0000
Re: Two labourers died while emptying septic tank - by: osbert Some people have attributed memory loss and mental disorders to working long time in faecal sludge related environment. Anyone that knows more about this?]]> Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:36:34 +0000 Two labourers died while emptying septic tank - by: pkjha
Two persons died yesterday while emptying a septic tank in Delhi- reports, The Hindu News Paper today. Paper clipping is attached.
Now the big question is - who is real culprit- septic tank owner or septic tank technology or policy / law enforcement agency or deceased themselves or something else.
Household owner or deceased might not be aware about the poisonous gas- Methane inside tank. There was no safety measure while doing such job manually.
Any way, this is a great shame and challenge for the society and Government as well.­die­inside­septic­tank/article7576958.ece?css=print
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 25 Aug 2015 04:35:03 +0000
The "Drinkable Book" - by: F H Mughal The “Drinkable Book”

A book, called “drinkable book,” has been developed that can be torn out to filter drinking water. The book combines treated paper with printed information on how and why water should be filtered. Its pages contain nanoparticles of silver or copper, which kill bacteria in the water as it passes through.

The book was tested at 25 contaminated water sources in South Africa, Ghana and Bangladesh. The paper successfully removed more than 99 per cent of bacteria.

Dr Teri Dankovich, a postdoctoral researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, developed and tested the technology for the book over several years. "It's directed towards communities in developing countries," Dr Dankovich said, noting that 663 million people around the world do not have access to clean drinking water.

All you need to do is tear out a paper, put it in a simple filter holder and pour water into it from rivers, streams, wells etc and out comes clean water - and dead bacteria as well. The bugs absorb silver or copper ions - depending on the nanoparticles used - as they percolate through the page. Ions come off the surface of the nanoparticles, and those are absorbed by the microbes.

More details at:

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 18 Aug 2015 10:45:48 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso Thank you for your response. We know its indeed we have out of the topic of sanitation but discussing camel urine and milk is a very crucial matter we would like share with you some of our observations are the following.
1 Diabetic treatment.
2 HIV//AIDS/ treatment.
2 De worming.
3 body health and stronger if you use seven days.
Sorry to bother you with this topic and it's necessary to share health matters for the benefit of human kind.
By Hassan Isaak

Note by moderator (EvM):
The discussion on such alleged health aspects is outside of the scope of this forum and we would like to close the discussion thread at this point. Further inputs on this topic will not be accepted.
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:22:59 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso
Thanks for your input about the the camel urine and milk.We have noted your concern and we have seen the practical advantages camel urine not the blood, people who have diabetic diseases who normally uses camel urine and milk gets better the level of the sugar reduces drastically. On the other hand it kills the internal worms of the body. also it cures skin problems such as skin fungal is eliminated by the camel dung when it become dry when it you rub it on the skin gently until it produces blood the affected place of the skin. Thus if you use the camel urine and milk for seven days your body become stronger and healthy also it camel urine and milk cures HIV/AIDS this is proven and practical made by the people who keep the camels especially those who permanently uses, we will invite you to visit a camel range see the benefit of camel urine and camel milk then you can research of it.
NB we don't use the camel blood.
By Hassan Isaak
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:05:52 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey (results from PhD thesis of Adam Saffer, UNC Chapel Hill, USA) - by: AdamSaffer Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:24:36 +0000 Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: joeturner
Some scientists say there is a significant risk of catching Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) from consumption of camel urine and blood.

These are some blogs by a virologist on the subject (with lots of academic sources):

see also this very recent paper:]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 09:31:59 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: muench
It's always nice to hear from someone from Somalia on this forum. Hoever, I am not too sure if the topic that you raised is sufficiently closely related to sanitation issues? The common element is urine but otherwise it's not so related.

Anyhow, for all things to do with claimed or real health benefits, I can recommend to you Wikipedia where many people are striving to provide good health information. You can find an article here about "urine therapy":

You can see there that its health benefits are claimed by many people, even e.g. many public figures. I think when you search the internet you will find it is quite common still in many countries.
However, according to the Wikipedia article:
There is no scientific evidence of a therapeutic use for untreated urine.[5][10][13]

Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 09:10:00 +0000
Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso
Please tell us more about camels urine? As i know it has great value to the human body as a medicine and a therapy. So, can we share our knowledge about camel milk and camel urine. Kindly share your views with us.
By Hassan Ali Isaak
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 20 Jun 2015 21:54:24 +0000