SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 29 May 2015 17:57:45 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Collecting Environmental Data is a Crime in Wyoming, USA - by: F H Mughal
Collecting Environmental Data is a Crime in Wyoming, USA

Poorly-managed and poorly-constructed latrines allow the excrement to get into groundwater, and in surface water bodies that supply drinking water. According to UNICEF, one gram of feces can contain 10,000,000 viruses, 1,000,000 bacteria, 1,000 parasite cysts, and 100 parasite eggs.

E.coli is a type of faecal coliform bacterium that is found only in faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Presence of E.coli in water indicates faecal pollution and the possible presence of pathogenic types that often occur in the intestines as well.

Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Presence of E. coli in a water sample is a good indicator of recent faecal contamination.

According to a Canadian publication: “Although the presence of E. coli is a good indicator of recent faecal contamination, such contamination is often intermittent and may not be revealed by the examination of a single sample. Therefore, if a sanitary inspection shows that an untreated supply is subject to faecal contamination, or that treated water is subject to faecal contamination during storage or distribution or is inadequately treated, the water should be considered unsafe, irrespective of the results of E. coli analysis.” [Health Canada (2012). Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document — Escherichia coli. Water, Air and Climate Change Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario].

Who would have thought that E.coli could lead to a drastic action? According to the attached Act, it is now a crime to collect environment data in Wyoming, USA. Background information shows that streams in Wyoming are polluted by E.coli, caused by cattle grazing in the area, and perhaps, the ranchers are influential, and hence this Act.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Fri, 22 May 2015 05:18:00 +0000
Re: Emergency Relief Appeal for Nepal - by: dorothee.spuhler
Just to let you know that we are still happy for any contribution.
The first earthquake has caused many deaths and injuries. But during the days after, optimism and upbeat came up again.
Now, after the second big tremble there exists great despondency. People are afraid that the earth is going to shake again and again and a feeling of powerlessness is spreading.
Kathmandu, where ENPHO is mainly active seems not to be too much affected comparing to the rural areas hardly accessible.
However, camp settlements are building up as people are still too afraid (legitimately) to sleep in their houses and safe drinking water and sanitation will play a major role to prevent larger epidemics.
Even though the relief phase is not likely to end soon and economically, this will be a huge drawback for Nepal, Nepali people are used to affront situations which seem hard to overcome and we are confident that it will soon go upward again. We will keep your donations ready for this moment in order to contribute to the rehabilitation of the water and sanitation situation together with ENPHO.
Please visit for regular update.

Kind regards


Post-Earthquake Assessment at Siddhipur

Source: ENPHO]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 18 May 2015 15:20:57 +0000
Re: Failures in Sanitation - by: ggalli This report prepared by some ex-colleagues might answer some of your questions. I haven't read it myself yet but first thing on the list for tomorrow morning

Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 07 May 2015 16:33:26 +0000
Emergency Relief Appeal for Nepal - by: dorothee.spuhler
On April 25th at midday, Nepal was shaken by an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.8. Over 7’000 people were killed and 14’000 people injured. Nepal’s infrastructure, which was weak before the earthquake, was heavily damaged. In the Nala area east of Kathmandu, for example, more than 90% of the homes are uninhabitable, leaving many people homeless. Also, large parts of the water supply and sanitation infrastructure were damaged or completely destroyed. The lack of safe drinking water and sanitation could lead to the spread of disease and, thereby, adversely affect the already fragile situation even further.

Sandec, the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Eawag has been doing research in Nepal with local partners over many years. Sandec researchers were in the field, when the earthquake struck. Fortunately, none of our local partners, friends or researchers in the field were killed or severely injured.

We would like to help our friends and partners to contribute to disaster relief and rebuild Nepal’s water and sanitation infrastructure.

One of our strongest partners in Nepal is ENPHO (Environment and Public Health Organization). ENPHO was quick to respond and started with hygiene awareness, chlorine production and distribution, and the construction of temporary toilet units. At the same time, ENPHO is coordinating with other local organizations and volunteers to plan the rehabilitation of drinking water supply and sanitation infrastructure (see also . Sandec’s contact person at ENPHO, Mingma Sherpa, who has often worked at Eawag in Dübendorf over the years, will manage the relief efforts in Nepal. We believe they will put our financial support to best use and contribute to rehabilitation and future disaster risk reduction. 100% of the money will go directly to ENPHO.

If you would like to contribute financially to the support of ENPHO, donate either view paypal or creditcard here: or by making a payment to a dedicated Post Finance account:
Account number: 31-938719-8
IBAN: CH43 0900 0000 3193 8719 8
Account holder: Samuel Dario Renggli, Zürich
Purpose of payment: Nepal

We will keep you updated on the ongoing activities and results here: (accessible starting 07. May)

Futher Links below.


Chris Zürbrugg Christoph Lüthi Samuel Renggli Dorothee Spuhler]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 07 May 2015 16:04:33 +0000
Re: Failures in Sanitation - by: F H Mughal
Yes, that paper is interesting. Your point: “for example residents limiting access to others because of worries that other people will make it dirty,” is in fact very important, though on the surface, it may not appear so important.

You may not believe me, but it is fact here, especially in offices, commercial establishments, and public places, that the toilets are locked, so that no one use them, and make them dirty.

Dear Giacomo,

I appreciate your point of sustained efforts and sustainability. Here in Pakistan, the aspect of sustainability is least considered in sanitation. In that context, I consider your point important, and well-taken.

Towards the end, you have made an interesting point: “Nowadays some institutional donors such as the Dutch development funds have a sustainability clause that requires the need to specify how interventions are going to be sustained for 10 years.” Could it be possible for you to share that sustainability clause of Dutch development funds, and other donors with us? It would be useful in local contexts.


F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 07 May 2015 16:01:32 +0000
Re: Failures in Sanitation - by: ggalli Looking at this overview one thing really stands out for me, regardless whether it's a behaviour change or a more technological problem: it seems so painstakingly clear that external-led interventions without sustained effort have a high failure rate after a while. Whether it's resorting to old practices of open defecation (i.e. failure of behaviour change) or unusable latrines due to lack of maintenance (i.e. technology failure) it is obvious that no single intervention will have eternal effects.
What does this mean? Well in my view, if we want to achieve long-lasting change we must accept that sustained efforts will be needed and thus budgeted in the project/programme/policy. Behaviour change will require follow-up messages and maintenance works needs to be scheduled in and budgeted for!
This is hardly anything new. Nowadays some institutional donors such as the Dutch development funds have a sustainability clause that requires the need to specify how interventions are going to be sustained for 10 years. I believe USAID will also be experimenting with this, a move I fully support.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 07 May 2015 11:21:27 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey RESULTS - by: muench It's a great presentation (I think it should also be put in the SuSanA library? I found it here on the website:

However, for my purposes on Wikipedia (i.e. trying to cite independent sources that have said something about SuSanA) I cannot really use it. It starts with the fact that the presentation is using the SuSanA template. And in one of the earlier slide it states:

Therefore, the GIZ sector program “Sustainable Sanitation” which manages the SuSanA
secretariat has commissioned a team of specialists
to support SuSanA in the process of
developing a strategy / Roadmap, in a collaborative manner with input from the core group and
SuSanA key stakeholders. The team of specialists under the direction of seecon, consists of:...

You and I know that seecon did a great job as an independent consultant, but on paper, it is not an independent review as it was commissioned and steered by GIZ... That was my problem.

However, I could cite it in different parts of the Wikipedia article if it contains content that I have not yet included. Is there anything in particular which you think should be pulled from the ppt and be included in the Wikipedia article about SuSanA?

Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 05 May 2015 20:29:19 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey RESULTS - by: dorothee.spuhler
This presentation which we developed in preparation for the roadmap development 2013 to 2018 might be useful:
There is also a (much) longer version that I could share with you upon request.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 05 May 2015 19:01:29 +0000
Re: Failures in Sanitation - by: joeturner
I was just reading this interesting paper looking at Politics and Open Defecation in Mumbai, which seems also to make some important points about the way that provided systems are used.

The Politics of Open Defecation: Informality, Body, and Infrastructure in Mumbai by Renu Desai1, Colin McFarlane, and Stephen Graham

It makes a lot of interesting observations, the one I was thinking about was the way that politics on a small scale impact on the way that provided latrines are used - for example residents limiting access to others because of worries that other people will make it dirty.]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 04 May 2015 19:12:09 +0000
Failures in Sanitation - by: F H Mughal Failures in Sanitation

Improve International has an ongoing compilation of statistics that shows that failure rates in sanitation. The statistics can be seen at:

While the statistics make a disappointing reading, one aspect stands out quite clearly and that is: sanitation failures occur in different geographical locations (Africa, South Asia, etc); and in all compartments of sanitation.

For example, issues related to open defecation are reported in Madagascar, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Cambodia and India. Shocking state of school toilets is reported in South Africa, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Failure of eco-toilets scheme is reported in China. School toilets requiring extensive repairs in reported in Maldives and Pakistan. In Ghana, only 60 per cent of the new latrines are used. In Peru, 85 per cent of the latrines are unusable. And, in India, 50 per cent of the subsidized toilets remain unused, or are being used for purposes other than sanitation. One can very well imagine the health impacts of “defective” sanitation.

The above observations show failures in all compartments of sanitation (failure of sanitation models; open defecation remain despite various interventions; bad workmanship in toilet construction; operation and maintenance of toilets, etc).

It seems like, despite all sanitation promotion and sanitation marketing, the targeted population remain untargeted. On the surface, it appears, the needs of the population are not taken into account, and there seems to be superimposing of sanitation models that, in practice, don’t work in that particular location. Sanitation presents itself to be a hard nut to crack. Failure is reported not only because of the attitude of the people, governments have also its share as well. Politicians, decision-makers and the key government departments (e.g., the local government department) pay little attention to sanitation. This has resulted in poor quality of the sanitation-related infrastructure.

To me, the bottom-line here (as sort of remedial measures, or course-correction) is: take community needs into consideration; take community members on board; create sanitation demand; work on behavioral change; and develop partnerships in sanitation.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 04 May 2015 17:38:25 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey RESULTS - by: muench
Thanks a lot for posting this report about your analysis of SuSanA here. For me this turned out to be a pretty important document, as I was searching for publications that say something about SuSanA, not only publications that come from SuSanA. Why am I interested in such publications? Because they can be used to improve the Wikipedia article about SuSanA where we are meant to use also "independent", third party sources:

(has anyone else got any publications that mention something about SuSanA? I would be interested to know about those)

For this reason, I had asked you (by e-mail) if you could add something from your report to the Wikipedia article which you have done in the meantime, which is great. I have also taken it a little bit further, so now it reads:

A network analysis study conducted in 2014 assessed the SuSanA network by examining the communication channels used and the quality of relationships among partners.[6] It found that "SuSanA partners have strong levels of trust, cooperation and information exchange with one another". However, partners seem to have low diversity of relationships with partners in different economic zones, such as developing countries versus developed countries.[6] Many of the partners use their membership primarily to receive information from the discussion forum.[6]

(Number 6 in square brackets is of course the reference number to your report.)

My questions to you today:
  1. I have picked out some more of your results that I deemed important for the readers of this page. Do you agree with my selection, is it balanced? Or would you like to add further key points?
  2. I have also linked to the Wikipedia page on social network analysis (, is that page fairly good?
  3. What is the title of your PhD thesis? (perhaps its URL can be added at a later stage then; I understand that your "PhD thesis is under copyright embargo by PhD granting university. It will be made publicly available January 2016 when the embargo is lifted.")
  4. Can I also upload this report to the SuSanA library so that it can be more easily found in future? I could provide a link to your page as well, and our page also tracks the views and downloads.
  5. How does Figure 2 and 4 in your report differ to the figure that you have added to the forum post? I am still not clear on that.
  6. In the interviews are you sure that people answered “as partner representatives” instead of “as individual members”? it could be quite difficult to keep the two "hats" separately, for people who wear both.

Kind regards,
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 04 May 2015 11:25:58 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey RESULTS - by: AdamSaffer
I want to sincerely thank those who took the time last summer to complete the network analysis survey. I appreciate the time you gave to complete the survey that was a part of my PhD dissertation. I have now completed my dissertation and prepared a report for the SuSanA Secretariat.

Attached you will find the completed SuSanA Network Analysis Report. The attached report details the findings from the study and provides some recommendations. If you have any questions or would like further clarification/explanation about the study's findings, I am happy to set up a time to talk via Skype or via email. Here are some highlights from the report:

Overall Strength of SuSanA Network
  • SuSanA partners are selective with their relationships to other partners.
  • Partners are selective in the sense that not all partners in SuSanA will have an interest or need to have relationships with others.

Patterns of Relationships
  • Partners have a fair amount of diversity in their relationships with different types of SuSanA partners.
  • Partners have low diversity of relationships with partners in different economic zones. Few relationships exist among partners from different economic zones.

Quality of Relationships
  • SuSanA partners have strong levels of trust, cooperation and information exchange with one another.
  • When SuSanA partners use rich communication channels, the levels of trust, cooperation and information exchange are stronger.

Again, I am grateful for the support you and the SuSanA Secretariat provided for this study. I believe the study provides some valuable insights for organizing the collective knowledge of sustainable sanitation. Should you find these results insightful, I would be happy to discuss additional research opportunities with you and your organization.

Please contact me here:
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Twitter: @Dr_Saffer
Skype: Adam.Saffer
Phone: +1-919-962-3372]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 21 Apr 2015 14:28:11 +0000
Re: Sanitation in Cities (topic in journal Environment and Urbanization) - by: secretariat
you might know it from the newsletter, but the April 2015 issue of Environment and Urbanization on Sanitation and drainage in cities is now available online. It is not open access and the SuSanA secretariat has no arrangements in order to make it available.
However, some of the articles can be accessed for free here (the ones with the grey background are free of charge).

The articles available are:

Best regards,
Lasse (on behalf of the SuSanA secretariat)]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 20 Apr 2015 10:18:14 +0000
Re: Sanitation in Cities (topic in journal Environment and Urbanization) - by: secretariat
thank you for pointing this out to us. The secretariat has currently no such arrangements with IIED. It is said on the website, that

The full text of all issues published (from Vol 1, No 1 in 1989) are on the web and accessible free of charge, except for the four most recent issues.

With two issues per year, the upcoming issue on Sanitation in Cities will be available free of charge by October 2017
However, as a couple of articles from each issue seem to be for free, we will let you know once the new issue is published.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 08 Apr 2015 10:19:46 +0000
Re: Air travel to conferences, site visits, etc. - by: Kobbyus During a discussion on the sideline of the conference, a participant's comment was just similar to this question raised by Kai - that we continue to lament over climate variability forgetting that we (climate advocators)hop from one conference to the other aboard aeroplanes oblivious of our carbon footprints. Not long after, in a chat with another person, he indicated that the Dresden conference was his 3rd successive conference relative to climate change.
Is this an irony of the climate war being pursued? Kai's question is timely because I also began thinking about this after the conference. A food for thought!]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 01 Apr 2015 22:11:35 +0000