SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Tue, 03 May 2016 01:08:54 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Catastrophic and Miserable Water Situation in the Gaza Strip, Occupied Palestine - by: hilmisalem Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 03 Apr 2016 13:41:05 +0000 Re: Problems in Scaling Up of Sanitation Approaches - by: Nikita Miscellaneous - any other topic Fri, 01 Apr 2016 09:38:06 +0000 Re: Problems in Scaling Up of Sanitation Approaches - by: JKMakowka For these kind of behaviour change interventions targeting the poorest part of the population there is a special profession: social workers. These are usually highly trained persons, but good luck finding those even for a few supervising positions in developing countries.
Not only do software interventions usually end up working with more or less randomly skilled staff, it is also not paid well enough to attract motivated persons with some personal interest in what is expected to be done by them.
In the end managers try to compensate with extremely formulaic approaches and some hardware subsidy to attract participants.

If you hit a fertile ground with a certain approach as was the case with CLTS in parts of Bangladesh (and a few other places) so that it works more or less by itself with limited intervention necessary, great!
But usually that isn't the case, and then your great software approach will not scale beyond the pilot due to the HR issues outlined above. And let's not always blame local governments here, who usually have the same issues but even less budget than NGOs trying (and failing) to do similar things.]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 27 Mar 2016 10:39:35 +0000
Problems in Scaling Up of Sanitation Approaches - by: F H Mughal Problems in Scaling-Up of Sanitation Approaches

Generally, the documents and reports that one come across, tend to suggest that the scaling-up of the sanitation programs and approaches is possible. The views of Jan Willem Rosenboom of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation seems to suggest somewhat otherwise, though he has aired a way-out strategy: (

Experience has shown that a major, well-established constraint in developing countries, whether it pertains to scaling-up, or just developing some pioneering projects, is the lack of technical expertise, motivation, lack of accountability, and poor monitoring and evaluation, in the local municipal government departments.

Rosenboom, more or less, do emphasize these points. He has, however, limited his discussion to CLTS (community-led total sanitation). People have different views about CLTS, ranging from: less effective, context-specific, to part of an overall sanitation strategy. Perhaps, Rosenboom, may like to speak in terms of other initiatives and programs like a regional initiative, Sustainable Water and Sanitation in Africa (SUWASA), Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS), and WHO’s Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST) approach.

Having said that, Rosenboom has drawn attention to many interesting points. Some are briefly mentioned here.

Pilot projects never fail, and they never scale: Many would have different views on this.

The following contention does make some sense, and would apply in some projects:

“Intuitively, this makes some sense. For pilot (or demonstration) projects, we select the most responsive communities, with the most supportive leadership. We use the best front line workers we can find, and there is frequent follow up from the (international) organization supporting the pilot. This is a recipe for success.”

Perhaps, most would agree on this statement:

“Making the transition from pilot to scale, however, changes everything. This requires political buy-in first of all, supplemented by — often limited — program funds. Limited budgets, front line workers with less training and experience, less follow-up, average motivation and support: over time, the conditions for success move from “outstanding” to “average,” and so do the results.”

The above point appears to be valid in the context of developing countries. Yes, political-will, especially for sanitation projects, is low; there are limited funds; operation and maintenance allocation is low, and, as I said earlier, the municipal government departments lack technical know-how.

Talking about CLTS, Rosenboom says: The results mentioned above demonstrate this to some degree, and the Learning Series report supports this also: “CLTS was widely perceived as being universally applicable … even though outcomes varied depending on community characteristics. Rather than viewing it as a comprehensive solution … CLTS should be considered as one component of a sanitation strategy.”

“Research from other countries and other organizations shows similar variations based on context, ranging from UNICEF in Mali reporting very positive CLTS outcomes (in terms of access, use and even stunting of children), to IPA in Bangladesh reporting mediocre results from CLTS (or sanitation marketing) alone, but much better results from CLTS combined with a subsidy. Recent research in India shows enduring issues with the use of sanitation facilities, and mixed results in terms of an increase in coverage.”

“Research from other countries and other organizations shows similar variations based on context, ranging from UNICEF in Mali reporting very positive CLTS outcomes (in terms of access, use and even stunting of children), to IPA in Bangladesh reporting mediocre results from CLTS (or sanitation marketing) alone, but much better results from CLTS combined with a subsidy. Recent research in India shows enduring issues with the use of sanitation facilities, and mixed results in terms of an increase in coverage.”

While Rosenboom rightly advocates for “change behavior,” as a way-out, I think the important point would be that of capacity building of the municipal governments, may be in the shape of continuing education (as government officials are transferred, typically after 3 years' of posting). Municipal officials also need to be sensitized about sanitation. This strategy should then be directed towards to decision-makers, key government functionaries and, the politicians handling the municipal departments.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 26 Mar 2016 16:38:30 +0000
Re: Using Twitter to increase the impact of your work, as a research tool, to make connections and to map out our network? - by: muench
Thanks a lot for your description of some key elements on twitter. I use twitter and I like it but I am quite a novice compared to you: I have e.g. not yet understood the use of lists and tweet deck. Perhaps in one of the upcoming SuSanA webinars you could give a demonstration?

Do you think it's worthwhile creating a list of twitter accounts of SuSanA partner organizations? Would that achieve anything? (I still don't fully grasp the concept of lists).

The network analysis of twitter followers (i.e. who follows whom) that Arno mentions above also leaves me puzzled. Not sure what that would really tell us.

My twitter name is @EvMuench and I follow 132 people, and have just over 500 followers. I would like to follow more people/organisations but I find that this ends up in information overload, particularly if people do many tweets per day. I still haven't figured out a way of handling that (I usually end up unfollowing those very frequent tweeters because I find it too much) - how could lists help me with that?

Some thoughts on how I use twitter:
  • I generally enjoy following persons more than organizations. I like it when people voice personal opinions, not just general things about WASH (and if they sometimes (not often, just occasionally) even throw in something unrelated, e.g. something about terrorism and refugees).
  • I find it useful to follow some people from outside the sector as they might give me new ideas, e.g. I follow some who work in the area of intestinal worms and health, like these:
    • SCI, Schisto Control @sci_ntds (The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) at Imperial College London, is an NGO working to eliminate 4 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) from Africa)
    • ChildrenWithoutWorms @CWWDirector Children Without Worms supports comprehensive control of intestinal worms. Follow us for news about soil-transmitted helminthiasis and the STH Coalition!
    • Wiki Project Med @WikiProjectMed Sharing the sum of all medical knowledge with every human being on the planet in the language of their choice. We edit #Wikipedia. #FOAMed #meded
  • I use my own tweets to highlight interesting things going on on the forum, hoping to direct people to using the forum.
  • I think most tweets should have a website link where people can find more information (and of course a photo is always a great eye catcher, although I am usually too lazy to insert one).
  • I find tweets from conferences pretty useful (using the hashtag of the conference), e.g. when I am at a conference, I might follow the tweets from a parallel session and get an impression of what's being discussed there.
  • I often see interesting requests for proposals, jobs or new papers and publications first advertised on twitter, before I see them also somewhere else.

The other day Sue Desmond-Hellmann, the CEO of the Gates Foundation, made a tweet about the importance of open access; I replied to the tweet by saying "18 March: @SueDHellmann I am so impressed with BMGF's open access policy for #sanitation projects that it funds! Thank you. ". A short while later, I got a notification that she "liked" my tweet and that really made my day!! Most likely she has assistants who manage her twitter account for her, or who help her, but still, I was quite chuffed. It makes me feel like I can be in contact with someone really high up. If she was ever to re-tweet something I had tweeted, that would be awesome. (getting someone who has a vast number of followers to retweet you is a real success)

I would be curious to hear how other SuSanA members use twitter for their work? Or if they don't use it, why not? (I only started using it three years ago; before that I used to think it was totally weird and I didn't understand the tweets which were full of these symbols: # @ ... Then Juergen Eichholz gave us a demo at GIZ and it got me curious; later on Arno Rosemarin explained to me how it's used at SEI and then I decided to give it a go).

Miscellaneous - any other topic Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:17:07 +0000
Re: Using Twitter to increase the impact of your work, as a research tool, to make connections and to map out our network? - by: Carol McCreary
People use Twitter in different ways. Some seek to influence and are successful. Other Tweeters fail to influence. Still others simply abandon use, which accounts for the large number of inactive Twitter accounts. Other may simply use Twitter as an aide-memoire, using the 140 characters to annotate what may later become a bibliographic reference.

Among the organizations on the list of water and sanitation influencers Arno mentions are two individuals who use Twitter in very different ways: Alexander Verbeek and Catarina de Albuquerque. @CatarinadeAlbuq is a restrained Tweeter whose Tweets on sanitation and human rights - particularly when she was the UN Special Rapporteur - have influenced my colleagues and me. @Alex_Verbeek is a plain language popularizer of science relating to the energy-food-water complex who follows over 50K Tweeters and is followed by more than 87K. Broadly educational.

Twitter itself has changed. The addition of images and the recent replacement of stars with hearts annoys many of us. Although it's been dumbed down a bit on the surface, Twitter has remained quite professional. It's not a love fest.

For me, Twitter remains a tool for research tool rather than a tool for outreach. I find it especially useful for identifying breaking science writing and new reports in several of my areas of interest. I also use it to applaud the few journalists who cover toilet and sewer issues in North America. Twitter has help establish some very good and trusting relationships. Here are some elements I focus on.

1. Lists. A list is a curated group of Twitter users and a great way to organize your interests. With lists there is little need to follow lots of people or to be followed. Lists can be as narrow or broad as one likes. And they can be public or private. Some lists you create and manage yourself. If they are public others may subscribe to them. You may be made a member of lists created by others. And you may subscribe to lists created by others. For example @PortlandPHLUSH has a public list called WWTPs for "Wastewater treatment plants that Tweet to the public." As we're looking into the energy use, costs and carbon footprints of WWTPs I’ll check this list and make inquiries with either my own public tweets (I'm @Baggywrinkles)or, if possible, direct messages. By the way, should a list you follow include accounts you follow, incoming tweets appear only once.

Here is more about lists. and an important reminder. Lists are used for reading Tweets only. You cannot send or direct a Tweet to members of a list, for only those list members to see.

2. Tweet Deck. TweetDeck by Twitter bills itself as "The most powerful Twitter tool for real-time tracking, organizing, and engagement." It allows you to line up columns on your screen. Columns can be lists (your own or those of others), individual Twitter account, hashtags, or search words.

3. Profiles. Profiles are mini bios. At a glance they give some idea of why a person is on Twitter, how focussed they are on issues of mutual interest. People now self identify with everything from organization and personal websites to hash tags and emojis.

Following individuals brings their attention to your profile and tweets. Follow back those with whom you might want to communicate briefly and privately using direct messages. This can help keep email out of your box and the DMs can remain always available and easy to locate in a Messages column on Tweet Deck.

5. Blocking Tweeters. This is not something you use much because Twitter is quite civil. But occasionally you're followed by someone selling something or who just seems a little sketchy. Nothing is easier than blocking them.

I hope others will chime in on how they use Twitter and share experiences.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:56:55 +0000
Using Twitter to increase the impact of your work, as a research tool, to make connections and to map out our network? - by: arno
1. The Guardian did a review of the top Water and Development Twitter Influencers prior to the World Water Week meeting in 2014:

The results gave the following top users:

2. It’s difficult to scan Twitter to find the most active users for a specific topic. Searching for a topic provides a fixed and limited number of user addresses.

3. Statistics are hard to come by and are sold by entrepreneurs. The quality of the data cannot be corroborated. Twitter only provides statistics on your own account. One source from Dec 2015 is In terms of global outreach Twitter is dominated by users in the US and Europe. There about 100 million daily users. The average number of followers is about 200 per account.

4. The first impression is that this is not a very effective tool for outreach within the area of environment and development let alone the WASH or sanitation sectors. Still there are small communities that have developed.

5. A look at who follows @susana_org provides about 2500 followers These in turn can be analysed to expand the network. There are software tools to help analyse social media data that can result in illustrations like this one:

If you are interested we could delve into this a little further to assess the sanitation network on Twitter, who is who and who is doing what. We could compile some relevant questions and observations which may be of interest to others on the Forum.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 09 Feb 2016 16:58:15 +0000
Re: Waterless Toilet that Turns Fecal Matter into Clean Water and Power - by: emmanuel
I can propose you Ecodomeo toilets that has no limitation in using because the toilet system just divert urine on one side and fecal mater in the other side.
I send 3 systems in India in 2012 but I do not know if they are in use now.
I know that Ecodomeo toilets are expensive and if you want lots of toilets, we can develop a specific model, a basic model, really much cheaper but we need quantities.
I propose you visit Ecodomeo web site and tell me if it is what you are looking for or not and you want to do in the future.


Emmanuel Morin
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 03 Feb 2016 07:45:14 +0000
Looking for sanitation solution for water scarce areas - Odisha, India - by: sampark Note by moderator: This post was originally in this thread about the nanomembrane toilet by Cranfield University:


Dear Mughal,
I am in sanitation business in Odisha, India. I am delighted to get a solution for water scarcity areas. It will work better, where there is scarcity of drinking water. Can it be possible to have this model in Odisha ?

Waiting for your feedback.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 01 Feb 2016 08:10:46 +0000
Re: Civil Society WASH Fund website (supporting 13 Australian and International Civil Society Organisations (CSO) to deliver 29 WASH projects) - by: Abdul regards Abdul]]> Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 25 Nov 2015 05:31:51 +0000 Re: Civil Society WASH Fund website (supporting 13 Australian and International Civil Society Organisations (CSO) to deliver 29 WASH projects) - by: bronwynpowell
Thank you for your interest in the CS WASH Fund website and resources:

The purpose of our website is to be repository and 'one-stop-shop' for resources and toolkits for CSOs/NGOs working in WASH, particularly those that are part of the Fund (working in the regions of the Pacific, East Asia, South Asia and Southern Africa).

We highlight similar activities to those that SuSanA highlights, but with a particular CSO focus, and with hygiene, water and sanitation. Some of our key thematic areas of interest are on gender and social inclusion (including disability), sanitation marketing, working with the enabling environment and sustainable behaviour change.

Our site also includes a list of upcoming webinars, events and edisucssions, including those we host ourselves.

Our most recent focus has been on WASH in the Pacific, with our Pacific WASH REgional Learning Event last week

and a webinar on Menstural Hygiene Management and Schools WASH in the Pacific which now has a recorded video for people to watch

We ensure quality control of resources by mediating the uploading of resources to our site. Hope this answers some of your questions.

People can sign up for our newsletter to stay up-to-date with Fund activities and new resources available.

Kind regards

Bronwyn Powell
Knowledge and Learning Manager, CS WASH Fund]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 24 Nov 2015 05:34:16 +0000
pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement - by: F H Mughal pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement

A useful 56-page book has been published by Xylem (attached) on pH measurement, with the title
pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement.

The interesting aspect of the handbook is that it explains the basics of pH in great details. For those, who would like to dig deep in the basics of pH, this publication would be of great help.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 18 Nov 2015 16:04:34 +0000
Sanitation Made Difficult by Improper Attitudes (an incident about business class toilet use on a flight) - by: F H Mughal Sanitation Made Difficult by Improper Attitudes

A passenger, Edita Kmetova, who was recently traveling from Vienna to Abu Dhabi on Niki, an Austrian low-cost subsidiary of Air Berlin, was handcuffed, after she used the business-class bathroom.

See details here:

Kmetova didn’t feel well during the flight and, seeing that the economy toilet was occupied, headed to one in business class. When she exited, she was encountered by cabin crew, angry passengers, and one of the captains; an argument ensued and Kmetova was handcuffed. The altercation must have been pretty bad, because the pilot decided to make an emergency landing into Erzurum Airport in Turkey.

Kmetova says she needed to use the business-class bathroom because she was sick.

Kmetova’s version is: “During the flight, I suddenly got nauseous and rushed to the lavatories. First the passengers interfered, then the flight personnel. They argued with me, and eventually they handcuffed me. They then abandoned me in Erzurum, a place I could not even find on a map if I tried. I was left all alone. At that point, I broke down into tears.”

This isn’t the first time a desperate passenger’s attempt to bolt to the front of the plane has resulted in arrest. In 2009, Joao Correa — who was reportedly suffering from traveler’s tummy — tried to use the business-class bathroom on a Delta flight from Honduras to Atlanta. He spent two days in jail and was facing federal charges before he agreed to a plea deal.

In Pakistan, women are, generally, not allowed to use mosque’s toilets. In one case, a woman was desperate to use the toilet. From the look at her face, one can tell that she must desperately go the toilet. She was accordingly allowed.

The point is that the toilets, with all those displayed gaudy aspects, are places where one can relieve. Preventing access, when one is desperate to use it, is a great injustice. People need attitude adjustment.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 01 Nov 2015 16:15:51 +0000
Re: Beyond Retirement - Still in my garden laboratory (wells, pumps, toilets, gardening) in Harare, Zimbabwe (by Peter Morgan) - by: KaiMikkel
I just had a look through your document and am very appreciative that you took the time to explain your backyard projects in photos and writing. I expect that your ideas will inform my own moving forward. Thanks!]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 15 Oct 2015 19:04:15 +0000
Beyond Retirement - Still in my garden laboratory (wells, pumps, toilets, gardening) in Harare, Zimbabwe (by Peter Morgan) - by: morgan
Whilst I am now almost retired, I still continue to tinker about in the back yard with developments which may have some value in the WASH sector. I sent this document (see below) to Elisabeth recently and she thought those who view the susana files may be interest to view this account, although most of the works are related to water. Then water supply, hygiene and sanitation are closely related - or they should be.

So I am sending this account from someone who has been tinkering for over 40 years and beyond.

From the table of content:

1. Simple improved family wells
2. Hand Drilling and the bailer bucket
3. The Blair Pump – new developments
4. The Zimbabwe Bush pump – new developments
5. Rainwater harvesting in the homestead
6. Saving water in the homestead
7. Ring beam gardens – an update
8. Blair VIP. Recent trials

Best wishes
Peter Morgan]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 13 Oct 2015 07:50:18 +0000