SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sat, 30 Aug 2014 06:19:02 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Aerobic biodegradability test - by: biotech80 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9654-aerobic-biodegradability-test#9931 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9654-aerobic-biodegradability-test#9931
Could you tell me about the procedure you intend to use for the aerobic biodegradability test?

We at the Pollution Research Group at UKZN are using an aerobic biodegradability test to save a lot of time and to see the fractions of the biodegradability (rapidly biodegradably, highly biodegradable until slow/nonbiodegradable)
We measure the oxygen uptake rate of the aerobic sludge after adding the wastewater/faecal sludge.

Coming to your question of comparability between anaerobic and aerobic biodegradability:

The vast amount of the biodegradable fractions are comparable, however, you would have to trace substances with anaerobic inhibition effects.
In my case: caprylic acid Highly degradable aerobicly, but inhibits anaerobic microorganisms.

Regards
Bjoern]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Fri, 29 Aug 2014 15:25:32 +0000
For designers: free open-source 3D CAD with architectural module (FreeCAD) - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9877-for-designers-free-open-source-3d-cad-with-architectural-module-freecad#9877 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9877-for-designers-free-open-source-3d-cad-with-architectural-module-freecad#9877
www.freecadweb.org/
www.freecadweb.org/wiki/index.php?title=Arch_tutorial

Haven't tested it much yet, but a friend told me that it got quite usable since the last release (0.14).

Maybe useful for some of you...

Should also support creating models for 3D printers btw.]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Mon, 25 Aug 2014 15:23:58 +0000
Re: Mosquito problem in Waste Stabilization Pond system - by: Bhaskar http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9685 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9685
Diatoms will keep the DO high and prevent breeding of most species of mosquitoes.

High DO will enable fish to survive and these will consume the remaining mosquito larva.

The pond size can be smaller when Diatoms are grown, so land required will be less.

It is easier and cheaper to maintain Diatom growth in ponds than to build wetlands, remove weeds from ponds, etc.

The treated water with Diatoms in it can flow into public lakes and rivers, they will be useful in these too and not cause any problems.]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Sun, 10 Aug 2014 04:41:20 +0000
Re: Aerobic biodegradability tes - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9654-aerobic-biodegradability-test#9658 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9654-aerobic-biodegradability-test#9658
Technically BOD5 or something like that is of course closer to "biodegradability", but it takes much longer (5 days ) to measure than COD and will underestimate the degradation in a pit which is obviously much longer in duration.

COD gives you a estimate of the (nearly) total potential to be oxidized, i.e. the end result of a long aerobic degradation process.

COD should over-estimate the degradation a bit as the chemical oxidant used is more aggressive than aerobic biological degradation, which in turn is more complete than anaerobic degradation.

Any quick lab test will be a rough estimate and COD is pretty good for that. If you want something "better", measure it in the actual pit (easier said then done, I know ).]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Thu, 07 Aug 2014 12:42:29 +0000
Aerobic biodegradability test - by: Yvonne http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9654-aerobic-biodegradability-test#9654 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9654-aerobic-biodegradability-test#9654 I am intending to use the aerobic biodegradability test for a study on sludge accumulation in pit latrines.
However there are some things i do not understand,
1. Why measure COD if it is a biodegradability test?
2. Since it is aerobic with use of saturated air, how do i account for the anaerobic processes that take place in the pit latrine?
3. Is there a better test that can account for the degradation that takes place in the pit latrine?
Thank you]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Thu, 07 Aug 2014 10:21:53 +0000
Re: Mosquito problem in Waste Stabilization Pond system - by: cecile http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9625 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9625
A couple of years ago I took a training delivered by the Mentor Initiative, an NGO aiming at improving mosquitoe vector borne diseases all over the world. They are certainly a good resource organisation. What I remember from the training confirms the above information, ie, some mosquitoes (malaria) breed in clean water, even in the smallest drops such as condensation from an aircon unit. Other mosquitoes (dengue) breed in dirty and standing water.
In Sumatra, this could be verified by simple observation of open concrete drainage and septic tanks, both of which were full of millions of wiggling larvae.
One solution was to avoid standing water (clean the drainage to allow water flow) which is not a solution for a stabilization pond...
Another solution was to pour liquid insecticide in the gutters and regularly spray close by vegetation with insecticide. It is not an ideal solution but it helped in a region where dengue was endemic.

In France, there is a controversy on the subject of constructed wetlands and mosquitoes. In a few areas, where there have been mostiquoe related diseases, the authorities have restricted the use of constructed wetlands, to avoid mosquitoe breeding. Professionals of constructed wetlands argue on the contrary that the infiltration time is much to short to allow for mosquitoe breeding. Although the wetlands are vegetated, it seems that it does not encourage mosquitoe breeding (ecological balance ?) and there is no water standing because the water flows underneath ground level.
Some wetland systems include one or several ponds (ornemental or recreational)and I understand the bio diversity allows a natural balance which include mosquitoe predators (frogs, birds).
Regards,
cecile]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Wed, 06 Aug 2014 09:30:08 +0000
Re: Fwd: Recent posts from the SuSanA Forum - by: Florian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9609 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9609
something to add to this: These days I spoke to a Malaria specialist and asked him about Mosquito breeding in wastewater treatment facilities. He said, generally speaking, Anopheles don't breed in polluted water, so in princinple WSP shouldn't be a problem for Malaria. Maturation ponds with cleaner water could be, but adding fish that predate in insect larvae would be a good measure in such ponds

However, he also said that various Mosquito species transmitting other diseases (like Dengue) could very well breed in different ponds, and that preferences for breeding of the differen species are quite varable in the different continents and regions. His advice was to always check with local entomolgists or specialists for vector control with experience in the respective regions where wastewater facilities are to be built.
Best wishes, Florian]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Tue, 05 Aug 2014 10:52:46 +0000
Fwd: Recent posts from the SuSanA Forum - by: CWendland http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9388 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9388 Please see here the manual by Duncan Mara who gives main criteria to avoid mosquito breeding:
depth more than 0.9 m and proper O&M such as regular grass cutting
see details here:
www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/341.1-87WA-2422.pdf

Best regards
Claudia]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Fri, 18 Jul 2014 09:24:00 +0000
Re: Mosquito problem in Waste Stabilization Pond system - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9385 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9385 Some water plants are known to form pockets of water in their leaves though, that can fill with rain and thus have good conditions for anopheles larvae.

The more quiet muddy waters between the free floating water hyacint for example, can be pretty good habitats for other mosquito species, and it is probably difficult to convince people nearby that these don't cause much issues beyond annoyance (similar to the situation of communities near protection worthy wetlands).]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Thu, 17 Jul 2014 19:41:19 +0000
Re: Mosquito problem in Waste Stabilization Pond system - by: Florian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9384 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9384 pprasetya wrote:
mosquito breeding when vegetation starts growing in the pond


As far as I know, it is exactly like this: to avoid mosquito breeding, the ponds have to be kept free from vegetation. This is best achieved by maintaining a minimum depth of the ponds that discourages plant growth from the bottom and regular maintenance for keeping the pond shore free of vegetation. Floating mataterial and scum should also be removed frequently. The main risk is therefore from lack of good maintenance. WSPs are a well established technology, you should find plenty of literature on this issue with a little research.

I am not sure if your facultiative WSP are meant to be used as component for treating toilet sludge and organic waste. If it is so, you should be careful: liquids from sludge treatment have often a very high ammonia content, which may be toxic to algae in facultative ponds and these ponds thus may not work properly...

Best regards, Florian]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Thu, 17 Jul 2014 18:22:21 +0000
Mosquito problem in Waste Stabilization Pond system - by: pprasetya http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9382 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/9382-mosquito-problem-in-waste-stabilization-pond-system#9382
My name is Priska, currently a second-year Master student on MSc Urban Environmental Management at Wageningen University. I am currently doing an internship at Safi Sana (www.safisana.org/projects/), a company that collects toilet and organic waste to produce biogas and organic fertilizer. Their current project is based in Ghana (see here on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-bio...ganic-waste-as-input).

I am responsible to assist in the development of their Wastewater Treatment Plant design for their new anaerobic digestion site in Ghana. The proposed plan is to use Waste Stabilization Pond, mainly Facultative pond, as one of the wastewater treatment systems.

However, I hear that the common problem with this system is that it attracts mosquito breeding when vegetation starts growing in the pond, which is a problem considering that Ghana is known to have big issue with Malaria. Nevertheless, there are some people who say mosquito is not a problem, and some people say mosquito is definitely a problem with this system.

For this reason, I am writing this post to ask if anyone is familiar with the issue of mosquito breeding within a waste stabilization pond system, particularly in Ghana. Any recommendations/solutions would also be very much appreciated!

Thank you very much in advance. I look forward to your responds.

Best regards, Priska]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Thu, 17 Jul 2014 18:09:59 +0000
Re: Sense or Nonsense ? Fossil Carbon energy wasted just to destroy more Carbon energy at "advanced" WWTP's? - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/7438-sense-or-nonsense--fossil-carbon-energy-wasted-just-to-destroy-more-carbon-energy-at-qadvancedq-wwtps#9162 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/7438-sense-or-nonsense--fossil-carbon-energy-wasted-just-to-destroy-more-carbon-energy-at-qadvancedq-wwtps#9162 Domestic Wastewater Treatment as a Net Energy Producer–Can This be Achieved?

2011 pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es2014264
Abstract
In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste—a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater’s nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater’s organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today.

see Table 1. Energy Characteristics of a Typical Domestic Wastewater

and
June 2014 energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/06/f16/...rt%20June%202014.pdf
In an effort to bring more integrated research across its programs, the DOE’s Water-Energy Tech Team issued a new report this month,
The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities.
One set of promising possibilities involves the replacement of aerobic treatments, which consume 50 percent to 65 percent of the electricity in traditional treatment streams, with anaerobic alternatives (McCarty et al. 2011). Another entails pretreatment techniques that enhance the production of biogas from anaerobic digesters, reduce the volume of sludge requiring disposal, and enhance the resilience of such facilities to power outages (Neyens and Baeyens 2003). A third group of opportunities offers significant energy savings in the removal of nitrogen, a growing area of energy consumption, driven by expectations of expanded regulatory requirements (Joss et al. 2011).

slowly but surly...

Regards,
Detlef]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Mon, 30 Jun 2014 18:57:06 +0000
Re: Sustainable water-sanitation developments in the Netherlands ("green" decentralized biogas-works+CHPs) - by: guilherme http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/6790-sustainable-water-sanitation-developments-in-the-netherlands-qgreenq-decentralized-biogas-workschps#9154 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/6790-sustainable-water-sanitation-developments-in-the-netherlands-qgreenq-decentralized-biogas-workschps#9154
I've missed this post late last year and found it now that I'm researching a bit on the topic of decentralised WWTP and nutrient recovery. I'm delighted to read on nutrient recovery and energy production being applied to systems across the Netherlands. I'm a member of a Brazilian NGO that has been working on this field for over 20 years, and that has been depicted at this short video also produced by Ellen MacArthur Foundation:

Katja Hansen and the Biological Nutrient Metabolism


I highly recommend it to everyone interested in Cradle to Cradle, EcoSan, and the "Energie Fabrik" concept.

Despite being a completely different climate, where we see greater advantage on the production of biomass (i.e. aquatic plants) through the use of nutrients already present on wastewater, rather than producing fertilisers in chemical and highly energy-intensive processes, it's still worth a view as it presents sanitation and biological cycle side-by-side, within a C2C perspective.

Now, I'm researching on the issue of centralised vs. decentralised WWTP's. I am from Sao Paulo (Brazil), a large metropolis with nearly 18 million inhabitants and only 5 WWTP's. The largest of them treats 4.5 Mi p.e., and a large share of the city does have collection, but all of it is disposed in local creeks that ultimately lead to Tiete, the city's largest river. It seems obvious to me that being a densely populated city, where space and financial resources are limited, that the city should instead decentralise treatment to small regions, whether neighborhoods or microbasins. So are there any major cities that count with dozens (if not hundreds) of WWTP's across its area, and still have one company or agency overlooking its operation?

Best regards from Sao Paulo, Brazil,]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Sun, 29 Jun 2014 20:43:28 +0000
Re: TESLA open-sources all its patents! - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/8971-tesla-open-sources-all-its-patents#9044 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/8971-tesla-open-sources-all-its-patents#9044
Thanks a lot. May you invite Prof. Orszagh and colleagues to support you in answering to some of my questions.
All the Best
Detlef]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Mon, 23 Jun 2014 23:15:33 +0000
Re: TESLA open-sources all its patents! - by: bajanos http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/8971-tesla-open-sources-all-its-patents#9042 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/39-any-other-topic-related-to-sanitation-or-to-susana/8971-tesla-open-sources-all-its-patents#9042 Thanks a lot for your kind response. I am glad that at least someone here puts the effort and has a look into the website recommended. I would like to emphasize that I am not an expert never studied sanitation, water management, whatsoever. I have only one concern: I want my children grow up in a healthier environment and with the possibility of being able to have freshwater. What are we doing now. We flush our toilets with freshwater, potable water and then try to purify it using mostly fossile energy. I think this practice is insane and a suicide on a long-term basis.
Unfortunately, I do not speak German (and a dozen more languages which I would love to, neither ) therefore cannot understand what Prof. Ripl talks about in the videos. If they will be subtitled some time, please let me know.
I really appreciate what people do here because they try to give a solution to their best. The problem is we are all trained and conditioned so that the solution can only be another complicated technical device that consumes a lot of energy and maintains the current system. This has to be stopped in my opinion. Let me quote Bill Mollison who said that: “Though the problems of the world are increasingly complex,
the solutions remain embarrassingly simple.”
You have a lot of questions which I try and answer but cannot promise anything as far as time is concerned. But do not expect much of me because I am not an expert as I indicated earlier. I believe Prof. Orszagh's method works. I have 3 kids and we do not flush our toilet because we use a compost toilet which basically means that we have a bucket and use that with sawdust. You can calculate how much freshwater we save in a year's time, the 5 of us. OK, we have a garden where it can be composted but not sure how it could work in a big city.
Anyway, I will try to answer your other questions soon. Or I would be happy to exchange e-mails on the topic as well.
Thanks a lot.
János]]>
Any other topic related to sanitation or to SuSanA Mon, 23 Jun 2014 21:52:14 +0000