SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 18 Dec 2014 20:13:51 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Sanitation Sustainability Indicators - by: tantinayono
Basically the tool (SusTA) is applicable for both shared- and unimproved sanitation facilities. The set of indicators (Table 9.7) provides universal principles to assess sanitation technologies in developing countries’ context.

Regarding shared facilities:
The quantitative assessments such as: cost, energy, water and land requirements are calculated based on the amount of consumption or expenditure in household’s level. Therefore, these indicators are applicable for both private and shared facilities. The other indicators such as: "social acceptance" and "technical skill required" have been designed to accommodate shared facilities as well. I provided several assessment matrices in Appendix 3 of the dissertation to demonstrate how we can use the same set of indicators to analyze both private and shared facilities.

Regarding unimproved facilities:
We can still use the same indicators to assess unimproved sanitation facilities. Obviously there will be several ‘low fulfillment’ scores, such as ‘BOD removal’ and ‘Health risks caused by the system’.

Regarding gender aspect:
I did not specifically address gender issue, but there are several indicators in the tool that address societal issues in general. I expressed these issues within indicators’ fulfillment conditions (Table 9.7, column 4,5,6). For example:
• “social acceptance” discusses whether a technology is in accordance with society’s principles and norms. This can be used to assess which technology (in user interface part) is less or more vulnerable to violence. The result might differ from one society to another. I was in the village where all shared facilities have no doors. Because the society takes care of each other, women feel saver to be in a toilet or bathroom without doors.
• “technical skill required” analyses whether a technology is suitable for the intended operators (including women as caretakers). Or it can be used to assess: which level of skill is needed to run this technology.
• “health risks caused by the system” evaluates which technology minimizes the contact between users/operators to wastewater. We can still use this principle in analyzing a technology, using women as our main users.

I find the idea of specifically including gender aspect in the tool is important. I am still improving the tool- particularly in the fulfillment conditions’ parts.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 17 Dec 2014 15:40:06 +0000
Re: About chlorine solution preparation - by: caetano Cheers,
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 29 Nov 2014 20:22:51 +0000
Re: About chlorine solution preparation - by: JKMakowka
I assume the background of your question is preparing (medical) cleaning solutions from locally available bleach powder?

Putting "preparing bleach solution" into google gave me the attached document as the first hit.]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 27 Nov 2014 12:36:31 +0000
About chlorine solution preparation - by: Wubishet
I am working in an organization related with WASH activities in Ethiopia. Now, I would like to request you that how can I prepare strong and weak chlorine solution in context where graduated recipients are not available? would you like to send me doc about preparation of chlorine solution in the context of emergency situation?

Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 27 Nov 2014 05:29:55 +0000
Re: A good guideline or protocol for assessing the technical functionality of sanitation technologies - by: Florian my colleagues at Skat have been working on a "Technology Applicability Framework", which perhaps is similar to what you have in mind. See here for the website:
Best regards,
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 26 Nov 2014 11:08:44 +0000
A good guideline or protocol for assessing the technical functionality of sanitation technologies - by: jay bhagwan
If anyone has or has done this kind of work or product, or have a good framework to share – please forward to me. It is becoming an issue and I foresee a great need for the assessment tool to establish standards in the future.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 26 Nov 2014 08:03:45 +0000
Re: Sanitation Sustainability Indicators - by: F H Mughal
With reference to the JMP’s sanitation ladder (Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation – Special Focus on Sanitation, UNICEF/WHO, 2008, pp 6), I believe, the Sustainability-based Sanitation Planning Tool (SusTA), that you have developed, would apply to the “improved sanitation facilities.” My question is: Does the tool also apply to the “shared sanitation facilities,” and “unimproved sanitation facilities?”

In addition, does your tool consider gender aspect? In rural areas of Pakistan, women look after the sanitation facilities. Please have a look at: Expert’s Take: Gender perspectives on sanitation for sustainable development; An op-ed by Begoña Lasagabaster, Acting Head of UN Women’s Policy Division, to mark World Toilet Day (, disseminated by Cor Dietvorst (E-Source Sanitation News, 23 Nov 2014).


F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 23 Nov 2014 15:54:43 +0000
Invention Gets Wastewater to Wash Itself - by: mwaniki
‘Invention Gets Wastewater to Wash Itself’

A new invention known as a Virtual Curtain tries to take some of the effort out of treating wastewater by enlisting contaminants as cleaning agents.

This article may be found in the Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Nov – Dec 2014 edition posted in the forum just the other day. It first appeared in Water Online and has been reprinted with permission.

You may view this edition via this link or . You can also download a pdf version via

Regards / Mwaniki]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 22 Nov 2014 12:09:24 +0000
Re: Sanitation Sustainability Indicators - by: muench
Tanti gave this link to her PhD thesis in her post on 3 Oct. (please scrol up):

Hope this help,
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 20 Nov 2014 13:07:32 +0000
Re: Sanitation Sustainability Indicators - by: muandac
This is a very interesting discussion, I would like to get your article.
Where can we found your paper or dissertation?
If have a copy can you send it to me please
My address is This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Many thanks]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:24:17 +0000
Re: Sanitation Sustainability Indicators - by: tantinayono
I am very sorry for this late reply. I was away for a survey and just back to my desk last week.

I try to answer your first question:

Regarding indicators ranking: I proposed one set of sustainability-based indicators to assess the technologies. The stakeholder groups then rank the indicators based on their preferences.
The technology options are evaluated based on their degree of fulfillment to this set of indicators. Therefore, I equipped each indicator with a rating scale (1 to 3, with 1 corresponds to the highest fulfillment). Please refer to my dissertation report, Table 9.7, page 111-114.

There are several ways to obtain the threshold values of these 1 to 3- scales/ high- to low fulfillment:
- Referring to national regulation (e.g. indicators “Investment cost” and indicator “BOD removal efficiency”
- Using the data from household questionnaires (e.g. indicators “Water consumption” and “Land required”)
- Based on my personal judgments (e.g. indicators “ Compatibility” and “Health risk”)
However, each project area has different threshold. Therefore I also provide references to modify the threshold values, based on analytical generalization (see Table 9.7, last column).

The next step is to assess the technology options: how well does each technology meet the indicators’ fulfillment? For this assessment, I refer to literature and also use my personal judgments. Please refer to Appendix 3 and Appendix 4 of the dissertation report. To support the personal judgment, one should have the knowledge on the technologies, the context where the technologies will be applied and how they will interact.

The final selection of the most sustainable technology can be conducted in several ways, as long as the transparency provided:
1. based on the indicators’ ranking that have been defined by stakeholders.
2. based on single important issue, e.g. economic (indicators “Investment cost” or “Operational and maintenance cost”)
3. based on the frequency of a technology meeting the indicators’ best thresholds (scale 1).
4. aggregating the scores.

Concerning your second question: I am not sure, which of my paper you refer. Could you clarify this first?

Best regards,
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 15 Nov 2014 09:06:15 +0000
Help fund the 25$ portable washing-machine from India - by: JKMakowka

Interestingly they also specifically mention it as saving water compared to regular hand-washing and also being more hygienic when washing things separately.

Sadly no solar powered version yet ]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 30 Oct 2014 15:19:31 +0000
Re: Do you know about wastewater disposal in deep wells in US? - by: KeithBell
Here's a thread I started on the subject earlier this year:

EPA admits absolutely no focus on fecal sterols in drinking water:

“No published studies examining the presence of fecal sterols in treated drinking water have been identified.” US EPA, Distribution System Indicators of Drinking Water Quality, 2006″
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 22 Oct 2014 23:32:17 +0000
Re: Do you know about wastewater disposal in deep wells in US? - by: skdentel We have not tested this, but it should be the case for any non-volatile pollutants since only vapors pass through.
More is here.]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 22 Oct 2014 21:29:07 +0000
Re: Do you know about wastewater disposal in deep wells in US? - by: skdentel This is in a former natural gas reservoir, so it is believed to be pretty tightly enclosed. It is separated from usable aquifers by deep layers of salt water. So the idea is that contaminants in the sludge will be degraded before there is any possibility of getting into non-saline groundwater or the surface environment.
Anyway, that's the idea. Whether you think it's interesting or outrageous, I think the topic's beyond the scope of this forum. I'm just responding to Carol's original question.
More information:]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 22 Oct 2014 01:10:01 +0000