SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 26 Nov 2015 05:05:23 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Economic Valuation of Wastewater – The Cost of Action and the Cost of No Action - by: F H Mughal Economic Valuation of Wastewater – The Cost of Action and the Cost of No Action

The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has recently released a report tiled Economic Valuation of Wastewater – The Cost of Action and the Cost of No Action. The 72-page report reviews different methods to analyze the costs and benefits of wastewater management. It proposes methodology to estimate value of the benefits, comparing the financial costs of collection and treatment, with the environmental and health costs of releasing untreated wastewater.

According to the report, 330 km3 of municipal wastewater is produced globally each year, which is enough to irrigate 40 million hectares - equivalent to 15 per cent of all currently irrigated land - or to power 130 million households through biogas generation.

The report says that the globally-produced municipal wastewater contains the equivalent of 25 per cent of the nitrogen and 15 per cent of the phosphorus applied as chemical fertilizers. It can also carry large amounts of iron, chloride, boron, copper and zinc. In just one day, a city of 10 million flushes enough nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to fertilize about 500,000 hectares of agricultural land.

In Pakistan, for seeking approval to a wastewater treatment plant proposal, the proponent has to justify the benefits. The sale of treated wastewater and dried sludge, which is easy to quantify, is shown as the financial benefits. Pollution prevention and health benefits could not be quantified in economic terms.

The executive summary of the report says:

“Although economic valuation of wastewater management is complex, it remains an important tool to guide policymakers and investors to take informed decisions. A financial analysis of wastewater management looks at its private costs and benefits and can underpin decision making from a business or treatment plant operator standpoint. Economic analysis looks at the broader costs and benefits for society, providing information for public policy decisions to support improvements in wastewater management. Adequate wastewater collection, treatment, and safe use or disposal can lead to significant environmental and health benefits. However, because some of these benefits do not have a market price, they have not traditionally been considered in the financial analysis of wastewater treatment projects, therefore underestimating total benefits.”

The report recommends recovery of phosphorus, which adds multiple values to the environmental benefits as the treatment plant operators can reduce maintenance costs while recovering a valuable fertilizer. This recommendation is, somewhat, contradictory to another recommendation, which says:

“Where space is not a limiting factor, pond systems and constructed wetlands are two of the most common extensive technologies with significant cost advantage compared to the more energy demanding intensive systems like the activated sludge process. Since energy consumption is a main operational cost factor and electricity cuts a key risk factor for temporary or a lasting breakdown, minimizing energy consumption in WWTPs should be a key consideration in all countries with irregular electricity supply.”

It will not be quite possible to recover phosphorus using pond system, or constructed wetlands.

The report is useful and interesting. The picture on the cover is captivating. The picture on pp. 10 is, probably, that of Ganges River, India. The report is available at:

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 25 Nov 2015 06:55:31 +0000
pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement - by: F H Mughal pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement

A useful 56-page book has been published by Xylem (attached) on pH measurement, with the title
pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement.

The interesting aspect of the handbook is that it explains the basics of pH in great details. For those, who would like to dig deep in the basics of pH, this publication would be of great help.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 18 Nov 2015 16:04:34 +0000
Sanitation Made Difficult by Improper Attitudes (an incident about business class toilet use on a flight) - by: F H Mughal Sanitation Made Difficult by Improper Attitudes

A passenger, Edita Kmetova, who was recently traveling from Vienna to Abu Dhabi on Niki, an Austrian low-cost subsidiary of Air Berlin, was handcuffed, after she used the business-class bathroom.

See details here:

Kmetova didn’t feel well during the flight and, seeing that the economy toilet was occupied, headed to one in business class. When she exited, she was encountered by cabin crew, angry passengers, and one of the captains; an argument ensued and Kmetova was handcuffed. The altercation must have been pretty bad, because the pilot decided to make an emergency landing into Erzurum Airport in Turkey.

Kmetova says she needed to use the business-class bathroom because she was sick.

Kmetova’s version is: “During the flight, I suddenly got nauseous and rushed to the lavatories. First the passengers interfered, then the flight personnel. They argued with me, and eventually they handcuffed me. They then abandoned me in Erzurum, a place I could not even find on a map if I tried. I was left all alone. At that point, I broke down into tears.”

This isn’t the first time a desperate passenger’s attempt to bolt to the front of the plane has resulted in arrest. In 2009, Joao Correa — who was reportedly suffering from traveler’s tummy — tried to use the business-class bathroom on a Delta flight from Honduras to Atlanta. He spent two days in jail and was facing federal charges before he agreed to a plea deal.

In Pakistan, women are, generally, not allowed to use mosque’s toilets. In one case, a woman was desperate to use the toilet. From the look at her face, one can tell that she must desperately go the toilet. She was accordingly allowed.

The point is that the toilets, with all those displayed gaudy aspects, are places where one can relieve. Preventing access, when one is desperate to use it, is a great injustice. People need attitude adjustment.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 01 Nov 2015 16:15:51 +0000
Re: Beyond Retirement - Still in my garden laboratory (wells, pumps, toilets, gardening) in Harare, Zimbabwe (by Peter Morgan) - by: KaiMikkel
I just had a look through your document and am very appreciative that you took the time to explain your backyard projects in photos and writing. I expect that your ideas will inform my own moving forward. Thanks!]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 15 Oct 2015 19:04:15 +0000
Beyond Retirement - Still in my garden laboratory (wells, pumps, toilets, gardening) in Harare, Zimbabwe (by Peter Morgan) - by: morgan
Whilst I am now almost retired, I still continue to tinker about in the back yard with developments which may have some value in the WASH sector. I sent this document (see below) to Elisabeth recently and she thought those who view the susana files may be interest to view this account, although most of the works are related to water. Then water supply, hygiene and sanitation are closely related - or they should be.

So I am sending this account from someone who has been tinkering for over 40 years and beyond.

From the table of content:

1. Simple improved family wells
2. Hand Drilling and the bailer bucket
3. The Blair Pump – new developments
4. The Zimbabwe Bush pump – new developments
5. Rainwater harvesting in the homestead
6. Saving water in the homestead
7. Ring beam gardens – an update
8. Blair VIP. Recent trials

Best wishes
Peter Morgan]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 13 Oct 2015 07:50:18 +0000
The "Drinkable Book" - by: F H Mughal The “Drinkable Book”

A book, called “drinkable book,” has been developed that can be torn out to filter drinking water. The book combines treated paper with printed information on how and why water should be filtered. Its pages contain nanoparticles of silver or copper, which kill bacteria in the water as it passes through.

The book was tested at 25 contaminated water sources in South Africa, Ghana and Bangladesh. The paper successfully removed more than 99 per cent of bacteria.

Dr Teri Dankovich, a postdoctoral researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, developed and tested the technology for the book over several years. "It's directed towards communities in developing countries," Dr Dankovich said, noting that 663 million people around the world do not have access to clean drinking water.

All you need to do is tear out a paper, put it in a simple filter holder and pour water into it from rivers, streams, wells etc and out comes clean water - and dead bacteria as well. The bugs absorb silver or copper ions - depending on the nanoparticles used - as they percolate through the page. Ions come off the surface of the nanoparticles, and those are absorbed by the microbes.

More details at:

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 18 Aug 2015 10:45:48 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso Thank you for your response. We know its indeed we have out of the topic of sanitation but discussing camel urine and milk is a very crucial matter we would like share with you some of our observations are the following.
1 Diabetic treatment.
2 HIV//AIDS/ treatment.
2 De worming.
3 body health and stronger if you use seven days.
Sorry to bother you with this topic and it's necessary to share health matters for the benefit of human kind.
By Hassan Isaak

Note by moderator (EvM):
The discussion on such alleged health aspects is outside of the scope of this forum and we would like to close the discussion thread at this point. Further inputs on this topic will not be accepted.
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:22:59 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso
Thanks for your input about the the camel urine and milk.We have noted your concern and we have seen the practical advantages camel urine not the blood, people who have diabetic diseases who normally uses camel urine and milk gets better the level of the sugar reduces drastically. On the other hand it kills the internal worms of the body. also it cures skin problems such as skin fungal is eliminated by the camel dung when it become dry when it you rub it on the skin gently until it produces blood the affected place of the skin. Thus if you use the camel urine and milk for seven days your body become stronger and healthy also it camel urine and milk cures HIV/AIDS this is proven and practical made by the people who keep the camels especially those who permanently uses, we will invite you to visit a camel range see the benefit of camel urine and camel milk then you can research of it.
NB we don't use the camel blood.
By Hassan Isaak
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:05:52 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey (results from PhD thesis of Adam Saffer, UNC Chapel Hill, USA) - by: AdamSaffer Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:24:36 +0000 Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: joeturner
Some scientists say there is a significant risk of catching Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) from consumption of camel urine and blood.

These are some blogs by a virologist on the subject (with lots of academic sources):

see also this very recent paper:]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 09:31:59 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: muench
It's always nice to hear from someone from Somalia on this forum. Hoever, I am not too sure if the topic that you raised is sufficiently closely related to sanitation issues? The common element is urine but otherwise it's not so related.

Anyhow, for all things to do with claimed or real health benefits, I can recommend to you Wikipedia where many people are striving to provide good health information. You can find an article here about "urine therapy":

You can see there that its health benefits are claimed by many people, even e.g. many public figures. I think when you search the internet you will find it is quite common still in many countries.
However, according to the Wikipedia article:
There is no scientific evidence of a therapeutic use for untreated urine.[5][10][13]

Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 09:10:00 +0000
Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso
Please tell us more about camels urine? As i know it has great value to the human body as a medicine and a therapy. So, can we share our knowledge about camel milk and camel urine. Kindly share your views with us.
By Hassan Ali Isaak
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 20 Jun 2015 21:54:24 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey RESULTS - by: AdamSaffer
I have bullet-ed your questions and responded to each below.

  • I have picked out some more of your results that I deemed important for the readers of this page. Do you agree with my selection, is it balanced? Or would you like to add further key points?

Yes, this is a good selection of the important results. Of course, each member might find other results to be more important depending on their needs and position.

  • I have also linked to the Wikipedia page on social network analysis (, is that page fairly good?

This is a very good source. And good for connecting to influential pages such as that one.

  • What is the title of your PhD thesis? (perhaps its URL can be added at a later stage then; I understand that your "PhD thesis is under copyright embargo by PhD granting university. It will be made publicly available January 2016 when the embargo is lifted.")

My Ph.D. thesis (called a dissertation in the U.S.) is titled, SHARED MEANING IN NETWORKS: A MIXED METHODS APPROACH TO STUDYING SOCIAL CAPITAL IN AN INTERNATIONAL COALITION. I've attached a draft for member of SuSanA to view if they are interested on my Academia page.

  • Can I also upload this report to the SuSanA library so that it can be more easily found in future? I could provide a link to your page as well, and our page also tracks the views and downloads.

Yes, please upload to the library if you'd like. Here is a link to the report.

  • How does Figure 2 and 4 in your report differ to the figure that you have added to the forum post? I am still not clear on that.

Figure 2 merely shows all of the connections among partners in the SuSanA network. The visual illustrates the consistency of connections among partners but is also telling of who is central to the network. The more well-connected partners are positioned at the center of the network visual. In Figure 4 the visual is identifying partners others in the network see as important within the SuSanA network. The partners with larger dots (called nodes) have higher communication importance scores. The communication importance score is an aggregate of partners indicating how important their communicative relationships with other SuSanA partners are. For example, we can see Eawag has a large blue dot, which means others who are connected to Eawag indicated find the communicative relationship (the exchange of information, professional knowledge, and support) important to their organization's success in the sustainable sanitation space.

Does that help explain the difference?

  • In the interviews are you sure that people answered “as partner representatives” instead of “as individual members”? it could be quite difficult to keep the two "hats" separately, for people who wear both.

Yes, this was an issue for some people but in the interviews I made an effort to ask which "hat" they were wearing. If there is a specific instance you are referring to, I'd be happy to clarify.]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 10 Jun 2015 23:00:57 +0000
Collecting Environmental Data is a Crime in Wyoming, USA - by: F H Mughal
Collecting Environmental Data is a Crime in Wyoming, USA

Poorly-managed and poorly-constructed latrines allow the excrement to get into groundwater, and in surface water bodies that supply drinking water. According to UNICEF, one gram of feces can contain 10,000,000 viruses, 1,000,000 bacteria, 1,000 parasite cysts, and 100 parasite eggs.

E.coli is a type of faecal coliform bacterium that is found only in faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Presence of E.coli in water indicates faecal pollution and the possible presence of pathogenic types that often occur in the intestines as well.

Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Presence of E. coli in a water sample is a good indicator of recent faecal contamination.

According to a Canadian publication: “Although the presence of E. coli is a good indicator of recent faecal contamination, such contamination is often intermittent and may not be revealed by the examination of a single sample. Therefore, if a sanitary inspection shows that an untreated supply is subject to faecal contamination, or that treated water is subject to faecal contamination during storage or distribution or is inadequately treated, the water should be considered unsafe, irrespective of the results of E. coli analysis.” [Health Canada (2012). Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document — Escherichia coli. Water, Air and Climate Change Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario].

Who would have thought that E.coli could lead to a drastic action? According to the attached Act, it is now a crime to collect environment data in Wyoming, USA. Background information shows that streams in Wyoming are polluted by E.coli, caused by cattle grazing in the area, and perhaps, the ranchers are influential, and hence this Act.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Fri, 22 May 2015 05:18:00 +0000
Re: Emergency Relief Appeal for Nepal - by: dorothee.spuhler
Just to let you know that we are still happy for any contribution.
The first earthquake has caused many deaths and injuries. But during the days after, optimism and upbeat came up again.
Now, after the second big tremble there exists great despondency. People are afraid that the earth is going to shake again and again and a feeling of powerlessness is spreading.
Kathmandu, where ENPHO is mainly active seems not to be too much affected comparing to the rural areas hardly accessible.
However, camp settlements are building up as people are still too afraid (legitimately) to sleep in their houses and safe drinking water and sanitation will play a major role to prevent larger epidemics.
Even though the relief phase is not likely to end soon and economically, this will be a huge drawback for Nepal, Nepali people are used to affront situations which seem hard to overcome and we are confident that it will soon go upward again. We will keep your donations ready for this moment in order to contribute to the rehabilitation of the water and sanitation situation together with ENPHO.
Please visit for regular update.

Kind regards


Post-Earthquake Assessment at Siddhipur

Source: ENPHO]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 18 May 2015 15:20:57 +0000