SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Wed, 10 Feb 2016 04:37:35 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Using Twitter to map out our network - by: arno
1. The Guardian did a review of the top Water and Development Twitter Influencers prior to the World Water Week meeting in 2014:

The results gave the following top users:
World Bank
End Water Poverty
UN Water
Sanitation and Water for All
WASH Funders

2. It’s difficult to scan Twitter to find the most active users for a specific topic. Searching for a topic provides a fixed and limited number of user addresses.

3. Statistics are hard to come by and are sold by entrepreneurs. The quality of the data cannot be corroborated. Twitter only provides statistics on your own account. One source from Dec 2015 is In terms of global outreach Twitter is dominated by users in the US and Europe. There about 100 million daily users. The average number of followers is about 200 per account.

4. The first impression is that this is not a very effective tool for outreach within the area of environment and development let alone the WASH or sanitation sectors. Still there are small communities that have developed.

5. A look at who follows @susana_org provides about 2500 followers These in turn can be analysed to expand the network. There are software tools to help analyse social media data that can result in illustrations like this one:

If you are interested we could delve into this a little further to assess the sanitation network on Twitter, who is who and who is doing what. We could compile some relevant questions and observations which may be of interest to others on the Forum.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 09 Feb 2016 16:58:15 +0000
Re: Waterless Toilet that Turns Fecal Matter into Clean Water and Power - by: emmanuel
I can propose you Ecodomeo toilets that has no limitation in using because the toilet system just divert urine on one side and fecal mater in the other side.
I send 3 systems in India in 2012 but I do not know if they are in use now.
I know that Ecodomeo toilets are expensive and if you want lots of toilets, we can develop a specific model, a basic model, really much cheaper but we need quantities.
I propose you visit Ecodomeo web site and tell me if it is what you are looking for or not and you want to do in the future.


Emmanuel Morin
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 03 Feb 2016 07:45:14 +0000
Looking for sanitation solution for water scarce areas - Odisha, India - by: sampark Note by moderator: This post was originally in this thread about the nanomembrane toilet by Cranfield University:


Dear Mughal,
I am in sanitation business in Odisha, India. I am delighted to get a solution for water scarcity areas. It will work better, where there is scarcity of drinking water. Can it be possible to have this model in Odisha ?

Waiting for your feedback.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 01 Feb 2016 08:10:46 +0000
The Painful Side of Poor Sanitation - by: F H Mughal The Painful Side of Poor Sanitation

It is now widely known that the lack of toilets at homes impose a great stress on girls and women. They have to wait till dark to relieve themselves. This has a major impact on the health of girls and women. But the most important and devastative aspect is that the women and girls become vulnerable to rape.

Many cases have occurred in India and Pakistan, where the girls and women were raped while going out in the dark for relieving themselves. One can very well imagine the trauma of the victims.

According to a BBC news (, photographer Smita Sharma has been chronicling the lives of rape victims in India for years. Helped by local health workers and non-governmental organisations, Ms Sharma has travelled the length and breadth of the country to meet survivors of rape and record their stories.

The BBC post gives account of six victims, with one (Rithika, 15) becoming victim while going out to defecate. The post says:

Rithika now suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and has not spoken since the incident.

This shows stress of the highest order on the victims. The post further says: “In India, almost 60% of rural households lack access to toilets, making women vulnerable to sexual assault.”

Reading this painful story, one can only hope and pray that sanitation for all becomes a reality in a shortest possible time.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 30 Jan 2016 16:08:05 +0000
Pollution in Ganga River, India - by: F H Mughal Pollution in Ganga River, India; and Indus River, Pakistan

A write-up in the highlights the increased pollution in Ganga River, India (

It appears, efforts were made in the past to clean up the Ganga, but apparently, success could not be achieved. According to the write-up, Ganga receives industrial wastewaters. “The river passes through five Indian states covering 26% of the country’s land and supporting 43% of its population, and all of them are helping pollute it further rather than clean it up.”

As reported, according to a study, “a significant increase in the concentration of all heavy metals, including lead, zinc, vanadium, nickel, chromium, cobalt and manganese in sewage and mixed water samples due to increased effluent discharge from the catchment area.”

It is clear that there are industrial discharges in Ganga, causing increase in the levels of heavy metals. A control over industrial wastewater discharge, a costly proposition, can clean up the river.

In case of Indus River here, a study by Karachi University reveals increased contents of arsenic and lead ( Unfortunately, the study did not identify the sources of lead and arsenic.

Although there are industrial wastewater discharges in Indus River, it should not result in increased levels of lead, as Indus River is a very large water body. Increased levels of lead, therefore, are a bit surprising.

Increased levels of arsenic could be, most likely, attributed to the soil strata, as a number of wells of towns in Sindh province, located near to Indus River, have high arsenic content.

Both these cases (Ganga and Indus River) show there is an urgent need to treat both municipal and industrial wastewaters, before they are discharged in receiving streams.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 19 Jan 2016 16:41:51 +0000
Re: Creating an Impact in Sanitation - by: JKMakowka
But I would be happy to hear from some people working in "policy" etc. (where most of these buzz-words seem to originate from) some actual suggestions and proper research what works and what not ]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 13 Jan 2016 06:52:18 +0000
Creating an Impact in Sanitation - by: F H Mughal Creating an Impact in Sanitation

Two recent blogs seem to give a way forward as to how to create an impact and, achieve encouraging progress in the field of water, sanitation and hygiene.

John Sauer, Senior Technical Advisor for PSI’s WASH program, gives 3 ways through which the impact can be increased. These are:

1. Proactive versus reactive planning to strengthen government’s role;
2. Engaging the private sector; and
3. Bringing it all together: collective impact.

These aspects make sense, as it is always best to adopt proactive planning, though in Pakistan, it is always the other way round, that is adopting the reactive planning. PPP (public-private partnerships) is gaining importance in many countries, including Pakistan. Collective impact seems more like the cumulative impact that is normally aimed for in assessment studies.

John Oldfield, CEO of WASH Advocates, suggests the following for jumpstarting progress on WASH:

1. Focus on 100 per cent;
2. Believe it to see it; and
3. Create and strengthen political will.

Focusing on 100 per cent is an important point, which I will highly recommend to be advocated. It is generally found that municipal departments focus on a particular spot (say, a village) rather than a range of areas. A case in point is the “sanitation and water for all,” approach that is highly sensible and rational.

In most developing countries, political will is the most important aspect that drives progress in sanitation and water. The main reason for slow progress in sanitation in Pakistan is the lack of political will.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 13 Jan 2016 05:49:25 +0000
pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement - by: F H Mughal pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement

A useful 56-page book has been published by Xylem (attached) on pH measurement, with the title
pH Handbook - A Practical Guide to pH Measurement.

The interesting aspect of the handbook is that it explains the basics of pH in great details. For those, who would like to dig deep in the basics of pH, this publication would be of great help.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 18 Nov 2015 16:04:34 +0000
Sanitation Made Difficult by Improper Attitudes (an incident about business class toilet use on a flight) - by: F H Mughal Sanitation Made Difficult by Improper Attitudes

A passenger, Edita Kmetova, who was recently traveling from Vienna to Abu Dhabi on Niki, an Austrian low-cost subsidiary of Air Berlin, was handcuffed, after she used the business-class bathroom.

See details here:

Kmetova didn’t feel well during the flight and, seeing that the economy toilet was occupied, headed to one in business class. When she exited, she was encountered by cabin crew, angry passengers, and one of the captains; an argument ensued and Kmetova was handcuffed. The altercation must have been pretty bad, because the pilot decided to make an emergency landing into Erzurum Airport in Turkey.

Kmetova says she needed to use the business-class bathroom because she was sick.

Kmetova’s version is: “During the flight, I suddenly got nauseous and rushed to the lavatories. First the passengers interfered, then the flight personnel. They argued with me, and eventually they handcuffed me. They then abandoned me in Erzurum, a place I could not even find on a map if I tried. I was left all alone. At that point, I broke down into tears.”

This isn’t the first time a desperate passenger’s attempt to bolt to the front of the plane has resulted in arrest. In 2009, Joao Correa — who was reportedly suffering from traveler’s tummy — tried to use the business-class bathroom on a Delta flight from Honduras to Atlanta. He spent two days in jail and was facing federal charges before he agreed to a plea deal.

In Pakistan, women are, generally, not allowed to use mosque’s toilets. In one case, a woman was desperate to use the toilet. From the look at her face, one can tell that she must desperately go the toilet. She was accordingly allowed.

The point is that the toilets, with all those displayed gaudy aspects, are places where one can relieve. Preventing access, when one is desperate to use it, is a great injustice. People need attitude adjustment.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 01 Nov 2015 16:15:51 +0000
Re: Beyond Retirement - Still in my garden laboratory (wells, pumps, toilets, gardening) in Harare, Zimbabwe (by Peter Morgan) - by: KaiMikkel
I just had a look through your document and am very appreciative that you took the time to explain your backyard projects in photos and writing. I expect that your ideas will inform my own moving forward. Thanks!]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 15 Oct 2015 19:04:15 +0000
Beyond Retirement - Still in my garden laboratory (wells, pumps, toilets, gardening) in Harare, Zimbabwe (by Peter Morgan) - by: morgan
Whilst I am now almost retired, I still continue to tinker about in the back yard with developments which may have some value in the WASH sector. I sent this document (see below) to Elisabeth recently and she thought those who view the susana files may be interest to view this account, although most of the works are related to water. Then water supply, hygiene and sanitation are closely related - or they should be.

So I am sending this account from someone who has been tinkering for over 40 years and beyond.

From the table of content:

1. Simple improved family wells
2. Hand Drilling and the bailer bucket
3. The Blair Pump – new developments
4. The Zimbabwe Bush pump – new developments
5. Rainwater harvesting in the homestead
6. Saving water in the homestead
7. Ring beam gardens – an update
8. Blair VIP. Recent trials

Best wishes
Peter Morgan]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 13 Oct 2015 07:50:18 +0000
The "Drinkable Book" - by: F H Mughal The “Drinkable Book”

A book, called “drinkable book,” has been developed that can be torn out to filter drinking water. The book combines treated paper with printed information on how and why water should be filtered. Its pages contain nanoparticles of silver or copper, which kill bacteria in the water as it passes through.

The book was tested at 25 contaminated water sources in South Africa, Ghana and Bangladesh. The paper successfully removed more than 99 per cent of bacteria.

Dr Teri Dankovich, a postdoctoral researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, developed and tested the technology for the book over several years. "It's directed towards communities in developing countries," Dr Dankovich said, noting that 663 million people around the world do not have access to clean drinking water.

All you need to do is tear out a paper, put it in a simple filter holder and pour water into it from rivers, streams, wells etc and out comes clean water - and dead bacteria as well. The bugs absorb silver or copper ions - depending on the nanoparticles used - as they percolate through the page. Ions come off the surface of the nanoparticles, and those are absorbed by the microbes.

More details at:

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 18 Aug 2015 10:45:48 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso Thank you for your response. We know its indeed we have out of the topic of sanitation but discussing camel urine and milk is a very crucial matter we would like share with you some of our observations are the following.
1 Diabetic treatment.
2 HIV//AIDS/ treatment.
2 De worming.
3 body health and stronger if you use seven days.
Sorry to bother you with this topic and it's necessary to share health matters for the benefit of human kind.
By Hassan Isaak

Note by moderator (EvM):
The discussion on such alleged health aspects is outside of the scope of this forum and we would like to close the discussion thread at this point. Further inputs on this topic will not be accepted.
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:22:59 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso
Thanks for your input about the the camel urine and milk.We have noted your concern and we have seen the practical advantages camel urine not the blood, people who have diabetic diseases who normally uses camel urine and milk gets better the level of the sugar reduces drastically. On the other hand it kills the internal worms of the body. also it cures skin problems such as skin fungal is eliminated by the camel dung when it become dry when it you rub it on the skin gently until it produces blood the affected place of the skin. Thus if you use the camel urine and milk for seven days your body become stronger and healthy also it camel urine and milk cures HIV/AIDS this is proven and practical made by the people who keep the camels especially those who permanently uses, we will invite you to visit a camel range see the benefit of camel urine and camel milk then you can research of it.
NB we don't use the camel blood.
By Hassan Isaak
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:05:52 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey (results from PhD thesis of Adam Saffer, UNC Chapel Hill, USA) - by: AdamSaffer Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:24:36 +0000