SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 31 Jul 2015 23:28:45 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Poor Sanitation in Villages – How to Keep a Village Clean? - by: F H Mughal Poor Sanitation in Villages – How to Keep a Village Clean?

Despite the fact that the Muslim religion, Islam, lays great stress on cleanliness and hygiene (cleanliness is next to Godliness, a famous saying in Islam), the villages and towns are often dirty and unclean. The main reason for this is two-fold. One, the janitors do not do their job properly and responsibly. Second, the people themselves are careless about hygiene and cleanliness.

It was, frankly, a bit surprisingly, to find a clean village in India. The village is Tamnath near Karjat, Maharashtra, as detailed in a propoor newsletter ( The post also carries pictures of the village, which are worth seeing. The pictures show that the people, beyond doubt, have really kept the village clean!

Why the village is clean? The post gives reasons, which are:

• The village is focused on sanitation. It has achieved 98 per cent sanitation;
• A small temple advocates cleanliness;
• People have a sense of hygiene;
• Subsidy is easily available for those who wants to build toilet at home;
• Sweepers came early in the morning and clean the village;
• The villagers do not litter around;
• A girl would not marry a boy, who do not have a toilet at home (!!); and
• (unfortunately), a wall of shame.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 19 Jul 2015 05:30:13 +0000
Re: Information request on anal cleansing and water contamination - by: kengelly
I'd love to hear any thoughts on Dan's question.

Specifically, I'd be interested to hear not only about anal cleansing water and its implications for the environment but also if anyone has any thoughts/experience on managing this water in densely populated areas (e.g. informal urban settlements).]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Tue, 07 Jul 2015 22:59:56 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso Thank you for your response. We know its indeed we have out of the topic of sanitation but discussing camel urine and milk is a very crucial matter we would like share with you some of our observations are the following.
1 Diabetic treatment.
2 HIV//AIDS/ treatment.
2 De worming.
3 body health and stronger if you use seven days.
Sorry to bother you with this topic and it's necessary to share health matters for the benefit of human kind.
By Hassan Isaak

Note by moderator (EvM):
The discussion on such alleged health aspects is outside of the scope of this forum and we would like to close the discussion thread at this point. Further inputs on this topic will not be accepted.
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:22:59 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso
Thanks for your input about the the camel urine and milk.We have noted your concern and we have seen the practical advantages camel urine not the blood, people who have diabetic diseases who normally uses camel urine and milk gets better the level of the sugar reduces drastically. On the other hand it kills the internal worms of the body. also it cures skin problems such as skin fungal is eliminated by the camel dung when it become dry when it you rub it on the skin gently until it produces blood the affected place of the skin. Thus if you use the camel urine and milk for seven days your body become stronger and healthy also it camel urine and milk cures HIV/AIDS this is proven and practical made by the people who keep the camels especially those who permanently uses, we will invite you to visit a camel range see the benefit of camel urine and camel milk then you can research of it.
NB we don't use the camel blood.
By Hassan Isaak
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 19:05:52 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey (results from PhD thesis of Adam Saffer, UNC Chapel Hill, USA) - by: AdamSaffer Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:24:36 +0000 Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: joeturner
Some scientists say there is a significant risk of catching Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) from consumption of camel urine and blood.

These are some blogs by a virologist on the subject (with lots of academic sources):

see also this very recent paper:]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 09:31:59 +0000
Re: Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: muench
It's always nice to hear from someone from Somalia on this forum. Hoever, I am not too sure if the topic that you raised is sufficiently closely related to sanitation issues? The common element is urine but otherwise it's not so related.

Anyhow, for all things to do with claimed or real health benefits, I can recommend to you Wikipedia where many people are striving to provide good health information. You can find an article here about "urine therapy":

You can see there that its health benefits are claimed by many people, even e.g. many public figures. I think when you search the internet you will find it is quite common still in many countries.
However, according to the Wikipedia article:
There is no scientific evidence of a therapeutic use for untreated urine.[5][10][13]

Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 22 Jun 2015 09:10:00 +0000
Re: Questions about SuSanA's actions, from Mozambique - by: rochelleholm Thank you for your note about training programs available in Mozambique.

In Malawi, Mzuzu University has train-the-trainer WASH programs available and have had participants from Mozambique attend our low-cost sanitation training programs.]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 21 Jun 2015 02:23:35 +0000
Camel urine and camel milk is a health for human being and what are the benefit? - question from Somalia - by: boorso
Please tell us more about camels urine? As i know it has great value to the human body as a medicine and a therapy. So, can we share our knowledge about camel milk and camel urine. Kindly share your views with us.
By Hassan Ali Isaak
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 20 Jun 2015 21:54:24 +0000
Train Toilets - by: F H Mughal
Train Toilets

Toilets in homes, hospitals and in schools have been highlighted and discussed on this forum. Toilets in trains, and in the railway stations, have not yet been discussed.

In this country, the train toilets, and toilets at the railway stations, are most pathetic. They are unclean and emit bad odors. The janitorial staff, responsible for their cleaning, is not quite efficient in performing their job. As a result, the toilets are, most of the time, dirty and wretched.

However, a new train service, launched on 15 May 2015, called Greenline trains, have fairly improved toilets. They are cleaned every 2 hours, due to strict top supervision. Many people have appreciated the condition of toilets in Greenline trains.

A unique way has been adopted to keep the Greenline trains’ toilets clean, and to run the trains on time. If the toilets are clean and the train runs on time during a month, then the train staff would get honorarium during that month. And, if the toilets are dirty and the trains are not punctual on their timings, during a month, a certain percentage from the salaries of staff would be deducted during that month. This keeps the staff on their toes!!

Recent news in Bangkok Post ( shows that toilets at 77 train stations are being improved. A photograph of toilet, shown in the Bangkok Post article, depicts a picture of very clean and appealing toilet.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sat, 20 Jun 2015 18:54:29 +0000
Questions about SuSanA's actions, from Mozambique - by: EdTshitol I am Ed Tshitol , I am completing a Masters In Water Engineering and Management
I am living in Mozambique. I would like just to know:

- How SuSan does measure the impact of its actions worldwide, in Africa and specifically in Mozambique?
- Does Susan have a program of training trainers aiming to expend and reach its objectives?

Mozambique is a country that may have to live forever with seasonal floods each year. Most of the time, to address the issues following floods, people are displaced to safe, and given the first help. But the environment in the aftermath is very health risky.
- Does Susan ever plan to address Hygiene & Health matters in that context encouraging research subject ?
Particularly when it come to the use of well waters or borehole waters as it is common in urban and rural areas in Mozambique.

Best Regards

Miscellaneous - any other topic Thu, 18 Jun 2015 18:15:18 +0000
Re: Five Heroes of India - by: rahulingle
Hero number 5. Dr. Mapuskar
Malaprabha Technology in Dehu village, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra, India
Draft SuSanA case study

Hero number 2. ERAM]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Mon, 15 Jun 2015 09:39:29 +0000
Five Heroes of India - Who Are Dirtying Their Hands For A Clean India! - by: F H Mughal
Five Heroes of India

It is rare in South Asia that we have dedicated persons in the field of sanitation – persons who work hard and change the present inappropriate practices in sanitation to the next level. The next level could be any thing from creating awareness, changing behaviour to giving incentives for building appropriate toilets, and making sanitation sustainable.

Recently, I came across 5 heroes of India (

The 5 heroes are:

1. Namita Banka – Taking the ‘Bioloo’ to every corner of the country

Namita Banka and her team at Banka Bioloo is working hard to ensure that an eco-friendly toilet can be a reality in most homes in India so that the two major issues facing the country – poor sanitation and open defecation can be effectively combated. The team is constructing bio-toilets for homes, public places, community areas, schools and institutions; bio-tanks for Indian Railways and other clients; bio-digesters (the bacterial culture) for bio-toilets and bio-tanks; and upgrading septic tanks to bio-tanks.

2. Eram Scientific – Creating India’s first unmanned e-toilet
(Not a person, but a private company)

The unique toilet design by Eram Scientific Solutions Pvt. Ltd. is solving rural India’s sanitation problem in a more technology-friendly way. These toilets work on a sensor-based technology. The self-cleaning and water conservation mechanism in the toilet makes it unique. The user has to insert a coin to open the door and its sensor-based light system is automatically turned on once you enter the toilet. It also directs the user with audio commands.

3. Atul Bhide – The one man army

Atul Bhide from Mumbai is leading rural India to a healthier future, one toilet at a time. When he saw the poor sanitation condition in Maharashtra, he went ahead and constructed 10 toilets from funds of Rotary Club Thane Hill where he held president’s position. The team then constructed 200 toilets in Solgav village of Maharshtra. Each toilet is equipped with two soak-pits with special honey-comb designed brick work inside. They are odour-free, and do not require a separate drainage system.

4. Swapnil Chaturvedi – The “Poop” guy

When his daughter complained about lack of clean accessible toilets in school, he started Samagra with an objective of providing awesome sanitation services to the urban poor. He calls himself the “chief toilet cleaner” and says that even if there are toilets, people will not use them if they aren’t clean. Thanks to his efforts, the urban poor, especially teenage girls, live a more dignified and convenient life.

5. Dr. Mapuskar and his amazing toilets in rural India

Dr. Mapuskar has been working in the field of rural sanitation for the last 50 years. His first efforts to build 10 toilets failed as those toilets collapsed in the monsoon. But he did not give up and began promoting a better technology and design of bio-gas toilets developed by Appasaheb Patwardhan. Today, there are 75 such bio-gas toilets functioning in the village, apart from 1000s of toilets in the villages which are now open defecation free. Over the next 5 years, Dr. Mapuskar modified the original design and developed the Malprabha bio-gas toilet.

Who would be the 5 heroes of this forum? Can anybody pen them down?


F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 14 Jun 2015 06:33:09 +0000
Re: SuSanA Network Analysis Survey RESULTS - by: AdamSaffer
I have bullet-ed your questions and responded to each below.

  • I have picked out some more of your results that I deemed important for the readers of this page. Do you agree with my selection, is it balanced? Or would you like to add further key points?

Yes, this is a good selection of the important results. Of course, each member might find other results to be more important depending on their needs and position.

  • I have also linked to the Wikipedia page on social network analysis (, is that page fairly good?

This is a very good source. And good for connecting to influential pages such as that one.

  • What is the title of your PhD thesis? (perhaps its URL can be added at a later stage then; I understand that your "PhD thesis is under copyright embargo by PhD granting university. It will be made publicly available January 2016 when the embargo is lifted.")

My Ph.D. thesis (called a dissertation in the U.S.) is titled, SHARED MEANING IN NETWORKS: A MIXED METHODS APPROACH TO STUDYING SOCIAL CAPITAL IN AN INTERNATIONAL COALITION. I've attached a draft for member of SuSanA to view if they are interested on my Academia page.

  • Can I also upload this report to the SuSanA library so that it can be more easily found in future? I could provide a link to your page as well, and our page also tracks the views and downloads.

Yes, please upload to the library if you'd like. Here is a link to the report.

  • How does Figure 2 and 4 in your report differ to the figure that you have added to the forum post? I am still not clear on that.

Figure 2 merely shows all of the connections among partners in the SuSanA network. The visual illustrates the consistency of connections among partners but is also telling of who is central to the network. The more well-connected partners are positioned at the center of the network visual. In Figure 4 the visual is identifying partners others in the network see as important within the SuSanA network. The partners with larger dots (called nodes) have higher communication importance scores. The communication importance score is an aggregate of partners indicating how important their communicative relationships with other SuSanA partners are. For example, we can see Eawag has a large blue dot, which means others who are connected to Eawag indicated find the communicative relationship (the exchange of information, professional knowledge, and support) important to their organization's success in the sustainable sanitation space.

Does that help explain the difference?

  • In the interviews are you sure that people answered “as partner representatives” instead of “as individual members”? it could be quite difficult to keep the two "hats" separately, for people who wear both.

Yes, this was an issue for some people but in the interviews I made an effort to ask which "hat" they were wearing. If there is a specific instance you are referring to, I'd be happy to clarify.]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 10 Jun 2015 23:00:57 +0000
Collecting Environmental Data is a Crime in Wyoming, USA - by: F H Mughal
Collecting Environmental Data is a Crime in Wyoming, USA

Poorly-managed and poorly-constructed latrines allow the excrement to get into groundwater, and in surface water bodies that supply drinking water. According to UNICEF, one gram of feces can contain 10,000,000 viruses, 1,000,000 bacteria, 1,000 parasite cysts, and 100 parasite eggs.

E.coli is a type of faecal coliform bacterium that is found only in faeces of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Presence of E.coli in water indicates faecal pollution and the possible presence of pathogenic types that often occur in the intestines as well.

Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Presence of E. coli in a water sample is a good indicator of recent faecal contamination.

According to a Canadian publication: “Although the presence of E. coli is a good indicator of recent faecal contamination, such contamination is often intermittent and may not be revealed by the examination of a single sample. Therefore, if a sanitary inspection shows that an untreated supply is subject to faecal contamination, or that treated water is subject to faecal contamination during storage or distribution or is inadequately treated, the water should be considered unsafe, irrespective of the results of E. coli analysis.” [Health Canada (2012). Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document — Escherichia coli. Water, Air and Climate Change Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario].

Who would have thought that E.coli could lead to a drastic action? According to the attached Act, it is now a crime to collect environment data in Wyoming, USA. Background information shows that streams in Wyoming are polluted by E.coli, caused by cattle grazing in the area, and perhaps, the ranchers are influential, and hence this Act.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Fri, 22 May 2015 05:18:00 +0000