Notice: Undefined index: mime in /pages/ae/e2/d0008859/home/htdocs/sites/susanaforum3x/libraries/joomla/document/feed.php on line 215
Topics in Category: Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds - SuSanA Forum Sat, 27 May 2017 23:22:47 +0200 Joomla! - Open Source Content Management /media/kunena/images/icons/rss.png Topics in Category: Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds - SuSanA Forum en-gb Key documents for the sub-category on constructed wetlands - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation for new people regarding the most important 3-5 documents in the thematic area of "constructed wetlands".

The initial selection was done by me, but this is open for discussion and can be adjusted regularly.

Recommended top 3 documents in the thematic area of "constructed wetlands" in reverse chronological order:

Langergraber, G. (2013). Are constructed treatment wetlands sustainable sanitation solutions? Water Science and Technology 67(10), 2133-2140, doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.122

The paper discusses the features that make constructed treatment wetlands a suitable solution in sustainable resources-oriented sanitation systems, the importance of system thinking for sustainability as well as key factors for sustainable implementation of constructed wetland systems. Constructed treatment wetlands meet the basic criteria of sustainable sanitation systems by preventing diseases, protecting the environment, being an affordable, acceptable, and simple technology.

Hoffmann, H., Platzer, C., von Münch, E., Winker, M. (2011). Technology review of constructed wetlands - Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for greywater and domestic wastewater treatment. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany
A Spanish version is also available: .

This booklet focuses on treating domestic/municipal wastewater or greywater with subsurface flow constructed wetlands with coarse sand as a filter medium. The emphasis is on the application in developing countries and countries in transition. In the publication, an overview and basic guidance is provided on the design and maintenance of horizontal flow beds (HFBs), vertical flow beds (VFBs) and the “French System”. A description of the most common pre-treatment systems is also included due to their vital importance for the proper functioning of CWs.

Morel, A. and Diener, S. (2006). Greywater management in low and middle-income countries, review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods - Sandec Report No. 14/06. Sandec (Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries) at Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), Dübendorf, Switzerland

This report compiles international experience in greywater management on household and neighbourhood level in low and middle-income countries. In urban areas of LMIC, greywater is commonly discharged untreated into drainage channels, use untreated greywater for agricultural purposes, thereby leading to environmental degradation and exposing the population to health risks. Though greywater is generally less polluted than domestic or industrial wastewater, it may still contain high levels of pathogenic microorganisms, suspended solids and substances such as oil, fat, soaps, detergents, and other household chemicals.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time.

Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Wed, 10 Dec 2014 10:38:05 +0100
Horizontal vs Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland - by: ogeda
I am almost through with the process of submission of thesis. working on manuscripts for publication in journal]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Tue, 08 Nov 2016 16:44:36 +0100
Alternative to gravel stones for filter media of Constructed Wetland - by: canaday
My idea is to use the cylindrical part of the 3-liter PET bottles, which are roughly the same diameter as 11-cm PVC pipe. They also get slit up one side, such that they COULD open up flat. A hole gets melted with a hot nail in each corner. A 1-cm-diameter rope gets tied spirally around the perforated drain pipe. The PET gets stitched with string around the pipe and rope, such that the gap runs along the bottom. The crushed tops and bottoms of the bottles are placed under this gap, on the bottom of the excavation.

With this, sand and silt cannot filter, with water flow and gravity, into the pipe. They would have to be carried up 5 cm vertically, but not directly, due to the rope, the tops and the bottoms.

This is a bit labor-intensive, but doable, and the worst thing would be to build the wetland and have it plug. Recylers would be glad to provide the bottles at some low cost, and it would not matter if they had previously been crushed.

Good luck with your project. Let us know how things go.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Tue, 12 Jul 2016 10:47:21 +0200
Household greywater treatment in water-stressed regions in cold climates using an ‘Ice-Block Unit’:Perspective from the coldest capital in the world - by: nazimuddin
A new study on household greywater treatment in the coldest capital of the world has just been published. The full paper can be downloaded from the following link:

The study shows a novel, hybrid concept of a constructed wetland for the first time in a
water-stressed region in the coldest capital in the world, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. This system was based on storing water during the winter freezing period as an ice block, and then starting treatment during the summer/non-freezing period. Results showed that the maximum removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrite, total suspended solids, phosphorus,and Escherichia coli were up to 100%, 99%,97%, 97%, 87%, and 98%, respectively. The effluent met the neighbouring country, China's, municipal discharge standard of A grade effluent and could also be considered restricted and unrestricted irrigation water as reported in other studies. The system has proven potential from a technical point of view and can be scaled up to community or cluster levels. This would enable reduction of greywater-borne hazards in low, middle and high income countries with similar contexts.

Best regards

Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Mon, 20 Jun 2016 16:35:53 +0200
Simple device to deliver water to CW in interval without external power needs or electronic gadgets "Open Design" - by: AquaVerde 2. trail – more successful = 6.4 l/s flow within 100 mm diameter pipe (250 L in 39 s),

because of „Floating valve“ have now
- shorter arm
- smaller floater
- counter weighted (just by a piece of scrap metal)

It needs now a nicer finishing for the counter weight.
A flexible hoses instead of a bellows might do it too...

Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Wed, 15 Jun 2016 16:30:19 +0200
Sludge Treatment Wetland (STW) for anaerobic digested slurry. A study case in Gujarat, India - by: secretariat

Thanks for providing the latest results.

You can find the case study (MSc thesis) in the SuSanA Library now:

Kind Regards
Jasmin (on behalf of the SuSanA Secretariat)]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Mon, 08 Feb 2016 13:45:40 +0100
wetland construction plants and salt and drought resistance plants (question from Iran) - by: fppirco
Thank you so much for your kindly mail It is my pleasure you are American ,no problem I ask of European because it more close to my country . I am Susan member and know many of German and Switzerland ,Austria sanitation activist and they know me as well as they are very kind and assist me for any issue I needed information . I also know many persons in USA ,I am gomig to lunch systematic and sustainble cooperation for sanitation and wetland construction development as well as, So could you please provide me mail and website which I can contact with you.
I am Sending my summarized C.V for your information

I thank in advance.
Mohammad Mojtabaei
P.O Box:91865-358
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Tue, 13 Oct 2015 07:22:01 +0200
Manual for greywater treatment in sand and gravel filters in English - by: CWendland

Greywater management is complementing sustainable onsite sanitation solutions such as an ecosan toilet.
This manual explains how greywater can be treated in a sand or gravel filter before being re-used or discharged. Different greywater filter designs have been demonstrated in Georgia in two villages close to the Black Sea by the Georgian NGO RCDA with guidance by the student Lukas Huhn from Hamburg University of Technology. The technology is very efficient, relatively simple, low-cost and can be realized by practitioners in rural and peri-urban areas of most settings.

Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Thu, 23 Jul 2015 17:10:42 +0200
1950-60 - Inventor of ALL Constructed (engineered) Wetlands: Ms Dr. Käthe SEIDEL 1907 - 1990 - by: muench
FYI Detlef, there is also quite a good Wikipedia article about her in the German Wikipedia:

(if you have additional information or references about her, feel free to edit the article)

She could also be mentioned in the history section of constructed wetlands in the English Wikipedia article on constructed wetlands (which still needs more work): ]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Wed, 08 Jul 2015 11:29:51 +0200
Floating Treatment Wetlands only for tropical climate conditions? - by: AquaVerde
I know this excellent paper by Prof. Tanner, but it is just based on "warm" Auckland, NZ condition B)

My "quick and dirty", maybe educated guessing is based only on "warm & cold" anaerobic experienced made on ABR... I know, not much similar.

During "cold" winter time nutrient uptake by floating plants will be "0", but "The Biofilm" will still do a "job", more or less similar to ordinary aerobic CW's.

Maybe I could use roughly as a start and comparison less needed CW- m2/p.e. for the tropics?

Maybe mentioned reference: Van de Moortel A.M.K., Meers E., De Pauw N., Tack F.M.G. (2010). Effects of vegetation, season and temperature on the removal of pollutants in experimental floating treatment wetlands. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 212:281-297. will indicate more, but I do not have access and it is just based on a laboratory tests. I prefer real rough conditions ;-)

Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Wed, 08 Jul 2015 05:11:23 +0200
Fruit trees irrigated by grey water in Uganda - by: former member
Note by moderators: This post was made by a former user with the login name Ababu who is no longer a member of this discussion forum.
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Tue, 30 Jun 2015 19:15:56 +0200
Constructed wetland to treat cleaning water from ecosan composting toilet (SOIL) poop buckets/drums - by: Marion
Thanks for your thoughtful answers and advices!

About me, I'm an environmental engineer passionated about ecological sanitation, waste management. I studied at EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland) and UBC (Vancouver, Canada).
I'm working for SOIL since a year now as the SOIL project coordinator in Cap Haïtien (Haïti). SOIL is working in Haïti in ecological sanitation an since 2006. We provide different services: households toilets, mobile toilets (for events, construction sites), and communal toilets. We have 2 composting sites where we treat all of the wastes generated in our toilets.
We are now focusing to develop our household toilet program: Ekolakay toilets. These are container based households UDD toilets. It's a service meaning our customers pay for the Ekolakay toilet every month (about $5 per month). We currently service 320 Ekolakay toilets and are looking to reach a 1000 by the end of 2015.
(more info--> )

Thanks Jeff for the interesting paper, I think biochar could be indeed something to look at (maybe mixed with the growing medium?). I'll dig into it.

Christoph, yes, the septic tank should include storage. We have been using since 2 years and a half a small septic tank. We recently opened the first chamber and we have approximately 90cm of sludges at the bottom.
We are currently looking to get our effluent tested for TSS and BOD. The effluent requirement we are looking to achieve is focused on pathogens reduction: 1-2 log E.Coli reduction. We have about 200 square meters of land available.

Canaday, the current system was not designed for the amount of cleaning water that we are producing now. The septic tank we have is too small and not achieving sufficient pathogens reduction. Our well (hand pump) is located approximately 30m away from our current septic tank, the water-table is 6m below the ground level.
We clean about 600 buckets (5 gallons) and 120 drums (15 gallons) each week.
Regarding our cleaning process, the buckets are first cleaned (with water from our well) with a pressurized water jet, then soaked into a disinfection bath (water+HTH) during 1 minute and then dried by sun exposure during 1 hour. Remember that these buckets are filled with a mix of poop and cover material (sugar cane bagasse and crushed peanut shells) and that poop can stick to the sides of the bucket. We have to disinfect the bucket regarding legislation and also because in a country like Haiti where we are still dealing with a cholera epidemic, typhoid and various other waterborne diseases we need to be sure we are providing 100% safe equipment in our toilets.
Interesting question about if bagasse floats, I'll dig into the reedbed idea!

Carol, the buckets are cleaned, disinfected dried and filled with our cover material (mix of sugar cane residues and peanut shells) that our customer put aside when they put the bucket back into the toilet. For that reason the bucket need to be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected (health and odor issue).

Have a great day!
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Mon, 16 Mar 2015 20:09:47 +0100
Nice and quick overview about constructed wetland's historical developments, by David AUSTIN, USA - by: F H Mughal
The attached publication, a joint publication of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Protection Agency,Army Corps of Engineers, Fish and Wildlife Service, and
Natural Resources Conservation Service, is a guide on wetlands, and goes on to define the basics, like, what are wetlands, why restoration is necessary, importance of wetlands, etc. It is an interesting publication and, would be useful to the new users in the field.

F H Mughal]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Sun, 21 Dec 2014 07:17:53 +0100
Treatment of Wastewater from Olive Mills - by: JKMakowka
Here is a good overview chapter on the OMWW issues at hand and possible treatment options:

Seems like it is a problem with much active research going on, but so far little suitable (low-cost & low maintenance) treatment solutions.]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Mon, 03 Nov 2014 15:38:04 +0100
The "French CW" type (constructed wetlands) - System costs - by: AquaVerde
After understanding step by step (very slowly... ;-) the simplicity and advantages of this "French" system, I am a fan too :)

In my opinion too, one centralized 100%-STROMLOSE "French" 500 pe CW plant is the right engineering solution, as we have enough slopes and an existing "mix-system", not "my" many (13x) little "German" CW's. Sand availability and existing soil conditions are favorable and always a prerequisite part of my usual preliminary "lump's".

I made purposely this strange comparison with my own lump netto prices (incl. little tanks + siphons), as I will very likely not be able to convince the well organized village people + mayor, having only very high "German pilot-prices" at hand for a much better and simpler "French solution".

Originally this above mentioned first French system in G. been planed for total 370.000 EUR:
7 CW-ponds, 860 m², 4,3 m2/pe
+ 100 m sewer DN 400 (I guess 450 EUR/m)
+ culvert;
+ storm water flow-dividing structure;
+ Pump station

After 800-1.000 French systems already nearby in place (in France), we can not talk or call it anymore a German "first pilot plant" just from the technical and economical point of view. But yes it can be just called an innovation for Germany.

I am asking for realistic French/European LUMP costs EUR/m2 for the "pure" CW plant incl. siphons, for a first rough budgeting + decision finding stage.

If you compare e.g. planing & constructing of large power-plants in France or in Germany, they would most likely have very similar costs...

Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:57:12 +0200