SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Tue, 22 Jul 2014 15:00:17 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: WRC Publication: DEWATS Process for Decentralised Wastewater Treatment - Technical Lessons From eThekwini Municipality - by: osbert Thank you for posting this great work. Am particularly amused by the colour of effluent, physically is looks like drinking water. Could you be having values about the colour of influent and effluent. Where in the system was the highest removal efficiency in terms of colour. How do you compare the general performance of VGF and HGF. Then i dont know whether i missed this in the report, was the system continous flow? what is the inflow rate, HRT, SRT and biogas production rate?

Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Fri, 18 Jul 2014 07:19:32 +0000
WRC Publication: DEWATS Process for Decentralised Wastewater Treatment - Technical Lessons From eThekwini Municipality - by: ChrisBuckley
The South Water Research Commission publication entitled "DEWATS PROCESS FOR DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT - Technical Lessons From eThekwini Municipality" has just been published.

You can download it here:;type=2&id=2039

The municipality in conjunction with Borda and the municipal design consultants are designing DEWATS systems to treat the wastewater from Community Ablution Blocks serving informal settlements outside the sewered area of the municipality. The intention is for the treated wastewater to be used for agriculture or discharged to a water course (where no suitable agricultural land is available).

Additional information is available at


Chris Buckley Pollution Research Group University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sun, 13 Jul 2014 14:28:49 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: sjoerdnienhuys @ canaday, The gas is commonly burned directly or first purefied and than burned. It is the effluent which is ploughed into the land which may cause problems. In The Netherlands there is insufficient sun to sterelize the effluent the whole year through.

I keep searching for more answers.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 12 Jul 2014 13:43:20 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: joeturner]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:15:31 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: joeturner

The microbial diversity of biogas was analyzed in order to examine the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms. Six biogas samples were analyzed: five from mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestors treating different wastes, and one from landfill. Epifluorescent microscopic counts revealed 106 prokarya m-3. To assess the difference occuring in aerosolization, 498 biogas-borne 16S ribosomal DNA were analyzed and compared to published anaerobic digestor microbial diversity. Results show a large microbial diversity and strong discrepancy with digestor microbial diversity. Three different aerosolisation behaviour patterns can be identified: (i) that of non-aerosolized microorganisms, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Thermotogae, Chloroflexi phyla and sulfate-reducing groups, (ii) that of passively aerosolized microorganisms, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and (iii) that of preferentially aerosolized microorganisms, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, as well as strictly aerobic and occasionally pathogenic species, presented high levels of aerosolization.

Microbial characteristics of biogas Marina Moletta, Nathalie Wery, Jean-Philippe Delgenes and Jean-Jacques Godon, Water Science & Technology

Whilst one might hope that all pathogens would be destroyed by combustion, there is obviously still a risk given that this will very likely not be complete combusion.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:07:11 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: canaday
This is an important question.

It seems that what I just posted on another thread may give sufficient treatment:

I would not worry about disease transmission via the biogas. Have bacteria ever been documented to be carried by biogas? In any case, all the biogas should hopefully get burned, right?

mentions a number of toxic and non-toxic options.

What about solar pasteurization of the effluent in solar hot water heaters (as was mentioned recently for treating urine in Vermont or Connecticut in the USA)?

BSE (or Mad Cow Disease) is a bigger problem as it is caused by a prion that does not reportedly even get distroyed when cooked.

I am still confident that the root zone treatment in the constructed wetlands that I mentioned may be able to eliminate all of these pathogens. Metagenomics would be a good tool to test this.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 09 Jul 2014 04:36:57 +0000
Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: sjoerdnienhuys Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 07 Jul 2014 12:29:30 +0000 Feasibility of "recovery of dissolved methane" via "enclosed stripping cascade" without air supply? - by: AquaVerde
I am thinking to try out a kind of "enclosed stripping cascade" after the AD-effluent filter (party-filter) of an ABR and having a permanent -0,5 - 0,8 bar (negative pressure) to recover dissolved methane. All my possible undertakings in this regard have an "Open Source" tag on it. All results and necessary mistakes will be shown to you.

I found little via Internet on "recover dissolved methane" from AD-effluent.
- "Dissolved Methane: A Hurdle for Anaerobic Treatment of Municipal Wastewater"
"...some technical approaches for recovery of dissolved methane from treated effluent have been proposed, for example, membrane separation, air stripping etc., their feasibility has not yet been fully evaluated in terms of economic viability and process safety. Without proper technical solutions, dissolved methane would be a technical hurdle for broad application of anaerobic processes for treatment of municipal wastewater that contains only low organic constituents."

"closed DHS reactor"

For the rough worldwide condition, I guess it is better not to go for stripping via membrane. Therefore and for simplicity reasons an "enclosed cascade with negative pressure" might be one option!?

First stage scale 1:10: using of the shelf a 400 mm PE-pipe having exchangeable cascades inside to create an "enclosed stripping reactor" (cheap to make: 200EUR)
Second stage real scale: using as an enclosed reactor off the shelf a modified very small domestic bio-film wwtp "Clearfox nature" made out of PE, see link, which have inside already a cascade made of loos plastic fabrics (2.500 EUR)

My question to you is, would it be necessary to have like the DHS a permanent air supply to this enclosed reactor to strip Methane out of the effluent? Could it be already enough, just to "beat" the effluent via cascade and exposing effluent simultaneously to a negative pressure?

Looking forward to your replies

All the Best
Detlef SCHWAGER]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Thu, 03 Jul 2014 16:44:19 +0000
Re: FYI: wwtp ABR + CW for 7,500 m3/d in Saudi Arabia for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, since May 2013 - by: AquaVerde
...The system consists of two parallel ABR tanks followed by a set of 6 aerated horizontal subsurface flow wetland cells (each one about 4000 m2). Additional treatment is provided by 2 x Bauxite Residue Filters (4000 m2 each) [for disinfection].
There is no reuse of the biogas in this case.

At the Alcoa Technology Centre in Pittsburgh, USA they also have an ABR + aerated wetland system [for their cold climatic condition] for treating the sewage from the facility. ...
maybe the location? :]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Fri, 06 Jun 2014 17:06:54 +0000
Re: Ashiaman polyclinic biogas plant (Ghana) - Sanitation, Water Supply and Hygiene Services Delivery to the Urban Poor in Ghana through Tripartite Partnerships - by: AquaVerde
Nice job done!

May you explain more about the filters after the digesters mentioned on page 7 Figure 1.2c: The Filtration bed and in sketch on page 8 "5. Digester Effluent Filtration Bed". Is it only a concrete box with gravel and concrete cover? Do this system need a periodical exchange of filter material?
Do you have any information about COD's and BOD's of digester effluent before and after the filter?

Which system do you use for "6. Gray water Filtration Bed" ?

Tanks in advance.

Best Regards,
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 04 Jun 2014 07:50:04 +0000
Re: Improved Sanitation, Water Supply and Hygiene Services Delivery to the Urban Poor in Ghana through Tripartite Partnerships-ASHIAMAN POLYCLINIC BIOGAS - by: muench
Thanks for introducing TREND in Ghana here on the forum and for attaching the brief description of the biogas treatment plant for wastewater from a clinic in Ashiaman.

Information for the others: I was interested in sanitation projects funded by the African Development Bank via the African Water Facility (AWF) which has received 12 Mio USD by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in 2011, as you can see here:

The African Water Facility set up a new website last year where you can filter projects by content (e.g. sanitation) and by country. This is how I found this project by TREND which is briefly described here on the AWF website:

May 2013 – The Training Research and Networking for Development (TREND) a local NGO, received a € 1.1 million grant to finance the construction of a waste treatment plant that can produce about 500 tons of fertilizer per year, and can generate about 580,000 kWh per year of electricity from the biogas produced from the process. The project will also contribute to improving the hygiene, health and the quality of life of an estimated 125,000 underprivileged urban dwellers by providing them access to new, safe sanitation services through the expansion of the Ashaiman Municipality’s sanitation coverage. Overall, the project will facilitate the development of a business model, with potential for leveraging resources from the private sector for further scaling up to other areas of the Greater Accra Region.

A related project was recently introduced by Aart from Safisana here on the forum:

Seems to be lots of activities on biogas in Ghana now!?

Dear Dwuodwo, in your attached report you wrote:

Most importantly, the successful operation of the biogas plant and the washroom would accelerate the
uptake and diffusion, and deployment of biogas plants in other metropolitan, municipal, and district
assemblies. The Ashaiman plant which is the first known biogas plant in a clinic will serve as a model for
the replication of the technology in all the polyclinics in the country. This will help achieve a significant
greenhouse gas emission reduction, address key environmental, water and sanitation challenges in
health care institutions, while making the operations cost-effective.

Could you please explain to me:
  1. When was this biogas plant commissioned?
  2. Who is responsible for operation and maintenance?
  3. How much did it cost (total and calculated as per person served)?
  4. Has the gas production met your expectations?
  5. What is being done with the biogas?
  6. What is the effluent quality like and what do you do with the effluent or with any digested sludge?
  7. Who designed the plant?
  8. What is the relationship between your project and the one of Safisana?
  9. Do you see any initiatives for copying the design for other hospitals in Ghana?

And what was or is your role in this project?

Thanks a lot for answering my questions, I look forward to reading from you on the forum.

Kind regards,
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Tue, 03 Jun 2014 19:00:21 +0000
Re: Instructions for building UASBs & ABRs? - by: AquaVerde
With the direct permission of Prof. Perry McCarty may you add this US-patent (PDF) to the public library of The ABR-patents are so old that time has run out to enforce them. I don't believe anyone can now have a legitimate claim on a patent on the basic aspects of the ABR anymore, although they could have on some finer details, which others can probably get around if they wish. All is now just "Stand der Technik" = 'state of the art'.

It is my intention all the basic aspects/details of an ABR (bioconversion reactor) are more in public and coming from the original source!

McCarty, P. L. and Bachmann, A., "Bioconversion Reactor," U.S. Patent No. 5,091,315 (February 25, 1992).
McCarty, P. L. and Bachmann, A., "Bioconversion Reactor," European Patent No. 0213691 (July 22, 1992).

This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042 awarded by the Department of Energy to the solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The invention was developed at Stanford University under Subcontract No. XR-9-8174-1 awarded to the Board of Trustees at Leland Stanford, Jr. University by SERI. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

I found this text part very interesting, as it showing that in USA important results of R&D which been funded by tax-payers money ending not up only for personal gain by the inventors. As fare I know in Germany is "privatizing" of public funded R&D-work just the standard. Maybe someone can correct me on this?

Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Tue, 03 Jun 2014 12:22:02 +0000
Ashiaman polyclinic biogas plant (Ghana) - Sanitation, Water Supply and Hygiene Services Delivery to the Urban Poor in Ghana through Tripartite Partnerships - by: TRENDGROUP
The Training, Research and Networking for Development (TREND) Group was established in April 1989 as a component of a UNDP-sponsored, World Bank executed project called the "Low-cost Human Waste Management Project in Kumasi." TREND was conceived within the framework of the International Training Network (ITN) for Water and Wastes Management Programme which was promoted by the UNDP/World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme, and is currently one of five centres established in Africa under the Programme. From its establishment until April 1995, TREND was located within the Department of Civil Engineering at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Since the expiry of donor support in 1995, TREND has been operating as an independent self-supporting national NGO and is currently located at the WASH House in Dzorwulu, Accra.

TREND has operated as a legal entity in Ghana over the past 15years. It has the needed profile, legal eligibility and reputation within the sector as a key consultancy group, resource centre and research and training organisation. The profile and reputation of TREND in planning and delivery of WASH services is illustrated by the scope of donors, projects and international partners that it is associated with.


TREND’s main areas of operation in its mission to ensuring sustained delivery of water supply and sanitation facilities are targeted at rural areas, small towns, and deprived urban areas. Over the past 15 years TREND has accumulated significant experience working on activities within the following areas/themes:

1. Rural/Small Towns WASH Services Delivery
TREND has 15 years of experience of supporting WASH delivery in community based projects in rural areas and small towns.
Water Supply: The scope of interventions has included sector studies, project formulation and development of MMDA and community capacity for post construction management.
Environmental Sanitation: TREND is seen as a leader in terms of sanitation development and has been involved in sanitation component of several projects. The scope of activities has included technology choices and design, marketing and funding. In recent times the group has been playing a key role in development of the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach and in development of sanitation ladder approach including the construction of sanitation markets (SANIMARTS).

School sanitation and hygiene:
Hygiene education and promotion of behaviour change

2. Pro-Poor Urban Water Supply Issues: TREND has over a decade of experience in development of WASH services to poor urban areas. The Group is seen as leaders in pro-poor project planning and development and is currently implementing the Tripartite Partnership Project (TPP), - a 3 million Euro Action research project that is focusing on development of innovative management schemes for addressing WASH challenges in poor urban areas within 3 Municipalities/districts. The scope of experience has involved infrastructure improvements, and development of structures for sustained management of facilities. Organisational development in support of decentralised management and multi-stakeholder partnerships constitutes core principles for interventions.

3. Urban Environmental Sanitation Services Delivery
4. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)

Our activities have mostly been in Ghana though the Group has a history of carrying out short term assignments in Anglophone West African Countries such as Gambia and Nigeria. The key services and products delivered in these sectoral segments are as follows:

1. Baseline studies, Sector Studies and Applied Research
TREND is experienced in carrying out specific technical studies including engineering design studies and capacity assessments towards the design of pilot project interventions. The scope of issues covered under the various studies involves: Institutional Assessment and Capacity Needs assessments, Baseline and scoping studies and Formative research (in support of social marketing and behavioural change interventions - KAPB studies), Engineering Studies: including hydro-geological assessments, geotechnical investigations to enable complete design and costing of all infrastructural improvements, Environmental Assessment, Project monitoring and evaluation studies, Economic and Financial Analysis: Data gathering including field data to enable economic and financial (investment) analysis.

2. Designs and Costing of Project Components
TREND’s emphasis on development of knowledge through research and piloting of projects means that the Group is also well acquainted with the challenges of project formulation, facilities design, construction management and contractual issues and project management.
The Group has accumulated considerable hands-on experience in the design and management of contracts relating to Analysis of strategic options for project interventions, Project formulation, including costing and appraisal, Engineering Designs and costing of various systems: Point sources/piped system; Environmental Sanitation Systems (Household and Institutional toilets – design costing of various technologies); Drainage and Wastewater disposal systems (toilets and SANIMARTs, urban drainage, household wastewater disposal); Solid waste systems – wide experience in development of small towns systems, including building of structures for sustainable management

3. Other Aspects of Project Support (During Implementation and Post Construction)
Within the WASH sector, TREND has adequately aimed at maintaining internal capacity to facilitate the implementation of the complete range of activities involved in the WASH service delivery chain. The range of experience relating to project implementation is amply illustrated in the ongoing AfDB sponsored "WASH services delivery to the Urban Poor in Ghana through Tripartite Partnerships (TPP Project)".

4. Capacity Building (Institutional/Organisational and Human Resource Development)
TREND’s establishment objective is to support the processes by which individuals, groups, organisations and institutions increase their abilities to perform core functions related to pro-poor WASH services delivery in a broad context and in a sustainable manner. Capacity building is achieved at 3 levels:

• Human Resource Development (HRD)
• Organisational Development (OD)
• Institutional Development (ID)

 Special Effort towards the Development of Capacity for Monitoring and Evaluation
TREND’s experience is that effective project wide monitoring system based on control of indicators and high quality process documentation is often essential to achieve the learning objectives of Projects. In our scope of activities we differentiate between Monitoring for Effectiveness (in terms of project impact and outcomes e.g. on access to the poor, sustainability) and Monitoring for Efficiency (in terms of investment efficiency and achievement of expected targets).

 Knowledge Management and Advocacy
The Water and sanitation sector in Ghana has achieved much by way of coverage improvement but the process has not incorporated much learning or knowledge management. TREND is playing a lead role in the effort through the establishment and resourcing of a Sector Resource Centre Network (RCN) to transform the water and sanitation sector into a learning and knowledge driven sector. TREND is leading the effort to develop capacity for Assessing knowledge requirements, Documentation of sector learning events and case studies and development of information products/services, Encouraging the dynamic sharing and utilisation of information resources with a view to improving investments in the Ghanaian Sector, Serving as a key sector memory base where documentation of sector experience including unpublished literature will be safely kept, Facilitating networking with other key knowledge institutions in pursuit of knowledge development and sharing.

TREND played a key role in establishing and currently hosts the Secretariat of the Resource Centres Network (RCN) which serves as a hub for Sector Learning and Sharing in Ghana. The Group is considered the lead trainers/resource centre in issues relating to knowledge management.

• TREND has been engaged in a number of projects funded by bilateral and multilateral agencies including AfDB, GTZ, KfW, DANIDA, World Bank (IDA), UNDP, UNICEF, CIDA, DFID, JICA, etc., and have undertaken various assignments jointly with several local NGOs and local/foreign consulting groups.
• TREND has provided support to Projects under various government Agencies, private and CSOs like the Ministry of Food and Agriculture; Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD); the Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL – Urban Sector) - formerly Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC/GWCL); the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA); National Development Planning Commission (NDPC); as well as several NGO implemented initiatives.
• As the decentralization process in Ghana has deepened, the District Assemblies have also increasingly become important as clients. The Group has been involved in various projects spanning over all 10 regions within Ghana.
• International experience has included brief experiences in Gambia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Burkina Faso, Mali and Sierra Leone. Within the scope of these services, direct support has been provided to several metropolitan/municipal/district assemblies, NGOs and CBOs and the private sector.


Short presentation from February 2014 of the AWF-funded Tripartite Partnership Project which ended in late 2013.

Also attached you will find a short write-up on the best example of waste treatment and reuse that was involved in the Project.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Tue, 03 Jun 2014 12:03:15 +0000
FYI: wwtp ABR + CW for 7,500 m3/d in Saudi Arabia for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater, since May 2013 - by: AquaVerde
- Seeing the very small long section pictures, after the ABR it looks like an aerated horizontal flow Constructed Wetlands (Actively aerated treatment wetland system, and a down-stream filter with bauxite gravel for final polishing.

- No information found about use of biogas from the ABR.
- Seeing the large picture, probably the municipal wastewater being transported by larger tankers (honey-sucker) to the ABR of wwtp.

The wetland system been engineered since May 2013 by BAUER Resources GmbH: and ABR by others?
Alcoa’s Natural Engineered Wastewater Treatment system comprises three steps: (1) an anaerobic treatment tank that removes metals and breaks down and separates organic material in the water; (2) a passive engineered wetland that utilizes vegetation for further treatment of organics and removal of nitrogen; and (3) a cell housing bauxite-based technology that disinfects and polishes the water. The result is water treated to the same or better quality as that of a conventional system.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 02 Jun 2014 08:15:53 +0000
Re: DEWATS case study - by: AquaVerde]]> Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 24 May 2014 08:43:13 +0000