SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sat, 28 Mar 2015 11:03:15 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Fwd: Hello.. re: DRDO Biotoilet - by: pkjha http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12479 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12479
Your information- DRDO biotoilet has basically two components: an anaerobic tank having special design and a small constructed wetland (reed bed), which may be incorporated on the top of the tank........Reed Bed is incorporated at the household systems may be on the top of the tank.
It is difficult to understand to implement reed bed at the top of the tank.Pl. send a sketch and flow diagram of the system. You may like to inform whether reduction of pathogens and BOD in effluent is the function of toilet or reed bed. If both, what is percentage of reduction through each system?

regards
pawan]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sun, 15 Mar 2015 08:28:13 +0000
Fwd: Hello.. re: DRDO Biotoilet - by: drlsoumya http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12450 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12450
Thank you for your mail and I am also sorry for my late reply, as I was outstation.

You sent the following queries by e-mail to me:

One immediate question I have: we were told on the forum so far that this system is also used on trains in India. But you can’t get such a wetland onto a train? Also, the information provided so far only spoke of the effluent from the anaerobic tank, but not from the constructed wetland. I think this is where a lot of the confusion came from.



To answer your queries:

1. DRDO biotoilet has basically two components: an anaerobic tank having special design and a small constructed wetland (reed bed), which may be incorporated on the top of the tank.

2. Tank is a fully sealed construction. Fecal matter from toilet comes to tank directly, where, DRDO developed bacterial group (ontime incorporation at the time of first use) initiates faster digestion. Here I must mention, in the common anaerobic steps, First Hydrolytic and last Methanogenic is very important.

3. Through our research we have augmented the bacterial population so that they can hydrolyse mostly all of the undigested material. The design of the tank help a proper retention time for the bacteria to act upon the various substrates.

4. Methanogens are endusers of this system. Keeping proper attention, we have also augmented different methanogens from various sources to run the system smoothly. Being Acetogenic and Methanogenic steps are fully anaerobic in nature, we designed our tank in that manner.

5. Thus a robust consortium has been made for all four steps that feeds on human fecal matter. Further, there are numbers of bacterial homes (attachment sites) that help to make the reactor more robust and efficient.

6. Reed Bed is incorporated at the household systems may be on the top of the tank. Through simple piping arrangements (without input of any extra energy, like operating any pump) the effluent water comes out to the reed bed, that help to further reduce the COD, turbidity, and the coliforms and other pathogenic bacterial load (done a detail study in my laboratory why reed bed is so efficient!). It is very interesting to say that, the water after reed bed treatment is very safe to reuse for reflushing, thereby reducing the water loss in the flush-toilet system for more than 85%. Further, the size of the reed bed is much less than the conventional practices, thereby reducing the space. People can landscape the whole thing in front of their home/ apartments/ institution with the Biotank-Reedbed combination.

7. Railway doesnot use reed bed. There are several factors were kept in mind to design a tank for the railway as a mobile platform. However, with a very innovative design with DRDO & Indian Railway Scientists, the tank is successfully being implemented in all the coaches. The internal design of the tank is more or less same.. but external shape and size is different from the tank for the households/ stationary toilets.


Kindest regards

soumya


--------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Soumya Chatterjee, DRDS
Scientist D & Head, Biodegradation Technology Division
Defence Research Laboratory
Defence R&D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India
Post bag no 2, Tezpur 784001, Assam, India
Phone: +91 3712 258508 (O); Fax: +91 3712 258534 (O); +91 9435738428 (Mob)]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Thu, 12 Mar 2015 03:50:59 +0000
Fwd: Hello.. re: DRDO Biotoilet - by: drlsoumya http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12449 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12449
Greetings!

I am writing this post in continuation with your recent SuSanA forum conversation regarding DRDO Biotoilet by Banka Bioloo team.

Let me introduce briefly. I am Soumya, working as Sr scientist at Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO), the research wing of Min of Defence, Govt of India. I am also heading a division at my laboratory.

DRDO is working on the Biotoilet aspects from long back. Having several field trials, amendments, research DRDO is opening up its one of the very important technology, which, seems, very important globally. With several ministries (including Indian Railway) Govt organizations, a good number of private companies, DRDO has MoU for implementation of this technology; and during this Swach Bharat Mission, our product is the technology for our country India. Lot many installations are there in India.

This is an Ecofriendy (effluent can be reused, no energy input, no man-power required for cleaning the tank), Appropriate (different climate and conditions, including mobile platforms) and affordable (cost less than a conventional household septic tank system) technology. I am sending you a writeup for your perusal, please.

Kindest regards

Soumya

--------------------------------------------------------
Dr. Soumya Chatterjee, DRDS
Scientist D & Head, Biodegradation Technology Division
Defence Research Laboratory
Defence R&D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India
Post bag no 2, Tezpur 784001, Assam, India
Phone: +91 3712 258508 (O); Fax: +91 3712 258534 (O); +91 9435738428 (Mob)]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Thu, 12 Mar 2015 03:50:21 +0000
Re: Lessons Learned from the Dissemination of Biodigesters for Sanitation in Haiti, from 2010 to 2013 - by: Anthony http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11396-lessons-learned-from-the-dissemination-of-biodigesters-for-sanitation-in-haiti-from-2010-to-2013#12180 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11396-lessons-learned-from-the-dissemination-of-biodigesters-for-sanitation-in-haiti-from-2010-to-2013#12180
Thanks for your comments and for posting the FSM3 presentation.
Indeed you would be very welcome to upload the document to the SuSanA library.

I did get some good feedback during FSM3:

• I took the opportunity during my presentation to ask the assembled room of experts whether they thought a biodigester as a stand alone process unit was an effective waste treatment technology? I was happy to see that not a single person raised their hands. A simple literature review will confirm this, and also suggest that a biodigester is used only in conjunction with other downstream units; usually and ABR and then a PGF. However, this important qualification was overlooked during the Haitian experience, and has been overlooked in other contexts too.
• I also asked the experts whether they thought a biodigester produced a "useful" quantity of biogas if only using human waste? In this case about half of the room raised their hands. If we can, for a moment, overlook the obvious answer of "it depends", and also the question "what does a "useful" quantity of biogas actually mean"?, then this anecdotal straw poll suggested to me that within the FSM sector, there are those who believe in harvesting the energy potential from human waste, and those who are more skeptical.
• After my presentation, I heard from some rather vocal advocates of biodigesters, who did not agree with my cautious "Don't sex up the technology" recommendation, and held the firm belief that biodigesters were actually rather sexy, and should be marketed as such. I suppose we all have good and bad experiences of one technology or another, which forms our opinions over time.
• Finally, I was happy to meet Christopher Kellner of BORDA-TED who recounted other examples where biodigester dissemination programmes had not been all that they had hoped to be - Tanzania; Nepal?; (perhaps Afghanistan?).... I would love to hear more about these programmes if Christopher or his colleagues are reading this.

I agree with you Elisabeth in that I would like to see more Lessons Learned documents produced. After all, we learn the most from our mistakes do we not? And with all the billions of dollars spent on sanitation interventions around the world, and with all the billions of people who remain without sustainable sanitation, surely there are many opportunities to capitalise on lessons learned, and avoid the duplication of mistakes.

For those who are interested to hear more on the unfolding Haitian biogas saga, we are optimizing a few of the 99 biodigesters which were built; those which are accepted and well managed, so as to maximise the potential benefits. There will be more in depth research into these biodigesters, and a research document will follow in due course. We'll keep you posted.

Best Regards,
Anthony.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sun, 22 Feb 2015 15:50:47 +0000
Re: Lessons Learned from the Dissemination of Biodigesters for Sanitation in Haiti, from 2010 to 2013 - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11396-lessons-learned-from-the-dissemination-of-biodigesters-for-sanitation-in-haiti-from-2010-to-2013#12087 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11396-lessons-learned-from-the-dissemination-of-biodigesters-for-sanitation-in-haiti-from-2010-to-2013#12087
Thanks for making this document available, can we also upload it in the SuSanA library?
I really do like "lessons learned" type documents, especially when they are not afraid to talk about failures and things that didn't work.

In your executive summary it said - which I think is relevant for many people working on biogas sanitation:

The report shows that over the 4 year period, most of
the biodigesters did not deliver on all of their objectives
of sanitation, biogas and biol, although the majority of
toilets connected to the biodigesters were evaluated as
‘functional’. There were isolated examples of success
in all 3 objectives, for example in markets and in dense
urban areas where users paid to use to toilets and the
Operating Agencies acted diligently in the execution of
their management tasks.

The report’s discussion and conclusions explain the
complexities of biodigester implementation, and state
the lessons learned. The report’s recommendations focus
very strongly on the need for more specific research
in Haiti, and the importance of implementing biodigesters
for sanitation of human waste only as modules in a
DEWATS approach, rather than as stand alone units. Finally
the recommendations highlight the need to always
commence with a strong implication of the Operating
Agency when implementing DEWATS projects.


Here is also the link to Anthony's presentation at the FMS3 conference:

Lessons learned from the dissemination of biodigesters for sanitation in Haiti, from 2010 to 2013: Anthony Benedict Kilbride, Sustainable Sanitation Consultant, Port-au-Prince, Haiti
www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-d.../2-3-4-2Kilbride.pdf

Anthony, could you tell us what kind of feedback you got after the presentation, i.e. questions and further discussions with participants?

I copy a couple of findings from your presentation below:
+++++++++++
  • Only a few biodigesters (22%) had the means t use the biogas…
  • … and even fewer (8%) actually produced any usable biogas.

Lessons Learned
• Don’t rush the pilot.
• Don’t sex up the technology.
• The management plan is made by them, not for them.
• Implementation requires skilled and experienced professionals.
• Piloting requires research skills.
• No such thing as a ‘free’ toilet.
• Test the biol in a certified laboratory.
• Emergency/Early Recovery contexts - not conducive to dissemination of new FSM technologies.

++++++++++

The photos in your presentation are really interesting and I hope the video from your presentation (and from all the FSM3 presentations) will become available very soon (I know that the work on the videos is going on in the background at maximum speed).

Thank you for not being afraid to share with us something that hasn't worked out so well, I wish more people would do so instead of sweeping those kinds of experiences under the carpet...

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 16 Feb 2015 12:00:29 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter of UNIDO - BioLoo biodigester, ABR (India) - by: bankabio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12006 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12006 Dr Soumya Chatterjee is one of the scientists at DRDO, and involved in the bio-toilets.

Some of the parameters tested are pH, Turbidity, Suspended solids, Total dissolved solids, VS etc.

Not sure how many other providers have installed, but we may done around 1,000 for households (small tanks), schools and universities (large-sized) and 1,200 for Railways.

Had gotten busy with other matters, and couldn't come back on this.

These bio-toilets were used for defence personnel for many years, and have entered the civilian space recently.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 11 Feb 2015 15:26:59 +0000
DRDO Biotoilet in India (Defence Research & Development Organization, India) - biodigester, ABR, constructed wetland - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12003 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/12003-drdo-biotoilet-in-india-defence-research-a-development-organization-india-biodigester-abr-constructed-wetland#12003 Note by moderator: information about one company in India that is marketing the DRDO Biotoilet in India (Banka Bioloo) is in this thread: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-bio...such-as-banka-bioloo

+++++++++++++


Dear all,

I was just browsing through all the presentations from the FSM3 Conference in Hanoi (so much interesting stuff there!) and came across this presentation which I think describes the process that we have been discussing in this thread:

DRDO biotoilet: an eco-friendly appropriate and affordable sanitation solution for flush toilet system: Soumya Chatterjee, Defence research Laboratory, Defence R&D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Government of India, Tezpur, Assam, India

www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-d...3-2-2-Chatterjee.pdf

So I just wanted to bring it to the attention of those who have been following this thread. The video from the presentation is yet to come.

Sanjay, I appreciate all the answers you have given here in this thread (click here) but I think you forgot to answer the most important question that Christoph posed above:

And just one more question – could you give a rough number of how many systems are in operation – 10,100,1000? Just to get a better impression about the range of experiences, as sometimes with a very few – new systems the conclusions may be different from larger numbers.


Furthermore it is baffling me that - if you have these systems running for years already - you don't have the effluent quality data which Christoph asked for on your fingertips (or even on your website) as you said:
We periodically test the effluent water, will share the test results of the latest round as soon as i receive.


In fact looking back that post by Christoph from 2 January 2015 I noticed that you have not answered his questions. I think his questions are very valid.

Sorry if this has been asked before: but which effluent quality are the local Indian authorities stipulating for these systems before discharge into the environment?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 11 Feb 2015 11:17:13 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter of UNIDO - BioLoo biodigester, ABR (India) - by: bankabio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11509 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11509
We periodically test the effluent water, will share the test results of the latest round as soon as i receive.
The bio-digester has been used by Indian defence for a fairly long time for soldiers stationed faraway at borders and high altitudes with sub-optimal temperatures. We have in-licensed the technology 3 years ago and have installed in various states in India urban/rural everything, and very notably in Indian trains for waste treatment on-board.

Don't know what's being promoted in Brazil or elsewhere but the system that we use has come out of Indian defence R&D of many years.

Sanjay Banka

++++++++

Note by moderator: A related thread about the DRPO biotoilets that Banka BioLoo is marketing is here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-bio...-constructed-wetland]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Fri, 02 Jan 2015 15:38:58 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter of UNIDO - BioLoo biodigester, ABR (India) - by: christoph http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11507 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11507
I appreciate your enthusiasm for sanitation and apparently you are doing well in India with the system you are promoting. I have to admit that your system is against many of the scientific rules I learned at university and in practice – so I am not very convinced. But also I have to admit, that in warm climates I have "felt" - not proven - that some aspects are very much different from colder climates. But I am not able to say if that is due to lack of a continuous sampling or really a scientifically different aspect which has not been proven yet.

So please take my questions and observations as open questions, I am interested in the system but suspicious.

The effluent is fairly ok, slightly pale to white, and is odor-free and harmless.
The effluent water is pathogen-free

Could you elaborate a bit on these statements? Maybe post some general data of effluent quality and elimination rates? Or maybe I understood something wrong? What is discharged into the environment? Water course or infiltration? You state pathogen free. How could that be only after an anaerobic process? That is totally different from all other anaerobic systems and even with special bacteria in my understanding not possible. When you use it for gardening it should be at least bathing water quality in terms of coliforms, not to speak of helminth eggs. I don’t have the impression (would need some data of detention time – could you give us an idea about that?) that detention time is sufficient for retention of helminth eggs.
The advantage is that there's no sludge formation. No further treatment is required.
Always there is a good percentage of inorganic material = non degradable material n the wastewater – that means EVERY system which retains solids has a sludge build up. So I would understand if you say very slow sludge build up, but no sludge formation is impossible! So apparently you had no need to desludge up to now. What is the oldest system you have in operation?

And just one more question – could you give a rough number of how many systems are in operation – 10,100,1000? Just to get a better impression about the range of experiences, as sometimes with a very few – new systems the conclusions may be different from larger numbers.

Sorry for being so critical, but here in Brazil I am dealing quite often with "wonder" systems – ex. just a series of septic tanks and the inventor states “odor free, no coliforms and no sludge”. In reality we have been asked to operate such a system, as there was odor, coliforms and sludge in the effluent (we declined as it is impossible for us to solve the problems for the client). People get attracted by the statement because the system is cheap and needs no energy.
So it would be nice to get some data in order to understand better the process.

Thank you.

Christoph]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Fri, 02 Jan 2015 11:49:18 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter on UNIDO's www.greenindustryplatform.or - by: bankabio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11504 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11504
We have been in-licensees of the bio-digester technology for the last 2 and a half years. Never had such an occasion of getting struck-up.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Thu, 01 Jan 2015 05:58:18 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter on UNIDO's www.greenindustryplatform.or - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11502 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11502
Congratulations on being featured on the Green Industry Platform. That is a great honor!
Your biodigestor is interesting. Just one query - What do you do, if the biogestor gets struck-up, biologically?

Happy New Year,

F H Mughal]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 31 Dec 2014 16:22:40 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter on UNIDO's www.greenindustryplatform.or - by: bankabio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11489 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11489
Some more responses, and many thanks for all the suggestions. We attempt to put some in practice depending on resource availability at our end, and the desire/budget of the client.

-- Is there some reason that these bacteria cannot get out of the biodigester in the effluent?
The biodigester is a packed container or tank, hence these are not supposed to come out. The digestion process is anaerobic (absence of oxygen).

-- Can they survive in the open environment?
Don't know, not tried but they come in contact with open air when we pour in container or tank.

-- Can these bacteria survive in the human gut? What would they do to us? Has anyone ever gotten sick from contact with these?
Never came across a case but the bacteria aren't harmful.

-- Are these bacteria available in other countries or only in India?
No, inoculated here so far.

-- Has the effluent been tested for pharmaceutical chemicals?
We haven't done, didn't ask the DRDO. The effluent water is tested by us regularly.

-- Does your organization ever build Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (which also have lots of advantages)?
We currently focus on the bio-digester toilets. Have heard and read a lot about UDDT but didn't implement. Could think of sometime in future.

-- Why have we not heard of this type of Bio-Toilet/Biodigester before here on the SuSanA Forum?
We have shared few things, though never got discussed in such detail. Thanks to you, we have built a small repository on the Forum. Members, once back from holidays, should find it useful.

Thank you,
Sanjay]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Tue, 30 Dec 2014 16:13:38 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter on UNIDO's www.greenindustryplatform.or - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11483 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11483
Thank you for your quick response. This is very impressive.

Several webpages, including this one from the Down To Earth Magazine in India, state that the Indian Army collected these bacteria in Antartica. DTE also states: '' The tank made of cement had sheets with bacteria embedded in it and free-floating bacteria. The bacteria cannot move out of the sheets but can multiply.'' It is very interesting if the bacteria cannot leave the biodigester, but what about the ''free-floating bacteria''?
www.downtoearth.org.in/content/next-gen-toilets

-- Is there some reason that these bacteria cannot get out of the biodigester in the effluent? Can they survive in the open environment?
-- Can these bacteria survive in the human gut? What would they do to us? Has anyone ever gotten sick from contact with these?
-- Are these bacteria available in other countries or only in India?
-- Has the effluent been tested for pharmaceutical chemicals?

Here are two videos on these bio-toilets and bacteria, with scientists from DRDO:



It would be great if the biogas produced in these bio-toilets in trains could be burned in the motors of these trains, even if it only amounts to a small percentage of the total.

I still consider that it would be optimal to recycle the effluent to flush these same toilets, esp. in toilets on the trains and other mobile toilets, thus new water would only be needed for washing hands and anuses and there would be no concern about bacteria or pharmaceuticals going into rivers or groundwater. The cost of water would be almost entirely eliminated and water could be pumped with treadle pumps that are like exercise equipment (see video linked in the thread on this recycling).

-- Does your organization ever build Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (which also have lots of advantages)?

-- Why have we not heard of this type of Bio-Toilet/Biodigester before here on the SuSanA Forum?

Thank you for this discussion.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 29 Dec 2014 20:55:10 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter on UNIDO's www.greenindustryplatform.or - by: bankabio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11479 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11479
-- Who designed this biodigestor? (I see that you have listed as a technical partner the Defense Research and Development Organization. Did they provide the design? Are they part of the Indian Army?)
Yes, the Indian defence R&D arm, DRDO, designed and developed the biodigester. We have in-licensed the technology and improvize/innovate as per user need and surrounding.

-- What are the advantages of having the pipes different from those of an ABR?
Guess, the system's functioning is that way, nothing to compare with ABR. Biodigester follows the displacement method.

-- Where do the microbes come from? Are they diverse natural microbes from the bottom of a lake or other wetland, or were they cultured in a laboratory, or both?
The bacterial culture was developed in a lab, using varying strains. We inoculate the same at our plant for mass production.

-- What are the dimensions of this biodigestor? How deep it it? Is there a formula for calculating the dimensions according to the number of users?
Yes, the volume of the biodigester tank varies on the number of users.

-- How are the production and use of the biogas?
Biogas is produced as a byproduct, usage can be for heating/cooking etc. through piped connection.

-- How many have you built?
Wouldn't know the precise numbers but user-base comprises households, schools-universities, construction companies and factories, plantations, and most notably the Indian trains.

-- How transparent and odor-free is the effluent? Can you imagine using it to flush toilets again and again, in a never-ending loop that does not discharge into the environment, like we are discussing in the following thread?
The effluent is fairly ok, slightly pale to white, and is odor-free and harmless. It is discharged into the environment, seeps into the ground or used for gardening. We can have the option to use the water for flushing again and again. So far, no one has opted for that. There would be an additional cost associated.

-- With soak pits, there would be a risk of groundwater contamination, esp. if people consume well water not very far away. I suggest it would be better to have extensive leach fields (perforated pipes, buried not very deep) among fruit trees and banana plants.
As stated earlier, the effluent water is pathogen-free and harmless and left to the ground. We conduct regular water tests.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 29 Dec 2014 10:27:11 +0000
Re: Featuring Women in Green Industry Chapter on UNIDO's www.greenindustryplatform.or - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11478 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/11463-implementation-of-drdo-biotoilet-through-public-private-model-in-india-such-as-banka-bioloo?limit=12&start=12#11478
This is spectacular. Please allow me to ask some questions.

-- Who designed this biodigestor? (I see that you have listed as a technical partner the Defense Research and Development Organization. Did they provide the design? Are they part of the Indian Army?)
-- What are the advantages of having the pipes different from those of an ABR?
-- Where do the microbes come from? Are they diverse natural microbes from the bottom of a lake or other wetland, or were they cultured in a laboratory, or both?
-- What are the dimensions of this biodigestor? How deep it it? Is there a formula for calculating the dimensions according to the number of users?
-- How are the production and use of the biogas?
-- How many have you built?
-- How transparent and odor-free is the effluent? Can you imagine using it to flush toilets again and again, in a never-ending loop that does not discharge into the environment, like we are discussing in the following thread?
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-gre...ructed-wetland#11393
-- With soak pits, there would be a risk of groundwater contamination, esp. if people consume well water not very far away. I suggest it would be better to have extensive leach fields (perforated pipes, buried not very deep) among fruit trees and banana plants.

I look forward to hearing back from you.

Best wishes for the New Year,
Chris Canaday]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 29 Dec 2014 09:50:54 +0000