SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Thu, 31 Jul 2014 05:23:03 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: New book on "Anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste" - and interlinkages between waste recycling and sanitation? - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9527 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9527
In my view composting isn't a very promising solution as all evidence so far seems to show that compost is is not marketable at a price that makes it attractive.

Biogas on the other hand has a much higher (perceived) value and if direct utilisation for electricity generation is done, the engine waste heat can be used to heat the digesters to thermophilic conditions. This not only improves gas production speed, efficiency and quality (higher methane content) but also makes the resulting product much safer in regards to pathogens.
Edit: even more so in thermophilic dry-batch type reactors as a >55° temperature and 2-3 week long treatment period can be guaranteed. Thus EPA and WHO bio-solid regulations for safe reuse should be easily attainable in such a setup.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Tue, 29 Jul 2014 09:38:53 +0000
Anaerobic digestion of solid-waste and other interlinkages between waste recycling and sanitation - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9524 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9524
I agree with you when you say:
I think the inter-linkages between (organic) solid waste management and a eco-san service chain are pretty obvious, but so far no-one has really taken this up on a larger scale. Municipalities are of course the natural partners, and I think their interest in sanitation would also increase if it was "sold" to them as a combined eco-san / solid waste recycling approach.

In terms of technology, it is in particular the composting or the anaerobic digestion systems where organic solid waste and excreta could be treated together.

As we discussed elsewhere on the forum, one limitation for co-composting is the pathogen content of the faeces which makes e.g. the operators of composting plants hesitant to take in that material as it would give them an added complication compared to just treating organic solid waste that has no faecal pathogens (e.g. see here: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/70-com...-sludgemobile-toilet and here: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/70-com...without-soil-contact).

But in theory I agree with you and wrote about it six years ago in this conference paper from 2008:

Rüd, S., von Münch, E. (2008). Ecological Sanitation Projects from around the World and their Links with the Solid Waste Sector. ORBIT 2008, 13th - 15th Oct. 2008, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktype...mp;type=2&id=904


When I did a quick Google search on this topic now, I came across this interesting factsheet by GIZ about a current project they have in Benin on this. Let's see if we can get the people involved (Alexandra Dubois, Edith Albert, Sofia Garcia-Cortes) to tell us more about this interesting project here on the forum?

Solid Waste Management and Basic Sanitation

A pilot project for the improvement of hygienic conditions through integrated approaches for waste management and basic sanitation in Lokossa, Benin


Together with GIZ PEP (Water and Sanitation Programme, fr. Programme Eau potable et Assainissement) in Benin, the adviso-ry project decided to implement a pilot activity in Lokossa, a city with a population of around 77,000 inhabitants and located in south-western Benin.
The pilot project mainly includes the construction of several EcoSan latrines (ecological sanitation) for semi-communitarian use and a composting site, the collection and co-composting of organic solid waste from the central market and sanitary wastes from the latrines, and awareness raising campaigns.

Structures involved:
City council of Lokossa, Intercommunal group GI-Mono, NGO PROTOS, NGO DCAM Bethesda

Implementation:
September 2012 — August 2014

Specific objectives of the pilot project
  • To contribute to the improvement of the waste management and basic sanitation of the City of Lokossa, through innova-tive, ecological and sustainable solutions
  • To develop income-generating activities and boost the agri-cultural sector of the region on a long term, through the production of a natural soil conditioner (compost)

Long-term impacts
This project will help boost the agricultural sector while improving the hygiene of the city as well as health and sanitation situation of the population. The valorisation of biodegradable waste and excreta, replacing chemical fertilizers with alternative prod-ucts and reducing the practice of defecation in the open air will contribute to environmental protection and the preservation of public health.
The pilot project will contribute to improve the system of waste collection in the city and will also influence the socio-economic situation by allowing gardeners to improve the quality of their harvests and to sale the natural fertilizers produced at the com-posting site.

The factsheet is available here:
www.giz.de/expertise/downloads/giz2014-e...sanitation-benin.pdf

Is this a bit what you had in mind, Kris?

And do we have any readers from Benin, or working in Benin, on this forum?

Kind regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Tue, 29 Jul 2014 08:19:51 +0000
Re: new book on "anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste" - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9523 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9523

I think the inter-linkages between (organic) solid waste management and a eco-san service chain are pretty obvious, but so far no-one has really taken this up on a larger scale. Municipalities are of course the natural partners, and I think their interest in sanitation would also increase if it was "sold" to them as a combined eco-san / solid waste recycling approach.

Anaerobic dry-fermentation might play a pretty big role in it, especially if a cheap and easy to install digester like those mentioned above would be available. It's also pretty close to landfill-gas collection on a smaller scale.

Maybe as a general overview about Eco-san and dry-fermentation:
www2.gtz.de/Dokumente/oe44/ecosan/en-eco...ermentation-2002.pdf]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 28 Jul 2014 21:08:11 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9521 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9521
Global Biogas Market to Nearly Double in Size to $33 Billion by 2022
www.navigantresearch.com/newsroom/global...o-33-billion-by-2022

Forecast Report on Global Biodiesel Market and Biogas Industry
www.azocleantech.com/news.aspx?newsID=20524

Anaerobic digestion pipeline valued at £650m, says Green Investment Bank
www.greenwisebusiness.co.uk/news/anaerob...82.aspx#.U9Zi6o1dVk4

Waste to energy power plants could generate an eighth of U.S. power says Cleveland's Quasar Energy
www.cleveland.com/business/index.ssf/201..._power_plants_c.html
"The company's newest business model -- locating Quasar's technology inside a municipal wastewater treatment plant -- is beginning to smell like money. A lot of money."


Is this really the best use of our organic resources? We're shattering microbiomes akin to deforestation.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Mon, 28 Jul 2014 14:56:26 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9508 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9508 What other resistant organisms are we growing based on this technology? By the way, it's interesting that high clostridia counts are known in the imbalanced guts of autistic children, an insidious gut-brain connection.

Here's the latest PCR study where it's concluded biogas plants:
" . . . could present a biohazard risk of clostridia for humans and animals."


"The increasing number of biogas plants in Germany presents a danger of spreading pathogenic clostridia to arable land."
Detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes July, 2014
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12223-014-0334-2#page-1]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sun, 27 Jul 2014 21:28:08 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9505 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9505
As you brought of botulism, a disease which some people fear could be spread via clostridium botulinum in digestate from biogas plants (your example of dairy farms in Germany), I would like to point you to an existing thread on the forum where this was discussed:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-bio...nts-botulism-disease

Further discussions on this link - which is suspected by some but also rejected by many others - should be discussed there. I am not an expert in biogas systems but the detailed arguments by biogas specialist Heinz-Peter Mang in response to a statement by Prof. Ralf Otterpohl in 2012 put my mind at ease on this issue.

Please see the other thread (link above) if you are interested in this issue.
Heinz-Peter really went through quite some trouble to list all the relevant literature and studies from Germany on this topic. Well worth reading.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 26 Jul 2014 21:55:37 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9495 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/1630-health-risks-with-regards-to-biogas-systems-clostridium-botulinum-in-substrates-and-fermentation-residues-of-biogas-plants-botulism-disease#9495 Note by moderator: the following 3 posts were originally in this thread but have now been moved to this thread.
Original thread was: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-hea...o-identify-dysbiosis

++++++++++++++++++++


Anaerobic digestion (AD) is another area studied using new molecular techniques, helping us understand in fine detail how we are shifting flora balance with this waste disposal technology. My fear is both AD and WWTP damage ecosystems on the microbial level akin to deforestation. Why not concentrate on more natural systems, i.e., aerobic composting? AD is poised for explosive growth in the global marketplace. Sexy biogas technology generates electricity in disregard of long-term collateral damage.

In this swine manure AD study, first of its type, clostridia was not surprisingly found dominant. Is this why anaerobic digestion of waste is associated with chronic botulism in the environment?
Multiple approaches to characterize the microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester running on swine manure: A case study
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944501314000184

I'd like to read the full paper of this new AD study which states anaerobic digestion sludge samples
"were different from other microbial communities from activated sludge, human faeces, ocean and soil."
How were they different and what are the ramifications?
Metagenomic analysis of sludge from full-scale anaerobic digesters operated in municipal wastewater treatment plants.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24633414

Do operators of AD plants understand these issues? I've read many dairy farms in Germany were destroyed by chronic botulism in the environment when residual waste was allowed contact with livestock. This is a very controversial, hot topic.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Fri, 25 Jul 2014 14:19:17 +0000
Re: new book on "anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste" - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9476 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9476 Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:01:21 +0000 Re: new book on "anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste" - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9475 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/8571-new-book-on-qanaerobic-digestion-of-organic-solid-wasteq-and-interlinkages-between-waste-recycling-and-sanitation#9475
I have attached the most recent details I could find on that pilot in Ghana, but it seems that due to unsatisfactory results it has not been followed up on.

However due to the ease of construction/transport and the general availability of these containers (here in Uganda they are even used as part of houses) this is a really great idea and the sealing issues of the door don't seem like a insurmountable problem.

I also think that the choice of dry solid waste from a landfill really distorted the potential for biogas production, leading to the non-satisfactory low yields (although issues in operation and feed pre-treatment might have played a role also).

What I would be mainly interested in is the anaerobic "dry-batch" digestion (the term is a bit misleading as it just uses much less liquid) as a mean to set up a simple decentralized treatment centre for UDDT and latrine pit contents with smaller quantities of organic solid waste. Obviously with the aim to make it more attractive for a sanitation service provider to go and collect vault and pit contents.

Does anyone know of a study that evaluated biogas production from composting toilet/UDDT contents? I imagine that this mixed material digests quite well, and due to the drying process in UDDTs even older material should still have quite a bit of energy in it.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:26:44 +0000
Re: WRC Publication: DEWATS Process for Decentralised Wastewater Treatment - Technical Lessons From eThekwini Municipality - by: osbert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9332-wrc-publication-dewats-process-for-decentralised-wastewater-treatment-technical-lessons-from-ethekwini-municipality#9387 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9332-wrc-publication-dewats-process-for-decentralised-wastewater-treatment-technical-lessons-from-ethekwini-municipality#9387 Thank you for posting this great work. Am particularly amused by the colour of effluent, physically is looks like drinking water. Could you be having values about the colour of influent and effluent. Where in the system was the highest removal efficiency in terms of colour. How do you compare the general performance of VGF and HGF. Then i dont know whether i missed this in the report, was the system continous flow? what is the inflow rate, HRT, SRT and biogas production rate?

Osbert]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Fri, 18 Jul 2014 07:19:32 +0000
WRC Publication: DEWATS Process for Decentralised Wastewater Treatment - Technical Lessons From eThekwini Municipality - by: ChrisBuckley http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9332-wrc-publication-dewats-process-for-decentralised-wastewater-treatment-technical-lessons-from-ethekwini-municipality#9332 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9332-wrc-publication-dewats-process-for-decentralised-wastewater-treatment-technical-lessons-from-ethekwini-municipality#9332
The South Water Research Commission publication entitled "DEWATS PROCESS FOR DECENTRALISED WASTEWATER TREATMENT - Technical Lessons From eThekwini Municipality" has just been published.

You can download it here:
www.susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbk...p;type=2&id=2039

The municipality in conjunction with Borda and the municipal design consultants are designing DEWATS systems to treat the wastewater from Community Ablution Blocks serving informal settlements outside the sewered area of the municipality. The intention is for the treated wastewater to be used for agriculture or discharged to a water course (where no suitable agricultural land is available).

Additional information is available at prg.ukzn.ac.za/

Regards

Chris Buckley Pollution Research Group University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban prg.ukzn.ac.za]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sun, 13 Jul 2014 14:28:49 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: sjoerdnienhuys http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9323 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9323 @ canaday, The gas is commonly burned directly or first purefied and than burned. It is the effluent which is ploughed into the land which may cause problems. In The Netherlands there is insufficient sun to sterelize the effluent the whole year through.

I keep searching for more answers.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 12 Jul 2014 13:43:20 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9278 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9278
www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/anthrax_web.pdf]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:15:31 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9277 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9277

The microbial diversity of biogas was analyzed in order to examine the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms. Six biogas samples were analyzed: five from mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestors treating different wastes, and one from landfill. Epifluorescent microscopic counts revealed 106 prokarya m-3. To assess the difference occuring in aerosolization, 498 biogas-borne 16S ribosomal DNA were analyzed and compared to published anaerobic digestor microbial diversity. Results show a large microbial diversity and strong discrepancy with digestor microbial diversity. Three different aerosolisation behaviour patterns can be identified: (i) that of non-aerosolized microorganisms, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Thermotogae, Chloroflexi phyla and sulfate-reducing groups, (ii) that of passively aerosolized microorganisms, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and (iii) that of preferentially aerosolized microorganisms, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, as well as strictly aerobic and occasionally pathogenic species, presented high levels of aerosolization.


Microbial characteristics of biogas Marina Moletta, Nathalie Wery, Jean-Philippe Delgenes and Jean-Jacques Godon, Water Science & Technology www.iwaponline.com/wst/05704/wst057040595.htm

Whilst one might hope that all pathogens would be destroyed by combustion, there is obviously still a risk given that this will very likely not be complete combusion.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:07:11 +0000
Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent? - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9274 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-biogas-sanitation-systems-and-dewats/9254-remains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-bse-and-anthrax-in-biogas-effluent#9274
This is an important question.

It seems that what I just posted on another thread may give sufficient treatment:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-fae...ment-of-septage#9272

I would not worry about disease transmission via the biogas. Have bacteria ever been documented to be carried by biogas? In any case, all the biogas should hopefully get burned, right?

Wikipedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax#Site_cleanup_and_decontamination
mentions a number of toxic and non-toxic options.

What about solar pasteurization of the effluent in solar hot water heaters (as was mentioned recently for treating urine in Vermont or Connecticut in the USA)?

BSE (or Mad Cow Disease) is a bigger problem as it is caused by a prion that does not reportedly even get distroyed when cooked.

I am still confident that the root zone treatment in the constructed wetlands that I mentioned may be able to eliminate all of these pathogens. Metagenomics would be a good tool to test this.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_spongiform_encephalopathy
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metagenomics

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 09 Jul 2014 04:36:57 +0000