Some of the projects presented in this document (and in Volume I ) deal with UDDTs at schools.
This publication is the second volume of "Making WASH in Schools ore Sustainable". Similar to Volume I, it showcases various approaches, both practical and innovative, to provide sustainable WASH solutions in schools around the world. The stories are not limited to the construction of water and sanitation systems but also show how these systems are operated and maintained through active involvement of pupils, teachers, cleaning staff and community members.
Nine schools were selected and visited in Nyanza and Western Provinces in Kenya in early 2012 in order to evaluate the performance of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs)implemented between 2008 and 2010. Results indicated that benefits gained from the UDDTs were an important factor for ongoing motivation and success: the new UDDTs were in principle preferred to the old pit latrines in all the monitored schools, as they are comfortable to use, clean, not smelly and there was no risk of collapse of the toilet structure.
This paper presents experiences with the implementation of urine diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in the EECCA countries. In total 960 individual, 50 school and kindergarten and 7 public UDDTs have been implemented. Experience based indications are given related to the success factors for acceptance of the individual toilets and for school sanitation projects.
Compared to conventional toilets, UDDTs offer the possibility to explain the pupils in combination with the hygiene education the inter-linkages between ecology, agriculture, nutrient- and water-cycles. Through its pilot demonstrations of school toilets, WECF has shown that the situation can be improved with fewer financial resources compared to the installation of flush-toilets. No infrastructure such as central water supply or sewerage system is needed for the operation of the UDDT.
Several ecosan school projects from Kenya and India are described in this paper namely two school pilot projects within the EU-Sida-GTZ Ecosan Promotion Project in Kenya and several projects in India implemented by the Ecosan Services Foundation and various other actors. In all these projects, a sense of ownership and constant capacity development exercises are crucial factors in their success.
This is an example document for urine diversion flush systems. This research project was initiated and delivered by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). ISF’s mission is to create change toward sustainable futures that protect and enhance the environment, human well-being and social equity. For further information visit www.isf.uts.edu.au .
The goal of the UTS Sustainable Sanitation project was to open up the space for urine diversion to become a viable concept in the urban environment.
This technology review deals with a type of toilet designed specifically for dry excreta management called the urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT). It is a sanitation system for households and public facilities as well. The functional design elements of the UDDT are: source separation of urine and faeces; waterless operation; and ventilated vaults or containers for faeces storage and treatment. UDDTs may be constructed with two adjacent dehydration vaults or one single vault with interchangeable containers.
This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.
This is an excellent construction manual for bench style UDDTs. The use of Urine Diversion (UD) in dry toilets allows faeces dehydration. Urine can be reused as urea, while faeces are dried in a double vault system of alternate use. The moisture comes out using ventilation pipes. After 2 years the end product can be emptied and reused without having any health risk. Water from washing can be treated in a constructed wetland and reused for instance for irrigation.
The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, urine precipitation, urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. Further, it provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets including supplier information and indicative costs. Overall, it pulls together scattered knowledge around the topic of urine diversion in a concise manner.
The target audience for this publication are people who are new to the topic of urine diversion or new to the topic of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and who:
- need to obtain an overview of the main issues for urine diversion and the main technical components
- want to know which are the main important documents for further reading
- have a particular interest in developing countries, with a pro-poor perspective
- need information on available suppliers worldwide and on costs for waterless urinals and urine diversion toilet pedestals and squatting pans.
This technology review is designed to help and inspire people working on sustainable solutions for excreta management.
Three different models of simple and inexpensive Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs) are described: a portable one for squatting made from a barrel, another portable one made from wood and linoleum, and a permanent one for squatting made with palm wood. A simple, portable urinal made from two plastic bottles is also described. These can be made at very low cost, with abundant natural materials, salvaged post-consumer waste, and items that are readily purchased almost anywhere.