SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Tue, 23 Dec 2014 00:08:18 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Key documents for the sub-category on urine diversion systems - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation for new people regarding the most important 3-5 documents in the thematic area of "urine diversion systems".

The initial selection was done by me, but this is open for discussion and can be adjusted regularly.

Recommended top 5 documents in the thematic area of "urine diversion systems":


von Münch, E., Winker, M. (2011). Technology review of urine diversion components - Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems. Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, urine precipitation, urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. Further, it provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets including supplier information and indicative costs. Overall, it pulls together scattered knowledge around the topic of urine diversion in a concise manner.

The target audience for this publication are people who are new to the topic of urine diversion or new to the topic of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and who:
- need to obtain an overview of the main issues for urine diversion and the main technical components
- want to know which are the main important documents for further reading
- have a particular interest in developing countries, with a pro-poor perspective
- need information on available suppliers worldwide and on costs for waterless urinals and urine diversion toilet pedestals and squatting pans.

This technology review is designed to help and inspire people working on sustainable solutions for excreta management.


Rieck, C., von Münch, E., Hoffmann, H. (2012). Technology review of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) - Overview on design, management, maintenance and costs. Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

This technology review deals with a type of toilet designed specifically for dry excreta management called the urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT). It is a sanitation system for households and public facilities as well. The functional design elements of the UDDT are: source separation of urine and faeces; waterless operation; and ventilated vaults or containers for faeces storage and treatment. UDDTs may be constructed with two adjacent dehydration vaults or one single vault with interchangeable containers.

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

Wikipedia articles:
Urine diversion:
Urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs):

Case studies of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance on UDDTs:


Example document for urine diversion flush systems:

Mitchell, C., Fam, D., Abeysuriya, K. (2013). Transitioning to sustainable sanitation - A transdisciplinary project of urine diversion. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

This research project was initiated and delivered by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). ISF’s mission is to create change toward sustainable futures that protect and enhance the environment, human well-being and social equity. For further information visit

The goal of the UTS Sustainable Sanitation project was to open up the space for urine diversion to become a viable concept in the urban environment.

There are oviously many more important documents dealing with urine diversion.
We invite you to browse the SuSanA library by using the search terms "urine diversion":

and the search term "UDDT":

There is also a library filter function for UDDTs which gives you these results:

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 09 Dec 2014 12:51:17 +0000
Re: Reply: South African Demonstration around the town of Cofimvaba (Earth Auger toilet, a UDDT with an auger) - by: mtfioravanti
Thanks for the comments.

I can't add too much to what Chuck already said.

This is all still under development, so you will have to wait for some of the answers!

In some context, there's the challenge that we need to elevate the restroom's floor level, in order to leave space for the harvest bucket that goes at the end. Basically in the areas with risk of flooding. But also this are areas where the families elevate houses too, and the Earth Auger is perfect to be installed hanging from the house (off-the-ground) so you could attach the restroom to the house, as we have already down. Then you don't need to work in the access to the toilet... but you still have the challenge for the access to the house... That's this about... one challenge after the other...

You could keep the house at the ground level in dry areas where there is not risk of flooding. And you could do a ramp to access the toilet housing. We have had that situation.

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 08 Dec 2014 05:24:01 +0000
Video featuring CCODE’s work on UDDT –Ecosan toilets- in Malawi under the SHARE project - by: MarianaGallo
I am the Knowledge Management Officer for the Centre for Community Organisation and Development (CCODE), a Malawian NGO that works in rural and urban settlements in the country, in alliance with the Federation of the Rural and Urban Poor.

Part of my work here is to document and disseminate further our work. An important part of this is what we do to improve water and sanitation conditions of the urban poor, a pressing issue in the country - this work is done both in terms of practical interventions and applied research, in order to set precedents for future work.

I would like to share with you our latest video featuring the work of CCODE and the Federation of the Rural and Urban Poor in Blantyre (Malawi) on the SHARE research project, as well as the challenges that the country faces in terms of sanitation, water and hygiene.

The video is available here:

CCODE and the Federation of the Rural and Urban Poor (formerly Malawi's Homeless People's Federation, which is a grassroots network) have been working as an alliance to support poor communities in Malawi to improve their living conditions since 2003. Both CCODE and the Federation are the country affiliates to Slum/Shack Dwellers International (SDI).

Since 2010, the alliance has implemented SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied for Equity), a five-year project that aims to accelerate progress on sanitation and hygiene in developing countries by generating rigorous and relevant research, and ensuring new and existing solutions are adopted at scale. Our research took an action research approach.

SHARE's research underway in Malawi has focused on Ecological Sanitation (EcoSan), which has been heavily promoted in urban areas. Blantyre in Malawi is also one of the cities included in the City-Wide Sanitation Project. It also looks, in particular to the implications for sanitation markets and health - two of SHARE's research pillars. The consortium's more general research activities, including international meetings and global studies, are also relevant because of the severity of Malawi's sanitation and hygiene challenges. The consortium is represented in Malawi - one of SHARE's four focus countries - by WaterAid Malawi and CCODE.

If you have further questions about this project and our work please don't hesitate to ask me in a reply post in this thread. Thank you and I look forward to your comments.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 26 Nov 2014 15:25:45 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: denniskl
answers a lot of my questions

and Chris, we need to dream a little I agree:)

back to the think tank for more brain-cycling]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 24 Nov 2014 15:26:43 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: canaday
There is no problem storing urine, as long as the tanks are organized so the smell does not get out ... and that smell is mostly nitrogen (in the form of ammonia), fertilizer that we do not want to lose. In fact, the various documents on the safe use of urine as fertilizer (such as those downloadable from recommend storing urine for various amounts of time to assure that any pathogens (mainly from potential fecal contamination from someone not using their UDDT correctly) die. Remember that industrial fertilization often has that same bad smell.

Mixing urine with some inert material sounds like more trouble than it would be worth. Struvite can be extracted from urine if magnesium is added.
I have been thinking that something similar could be done by filtering urine through magnesium-rich soil (and potentially degraded sandy soils in general). This enriched soil could then be trucked to agricultural fields more efficiently than trucking all of the pure urine (and not require tank trucks). The weakened and equilibrated urine effluent could be used in urban agriculture with less risk of overdosing the plants (plus it could be diluted with greywater). This would also reduce the risk of chemical contamination in the purified magnesium, or excess salt in the case of bittern (not the bird, but a magnesium-rich biproduct of processing table salt).

Another option, which I have not heard about on a large scale, would be to use human urine to speed up and enrich composting operations to deal with organic waste in the city.

I would like to develop vertical and roof-top urban agriculture to recycle urine, plus I am convinced with could have peepee pipelines from cities to agricultural fields downhill. (We could even design speed bumps to slow down cars and that pump urine to fields uphill.)

Thanks, Madeleine, for the great sanitation magazine from Bolivia. If I can be of any help with that magazine, please let me know. Maybe they would like to reprint some posts from my blog, Or this 2-part interview (that I would be happy to translate into Spanish):

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 24 Nov 2014 14:58:05 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: madeleine There are large scale of urine separation toilets where urine is collected reused in the fast growing suburb in a Mega city .
One example is in the La Paz where more than 1OOO households are benefitting from the system.
I am on my way I to visit Sumaj Huase and the Water utiliity in El Alto and I will be happy to report back in the mean time read the SuSanA case study:

There is a new publication from the Knowledge node on Sustainable Sanitation in Bolivia but this one is only in Spanish unfortunately
STay tuned
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 24 Nov 2014 08:18:07 +0000
Reply: South African Demonstration around the town of Cofimvaba (Earth Auger toilet, a UDDT with an auger) - by: jay bhagwan

Responding to many of your questions you pose on why Cofimvaba…

Firstly, shit comes from one source, the anus and wherever it is produced it is needed to be treated. So whether it is rural, urban or informal does not really matter – as long as the technology is robust to treat faeces. Also we need not have to get hooked on reuse of sludges etc. at this stage as the main focus is the safe sanitation and improved technology (from the current VIPs). So the point is that if it will function in a rural setting or schools, it will also function in an urban and other setting. This goes for all types of technologies. Obviously, the institutional dynamics and processes will differ in these spatial settings.

So coming to why Cofimvaba? Mainly because the funding for the demonstrator is tied to area and that we have strong commitment from various roleplayers to support demonstrators. Phase 2 which is the scaling up is not limited to Cofimvaba.



Jay Bhagwan
Executive Manager
KSA 3: Water Use and Wastewater Management
Water Research Commission
Postal: Private Bag x03, Gezina, Pretoria, 0031, South Africa
Physical: 694 Eighteenth Avenue, Rietfontein, Pretoria, 0033, South Africa]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 24 Nov 2014 07:48:14 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: denniskl RE centralised / large volumes urine re-use

Capturing large volumes of urine is, I guess, an aim of the UDDT approach if it is to become part of the mainstream, particularly in urban and peri-urban areas where local re-use is not possible.

While localised re-use (straight into the garden etc) is fine for rural areas, for maximum commercial value (which could make the whole concept more attractive for government and business), we would have to centralise and re-use for larger scale agri settings.

This I imagine would either have to be:

a)through a household level storage in a material that is easy to store and transport (see notes re this below) OR

b) via piping from multiple households to a centralised point OR

c)via manual collection and transportation to a central tank holding site.

So centralised diversion and storage (somehow) is part of that large scale UDDT solution.

Urine "use by date"?

Once urine is diverted for large volume re-use, I assume that we cannot just let it sit in a tank for a lengthy period or it will get that "stale urine" smell, which is a problem for surrounding areas (or can we?)

I don't know whether urine has a "use by date" or not (as in do the nutrients lose potency as time goes by? can anybody tell me?), but transportation from centralised tanks as liquid to the target farming areas is problematic in my opinion.

My question is:

Can we have the urine go into a holding tank (either at the household level or at a centralised point) filled up with some inert material that absorbs the urine (and therefore the nutrients) but doesn't impact on the nutrients and can be used as is on agri land (therefore must be organic material)?

It would also need to be easy to store, transport and spread on the field / in the paddy.

Has anybody seen large scale re-use solutions in place that address these issues?]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:19:59 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: denniskl
And yes, planning a strategy that addresses cultural empathy plus meets self-interest:)

People are people after all no matter who or where they are!

And of course self-interest ranges from money to recognition to pride so have to work out hot buttons

Then move into issues like sanitation and health

Will advise as we proceed and learn]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sun, 23 Nov 2014 15:22:41 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: canaday
Very interesting. What ethnic group is it? Remember that this is an imminently cultural endeavor, about something that people mostly never talk about. The first step is to get people (esp. the leader) to recognize that there is a problem (like alcoholism, etc.). Are there indices of parasitism, diarrea, etc.? And try to demonstrate UDDTs with him or ssomeone he trusts (like an ONG they are already working with). If they are already using flush toilets, one has to confront the confusion that one group of city people bring one solution and others another. I look forward to hearing more.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sun, 23 Nov 2014 13:47:33 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: denniskl
Hope for lots of feedback from SuSana readers when I put out out there

Was just in a native village in Malaysia today; sanitation probably typical - flush toilets, no nutrient collection and re-use (of course) and uncertainty reigns as to where it all goes!!!

Useful day though; now know that one of the first priorities is to understand the power structures in place (community leaders, leadership type - inherited or elected etc - the informal power centres, the conflicts and the cliques).

This place (500 people, men still go to jungle every day for gathering, women make crafts and mind house) had lots of well meaning development people come in and out, but little progress - because the tok batin (headman) had an issue with an outsider who had married a village woman and was progressive, but because of the tok batin personal conflict, all projects were undermined and blocked.

Focus now (before tackling any sanitation issues and changes) is to bring the power people together and get them sorted out (or at least willing to tolerate each other and not kill something because the others involved)

great learning day]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sun, 23 Nov 2014 08:12:23 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: canaday
Great idea . It could be offered with or without the privacy structure, as some people may already have a privacy structure and others are extremely poor and maybe are happy with palm fronds stuck into the ground for privacy.

One thing. Waste usage is a contradiction in terms. Let's say nutrient recycling or fertilizer application.

Let me know how I can help.

Best wishes,
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sun, 23 Nov 2014 05:29:00 +0000
Ultra Simple Drip Free Water Rationing and Dispensing System - by: Amos
Below are some diagrams of a water dispensing and rationing system which I developed last summer. It possibly could do good in many places in preventing the spreading of disease . Feel free to share it or use it. I am using one in my own shop as I do not have running water in it.

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 21 Nov 2014 23:05:52 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: denniskl
From a marketing point of view, I am wondering if the attributes of your system could be packaged into a simple "Bog in a Bucket" type offering (name may need work - or maybe not) 0- and whether it would assist in uptake?

I offer the below for discussion - and future collaboration for UDDT converts and believers:)

For example,if a family could buy a "Bog in a Bucket" UDDT system - and they get the below items nicely included for a "delivered anywhere" landed price of USD$75 (with local licenced manufacture, fabrication and assembly to build out local industry and employment), could this be useful in increasing uptake of toilets generally and UDDT's (and their benefits specifically)?:

All needs to be included because, (if you are not a "garage" or backyard tinkerer), then convenience is worth a lot


  • Pre-cut out 20 litre bucket (or whatever is appropriate) complete with urine diverter system
  • urine diverter hose
  • Starter set of Sacks including date tags
  • Starter pack of cover material
  • Free standing fold out toilet privacy structure - bamboo perhaps or other sustainable material??
  • Solar drier
  • Laminated graphic operators manual for toilet installation and operation
  • Laminated graphic users manual for waste usage (urine and faeces)
  • Laminated Certificate of Congratulations for being a "Bog in a Bucket" home:)

I know I am operating remotely (ie not in a community in need) here, so this is idea-land - and there would be a lot more required for on-the-ground input and acceptance than this simplistic approach allows for, but thoughts re increasing uptake of toilets if there was the type of system mentioned?

Seems the technology is fine, just requires a different marketing approach]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 21 Nov 2014 04:58:59 +0000
Re: Reply: New video on Managing Feces in Sacks, plus online interview on UDDTs - by: canaday
(Here is the third installment of my responses to Dennis’s questions…)

Toilet Structures

Q9. What low-cost toilet structures have people seen that could be easily built by low resource communities?

People mostly insist on making privacy walls with wooden planks, but these are costly and cause deforestation. Sometimes we build under the arrangement that the family put up their own privacy walls and there is often a great delay while obtaining planks. I would prefer that readily available materials get used, preferably letting more light in, so the toilet is not a dark, dreary place. One option is palm leaves, as they are widely available in the forest or along urban avenues and they allow more air and light in. Bamboo, Elephant Grass, strips of palm wood, corn stalks, or potentially post-consumer plastic could be woven with string to form privacy walls. The gaps are not as much of a problem as one would think, since the person inside can see out much better than the person outside can see in. Nonetheless, a more solid wall may be preferable at schools, where there is a higher density of mischievous kids. Another great option we have applied several times is to simply wrap the structure in a sheet of white plastic, which leaves no gaps for peeping and allows so much light in that it seems that we have electric light during the day. I refer to the common plastic sold from rolls at the hardware store for about $1 per square meter, which lasts for years if no mischief is done to it (and mischief can also destroy concrete block walls).
---- I have another radical idea on this front. I think that millions of people prefer open defecation because the air is fresh and clean and they are standing on a surface that has be washed by the rain and sterilized by the sun (even if they have not thought this through in quite these terms). I propose we experiment with UDDTs that offer the same, by not having roofs and the privacy walls are minimal and could even be hedges of flowering plants or a lattice with vines. The fecal drop hole would have a lid to keep rain out (and potentially would open via a pedal the user steps on while using the toilet and then it closes automatically when the user leaves). The privacy structure could be spiral, such that no door need be made and the user could place a stick between the hedges at the entrance, or something like that, to show that it is occupied. The actual toilet could have steps to gain some height or, if the water table is sufficiently deep, the containers for feces could be underground.
---- Do you have any photos of the wrap-around cloth structure you mention? Offhand, it does not sound so bad. For example, the thicker grades of shade cloth for flower plantations would give enough privacy and would be resistant to solar UV. This could be a case of gradually investing in individual families based on their proper use of the UDDT: the privacy walls could initially be simple and inexpensive and then be upgraded after they have shown proper use.

Collection and disposal

Q10. Can anybody advise whether, in either a community or peri-urban setting, they have seen the processing be centralised at a community level, so that for example, larger solar driers could be built and the community (either separately or via a collection service) could centralise the processing at one point?

Sanergy, Sanivation, X-Runner, and SOIL (in Haiti) are doing centralized treatment, although not the simple storage of sacks, like I do. I can imagine building a long A-frame with a metallic roof, maybe an equilateral triangle in cross-section and 2 m high, made such that sections can be propped open for sacks to be placed inside or taken out. The temperature should get quite hot inside, especially if the metallic roof is painted black, and the required detention time for pathogen die-off might be one month or even less, and could be determined via searches for Ascaris eggs (and envelopes of plastic mesh holding Ascaris-laden feces could be added, if the users do not have Ascaris). The metal roof would protect the polypropylene sacks from solar UV, thus the same sacks could be used year after year.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 21 Nov 2014 04:23:51 +0000