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Topics in Category: Toilets with urine diversion - SuSanA Forum Thu, 29 Jun 2017 17:54:51 +0200 Joomla! - Open Source Content Management /media/kunena/images/icons/rss.png Topics in Category: Toilets with urine diversion - SuSanA Forum en-gb Key documents for the sub-category on UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets) - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents and website links in this thematic area.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets)", in reverse chronological order:

Panesar, A., Roach, E., Wendland, C., Wienpahl, I., Schlenk, J., Toetzke, J. (editors) (2015). Making WASH in Schools more Sustainable (Volume II). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA), Eschborn, Germany

This publication is the second volume of "Making WASH in Schools ore Sustainable". Similar to Volume I, it showcases various approaches, both practical and innovative, to provide sustainable WASH solutions in schools around the world. The stories are not limited to the construction of water and sanitation systems but also show how these systems are operated and maintained through active involvement of pupils, teachers, cleaning staff and community members.

Some of the projects presented in this document (and in Volume I ) deal with UDDTs at schools.

Pynnönen, K., Tuhkanen, T., Rieck, C., von Münch, E. (2012). Two years after donor funding ended: Success factors for schools to keep their urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) clean and well maintained. 4th International Dry Toilet Conference, Tampere, Finland

Nine schools were selected and visited in Nyanza and Western Provinces in Kenya in early 2012 in order to evaluate the performance of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs)implemented between 2008 and 2010. Results indicated that benefits gained from the UDDTs were an important factor for ongoing motivation and success: the new UDDTs were in principle preferred to the old pit latrines in all the monitored schools, as they are comfortable to use, clean, not smelly and there was no risk of collapse of the toilet structure.

Wendland, C., Deegener, S., Jorritsma, F. (2011). Experiences with urine diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) for households, schools and kindergarten in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). Published in EcoSan Club Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Issue 6, Article 3, pp. 16-22, Ecosan Club Austria

This paper presents experiences with the implementation of urine diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in the EECCA countries. In total 960 individual, 50 school and kindergarten and 7 public UDDTs have been implemented. Experience based indications are given related to the success factors for acceptance of the individual toilets and for school sanitation projects.

Deegener, S., Wendland, C., Samwel, A., Samwel, M. (2009). Sustainable and safe school sanitation - How to provide hygienic and affordable sanitation in areas without a functioning wastewater system. Examples from Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF), The Netherlands, Germany, France

Compared to conventional toilets, UDDTs offer the possibility to explain the pupils in combination with the hygiene education the inter-linkages between ecology, agriculture, nutrient- and water-cycles. Through its pilot demonstrations of school toilets, WECF has shown that the situation can be improved with fewer financial resources compared to the installation of flush-toilets. No infrastructure such as central water supply or sewerage system is needed for the operation of the UDDT.

Ingle, R., Rieck, C., von Münch, E. (2009). Experiences with Ecosan Systems to provide Sustainable Sanitation for Schools in Kenya and India. Paper presented at the 3rd International Dry Toilet Conference 2009, Tampere, Finland

Several ecosan school projects from Kenya and India are described in this paper namely two school pilot projects within the EU-Sida-GTZ Ecosan Promotion Project in Kenya and several projects in India implemented by the Ecosan Services Foundation and various other actors. In all these projects, a sense of ownership and constant capacity development exercises are crucial factors in their success.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection?

UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets) Thu, 24 Mar 2016 12:56:44 +0100
Key documents for the sub-category on urine diversion systems - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation for new people regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "urine diversion systems".

The initial selection was done by me, but this is open for discussion and can be adjusted regularly.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "urine diversion systems" in reverse chronological order:

Mitchell, C., Fam, D., Abeysuriya, K. (2013). Transitioning to sustainable sanitation - A transdisciplinary project of urine diversion. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

This is an example document for urine diversion flush systems. This research project was initiated and delivered by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). ISF’s mission is to create change toward sustainable futures that protect and enhance the environment, human well-being and social equity. For further information visit .

The goal of the UTS Sustainable Sanitation project was to open up the space for urine diversion to become a viable concept in the urban environment.

Rieck, C., von Münch, E., Hoffmann, H. (2012). Technology review of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) - Overview on design, management, maintenance and costs. Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

This technology review deals with a type of toilet designed specifically for dry excreta management called the urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT). It is a sanitation system for households and public facilities as well. The functional design elements of the UDDT are: source separation of urine and faeces; waterless operation; and ventilated vaults or containers for faeces storage and treatment. UDDTs may be constructed with two adjacent dehydration vaults or one single vault with interchangeable containers.

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

Hoffmann, H. (2012). Construction of bench style double vault urine diversion toilet and alternatives. Rotaria del Peru SAC, Lima, Peru

This is an excellent construction manual for bench style UDDTs. The use of Urine Diversion (UD) in dry toilets allows faeces dehydration. Urine can be reused as urea, while faeces are dried in a double vault system of alternate use. The moisture comes out using ventilation pipes. After 2 years the end product can be emptied and reused without having any health risk. Water from washing can be treated in a constructed wetland and reused for instance for irrigation.

von Münch, E., Winker, M. (2011). Technology review of urine diversion components - Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems. Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, urine precipitation, urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. Further, it provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets including supplier information and indicative costs. Overall, it pulls together scattered knowledge around the topic of urine diversion in a concise manner.
The target audience for this publication are people who are new to the topic of urine diversion or new to the topic of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and who:
- need to obtain an overview of the main issues for urine diversion and the main technical components
- want to know which are the main important documents for further reading
- have a particular interest in developing countries, with a pro-poor perspective
- need information on available suppliers worldwide and on costs for waterless urinals and urine diversion toilet pedestals and squatting pans.
This technology review is designed to help and inspire people working on sustainable solutions for excreta management.

Canaday, C. (2011). Simple urine-diverting dry toilets built with recycled or readily available materials. Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Issue 6, Article 1, pp. 4-9, Ecosan Club Austria

Three different models of simple and inexpensive Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs) are described: a portable one for squatting made from a barrel, another portable one made from wood and linoleum, and a permanent one for squatting made with palm wood. A simple, portable urinal made from two plastic bottles is also described. These can be made at very low cost, with abundant natural materials, salvaged post-consumer waste, and items that are readily purchased almost anywhere.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time.

Toilets with urine diversion Tue, 09 Dec 2014 12:51:17 +0100
A public urinal for women that is also a beautiful flowering garden - by: Ecowaters I find this is the only way to know the viability of a design and understand how to improve it.
Laurent's urinal works differently.]]>
Urinals Sat, 27 May 2017 21:32:45 +0200
Moldova: 2 national technical standards - one for construction and operation of UDDT and one for construction and operation of constructed wetlands - by: CWendland
in Moldova there have been developed 2 national technical standards - one for construction and operation of UDDT and one for construction and operation of constructed wetlands. I think that they are very good guiding documents for constructors and are available in English, Romanian and Russian language. They also give references to the structure of old Soviet norms and can therefore be used similarly in post Soviet countries. The national Ministry of Regional Development and Construction in Moldova approved the new technical standards as so called codes of practice.

The lead authors were Sergiu Andreev (Wisdom) for the ecosan standard and Dumitru Ungureanu and Olga Covaleva (both from national universities in Chisinau) for the constructed wetland standard. The advisory expert group comprised experts from the Public Health Institute, Ion Shalaru, and the Ministry of Environment, Serafima Tronza, the Apasan programme as well as local consultants.

Moldova is a country promoting sustainable sanitation, UDDTs are spreading thanks to the Apasan project which has supported more than 55 school toilets with UDDT technology.

You can download the codes of practice in English, Romanian and Russian here: ]]>
Urine diversion systems in cities Wed, 26 Apr 2017 12:40:58 +0200
In French: Urinoirs secs dans les rues de Paris, Lyon et Nantes (dry urinals in streets of France) - use translator tool at bottom of page - by: muench
Hi Cécile,

Thanks for posting this. It looks really interesting! I copy here an image from their website:

If you, or anyone else, comes across any updates on this, please do let us know.

I wonder if they would have issues with vandalism (so sad that this is always a problem with public toilets in urban spaces), and also if the operating costs (for exchanging the compost etc.) would make it prohibitive.

If anyone goes to Paris and sees one in real life, do let us know what it's like to use one!

Urinals Tue, 11 Apr 2017 22:14:37 +0200
Reducing desiccation time for feces in UDDT - question on research parameters - by: DavidAlan ]]>
Toilets with urine diversion Fri, 31 Mar 2017 08:08:57 +0200
Estimation of Ascaris lumbricoides egg inactivation by free ammonia treatment of ash-amended UDDT vault products using stored urine in Uganda - by: jtrimmer87
Thank you for your questions! Sarina is correct - While Brick by Brick (the organization that funded and installed the school UDDTs) has built a few additional UDDT systems for private clients and local schools, the organization is now focusing primarily on other priorities identified in cooperation with its partner schools (e.g., rainwater harvesting, classroom infrastructure, and reproductive health education).

In general, my sense is that the prevalence of school UDDTs in Uganda varies quite a bit region to region. For example, in the central part of the country (where we were working), they seemed to be uncommon, whereas, in parts of the southwestern region where local soil conditions make pit latrine construction difficult, they appeared to be much more prevalent. However, given that agricultural activities are so important for so many people in the country, I'm of the opinion that UDDTs and similar systems that recover resources should at least be considered as possible sanitation options throughout the country.

All the best,
John Trimmer]]>
Toilets with urine diversion Mon, 13 Mar 2017 17:20:19 +0100
Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi - by: skumwenda
The Study also followed up 55 EcoSan toilets for a period of 12 months. During this time of follow up, faecal samples were periodically analysed and temperature, humidity, moisture content, pH and ammonia were also monitored to understand the factors that contribute significantly to pathogen die off. This paper will soon be submitted for publication.

Next research is aimed at checking environmental contamination of helminths around households and fields where EcoSan sludge was used

I will share more soon..

Toilets with urine diversion Wed, 15 Feb 2017 20:39:59 +0100
Fund raising for UDDT in community after-school (Oaxaca, Mexico) - by: janicatorres
Thank you for the crowdfunding suggestion. We ended up doing something similar, we are selling art and photography pieces online.
If anyone is interested in chipping in or simply share it with your network, it would be great! Take a look:

Thank you for the input. I'll return to the forum with more technical questions when the time comes.]]>
UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets) Sat, 17 Dec 2016 05:27:57 +0100
South African Demonstration around the town of Cofimvaba (Earth Auger toilet, a UDDT with an auger) - by: ekellogg is a low cost composting urine diverting toilet. EarthAuger was approved earlier this year for installation in all locations in peri-urban Dakar, Senegal by the Comité Technique National. EarthAuger has also been approved recently for an installation of 200 units by the South African government in a rural area near the town of Ida, a short distance from Queenstown in the eastern part of South Africa. The attached report details the status of the project as of late October 2016. We look forward to the operation and further evaluation of these EarthAuger toilets in the next few months.

The report also describes a prospective retrofit EarthAuger installation project at the Kleinbooi school in the same vicinity. I urge you to subsribe to SuSanA so that you can log in and view the attached report.

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Please log in or register to see it.
Toilets with urine diversion Tue, 15 Nov 2016 22:18:43 +0100
Request for advice on UDDT slab design - and drying in vaults that are below ground? - by: kifle1adama
Hope your project is going good . I have same moled you can use fiber glass . They are easy to install, easy to casting and drains away the urine. Here in Adama Ethiopia +251911797053]]>
Toilets with urine diversion Fri, 04 Nov 2016 10:46:41 +0100
Developing urine diversion systems in a developed world context - by: ben
I'd like to add up some thoughts to this very interesting discussion.

We (ecosec, cooperative young company) have been promoting dry separation toilets (ecodomeo system) in the south of france with a buried drip irrigation system connected to it. In order to do that, we ordered a paper from a layer that managed to mention "Irrigating with urine isn't illegal but actually isn't covered by any law". This paper usually is enought to reassure deciders that want a toilet in their tourist spot but isn't working for farmers when we come asking them if they're ready to reuse 10 m3 of festival urine. We therefore needed a survey in french to reassure them on the following :
  • Urine won't clog their drip irrigation emitters
  • Salinity of urine won't affect their crop or soil
  • Pharmaceutical residus won't appear in their crop, soil or in the ground water

These three points are capital to the ones we visited, so we started a month ago an off groung survey on these points. Link to the summary . After a lot a bibliography research, we couldn't find one about pharmaceutical residues on off the ground tanks, that actually can show (or not) that these residues are "digested" by the soil activity. We'll publish on this forum the results we'll find in about 4-6 months.

On another hand, we've been working on a struvite show reactor for festival (inspired from the amsterdam experience) with our partners WC Loc, working on live in festival, that allows us to distribute struvite to the toilet users straight after they finish urinating. Link to the Flyer / Photos of the event

On the big scale, a group of researchers and industrial called the " European sustainable Phosphorous Plateform " is working on many projects. To be honnest we don't much about what they do but the NASKEO is the company which built the biggest struvite reactor (at the end of a wastewater plant) in France a few years ago. So far, they've been unable to reuse the struvite they produced (about 2 tones) for reglementary reasons. Even industrials suffer from the reglementation, hoping this will change soon.

The SIAAP (Organisation in charge of all Paris drinlable water and wastewater)is working on the subject and proposed us to get in touch with the Paris garden nurseries (no alimentation, everyone is reassured) to reuse our urine, we're meeting them soon and I'll keep you updated. Fabien ESCULIER is a great researcher at the Pont and Chaussé school and is working on an amazing global project trying to close the nutrient loop : OCAPI .

Last but not least, a very very intersting book (which I hope will be translated soon in english) has been released from a Nursery gardener in Grenoble : Urine, golden liquid to the garden

This is great that we can share here all our works and experiences, looking forward to the results of BioUrea and all other european project. Am really sorry moist of it is still in french, we're not so good to translate our works in english.


Urine diversion systems in cities Mon, 31 Oct 2016 20:09:16 +0100
UUDT's in Zambia - for school in Ndola, in the Copperbelt region of Zambia - by: tmsinnovation
I would most certainly contact Obed Kawanga or his colleague Noah Chongo at NECOS. Here is their website:

In addition you could contact Moffat Tembo from Water and Sanitation Association of Zambia (WASAZA):

I will chat to a few folks with experience up in the Copperbelt and see if I can get some further answers for you. I am focused on Lusaka, hence am not familiar with activities in the Copperbelt.

Kind regards
UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets) Mon, 31 Oct 2016 05:33:15 +0100
Is there any guideline and design to calculate toilets and urinals for school - by: joracol Urinals Sat, 15 Oct 2016 08:50:35 +0200 Assessing the promotion of urine-diverting dry toilets through school-based demonstration facilities in Kalisizo, Uganda - by: sergas
We have recently published an article in the IWA Journal of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Development that readers of this forum may find interesting. It concerns the promotion of urine-diverting dry toilets in a primary school setting in the context of Uganda. The research was conducted while the primary author, John Trimmer, was serving as an environmental health engineer with the United States Peace Corps Volunteer in the town of Kalisizo (located in Rakai District, in southern Uganda), and it formed the basis for his Master’s Thesis, completed at the University of South Florida, which can be found here:

The work would not have been possible without the assistance of colleagues at Brick by Brick Uganda, and social scientists from the Rakai Health Sciences Program. Titles, abstracts, and links to the article are included below. I hope you find it interesting!


John Trimmer, Sarina Ergas, and James Mihelcic
University of South Florida, Tampa


Assessing the promotion of urine-diverting dry toilets through school-based demonstration facilities in Kalisizo, Uganda

John T. Trimmer; Neema Nakyanjo; Robert Ssekubugu; Marc Sklar; James R. Mihelcic; Sarina J. Ergas
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 2016 Jun, 6 (2) 276-286; DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2016.045

Urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) are designed to recover nutrients and organic matter from human excreta for agricultural reuse. Their wider implementation could help address problems in areas where water scarcity limits coverage of sanitation systems and declining soil fertility jeopardizes nutritional security. Demonstration facilities can improve stakeholders’ views of UDDTs; however, it is uncertain whether these facilities should be located at households or institutions.

Using a novel methodological approach that included qualitative data collection before and after introduction of demonstration UDDTs and quantitative monitoring of treatment conditions, this study evaluated changes in local attitudes and knowledge resulting from a UDDT promotion strategy at two primary schools in Uganda. Before introduction, students had little knowledge of UDDT facilities, while most attitude-related statements conveyed negative viewpoints and skepticism. After introduction and six months of operation, students exhibited increased knowledge, and 68% of attitude-related statements conveyed positive opinions that focused on the UDDTs’ long-term economic value and their role in creating a more hygienic school environment. These changes were seen in facility users and in other students at the schools who were non-users. In the future, with these improved perceptions, students could become compelling representatives for UDDTs within their communities, potentially increasing adoption.]]>
UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets) Sun, 18 Sep 2016 19:51:14 +0200