SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Mon, 27 Mar 2017 08:31:43 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: [SuSanA forum] Estimation of Ascaris lumbricoides egg inactivation by free ammonia treatment of ash-amended UDDT vault products using stored urine in Uganda (Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet)) - by: jtrimmer87 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19033-estimation-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-egg-inactivation-by-free-ammonia-treatment-of-ash-amended-uddt-vault-products-using-stored-urine-in-uganda#20836 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19033-estimation-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-egg-inactivation-by-free-ammonia-treatment-of-ash-amended-uddt-vault-products-using-stored-urine-in-uganda#20836
Thank you for your questions! Sarina is correct - While Brick by Brick (the organization that funded and installed the school UDDTs) has built a few additional UDDT systems for private clients and local schools, the organization is now focusing primarily on other priorities identified in cooperation with its partner schools (e.g., rainwater harvesting, classroom infrastructure, and reproductive health education).

In general, my sense is that the prevalence of school UDDTs in Uganda varies quite a bit region to region. For example, in the central part of the country (where we were working), they seemed to be uncommon, whereas, in parts of the southwestern region where local soil conditions make pit latrine construction difficult, they appeared to be much more prevalent. However, given that agricultural activities are so important for so many people in the country, I'm of the opinion that UDDTs and similar systems that recover resources should at least be considered as possible sanitation options throughout the country.

All the best,
John Trimmer]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 13 Mar 2017 17:20:19 +0000
Re: [SuSanA forum] Estimation of Ascaris lumbricoides egg inactivation by free ammonia treatment of ash-amended UDDT vault products using stored urine in Uganda (Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet)) - by: sergas http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19033-estimation-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-egg-inactivation-by-free-ammonia-treatment-of-ash-amended-uddt-vault-products-using-stored-urine-in-uganda#20812 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19033-estimation-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-egg-inactivation-by-free-ammonia-treatment-of-ash-amended-uddt-vault-products-using-stored-urine-in-uganda#20812
I'm copying the first author on the paper who can answer your questions.

John - I spoke to Mark S when he visited USF. He mentioned that Brick-by-Brick has not been doing much UDDT construction because the communities they are working with have identified other priorities. However I know you have more contact with them.

*****************
Sarina Ergas, Professor and Graduate Program Director Civil & Environmental Engineering University of South Florida, Tampa Spring 2017]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sun, 12 Mar 2017 03:52:30 +0000
Re: Estimation of Ascaris lumbricoides egg inactivation by free ammonia treatment of ash-amended UDDT vault products using stored urine in Uganda - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19033-estimation-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-egg-inactivation-by-free-ammonia-treatment-of-ash-amended-uddt-vault-products-using-stored-urine-in-uganda#20790 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19033-estimation-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-egg-inactivation-by-free-ammonia-treatment-of-ash-amended-uddt-vault-products-using-stored-urine-in-uganda#20790
Welcome to the Forum! You made two posts here in September about UDDTs and didn't get a reply yet which is not so welcoming. But rest assured that people do read and find posts nevertheless, even if it's just by keyword searches on the forum (which is why I added the abstracts that you had in the attachments into the body of your posts).

Your research is very topical. Just today David Crosweller asked a question here on the Forum where you might be able to give some pointers?
See here:

forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-uri...rch-parameters#20781

He wrote:
What I am interested in finding out is If at the end of one week we have a situation where the faecal matter is 100% live (if you agree), what is it after two weeks, three weeks, one month etc, until it reaches the 180 day period when it is safe to handle (I know the exceptions!). Has a study been carried out that would show such a staged process?


If you or any of your colleagues have some information and words of wisdom to share, please add it into the other thread.

Coming back to your research in Uganda: I would like to know the institutional setup for those school toilets where the research took place: who funded them (government of Uganda or externally funded)? Did you find UDDTs in Ugandan primary schools quite common or just a very isolated thing?

Are you continuing with this kind of UDDT research in Uganda?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Thu, 09 Mar 2017 23:39:14 +0000
Re: Reducing desiccation time for feces in UDDT - question on research parameters - by: DavidAlan http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#20781 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#20781
I want to widen this discussion a little and draw upon yours and other's collective experience. In this instance I am not referring to double chamber UDDTs that we have built thousands of, and periodically have the resulting compost tested after the chamber is opened.

After many years of persisting with our container based system (CBS)in Tamil Nadu there seems to be a more general acceptance that this could be a way forward to help solve the sanitation crisis, especially in slum areas. Our slum UDDT system operates in a similar manner to a double chamber system, except it uses plastic crates to collect the solids and when the full crate is removed from beneath the toilet, immediately has a lid fixed in place, and then stored for 6 months, after which time we have it tested and, to date, have found no pathogens/helminths etc.

Depending on the number of users, the crate takes about one week to fill and an organic material (generally ash) is added after each use to help the composting. At the end of the week the faeces in the crate have to be considered '100% live' – the assumption must be the final deposit could contain the most infected deposit in the crate. A crate is circa 30 cms deep 65 long and 40 wide. Faeces at the bottom will already be heating up and pathogens/helminths dying.

What I am interested in finding out is If at the end of one week we have a situation where the faecal matter is 100% live (if you agree), what is it after two weeks, three weeks, one month etc, until it reaches the 180 day period when it is safe to handle (I know the exceptions!). Has a study been carried out that would show such a staged process?

Be grateful for any directions, comments etc.

Regards, David]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Thu, 09 Mar 2017 07:38:47 +0000
Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi - by: skumwenda http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20459 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20459
The Study also followed up 55 EcoSan toilets for a period of 12 months. During this time of follow up, faecal samples were periodically analysed and temperature, humidity, moisture content, pH and ammonia were also monitored to understand the factors that contribute significantly to pathogen die off. This paper will soon be submitted for publication.

Next research is aimed at checking environmental contamination of helminths around households and fields where EcoSan sludge was used

I will share more soon..

Thanks]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 15 Feb 2017 20:39:59 +0000
Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi - by: skumwenda http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20457 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20457 The paper is available online on the following website: washdev.iwaponline.com/content/early/201...20/washdev.2016.177. The users have theoretical understanding of how the toilets work but their knowledge is not directly translated into the right practices because of several challenges including weather changes and lack of resources. The users preference of the system depended on location, those in peri urban areas preferred the urine diverting dry toilet because it looks a bit improved than the fossa alterna while those in rural areas could not afford the urine diverting dry toilet and they preferred the skyloo. But regardless of costs, all users preferred the urine diverting dry toilet.

In terms of use of faecal sludge, there was very low use in peri urban areas, most people just remove it and dispose the manure in the rubbish pits because they do not have gardens and have nowhere to sale. Others do not use for agriculture because they feel disgusted with the sludge/faeces. The usage was a bit higher in rural areas because households find artificial fertilizer as expensive but still a good number were still not using the faecal sludge. The important benefit that they treasure were saving space because it can be reused over and over again and that it does not collapse during rainy season for the case of fossa alterna common in rural areas. The urine was not used and was directed to a soakaway pit in all the toilets. People do not have adequate knowledge and skills to use urine.

Arborloos have been promoted but due to the added work of shifting the superstructure, they have been abandoned and are now almost non existence. We expected to find them but we didnt find any. It would have been really good to compare.

Thanks]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 15 Feb 2017 20:12:54 +0000
Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20447 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20447 washdev.iwaponline.com/content/6/4/555?etoc

It's in the IWA Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Unfortunately it is behind a paywall; I presume the costs for making it open access were prohibitive for the authors.

Nevertheless I had encouraged Save Kumwenda to post about his paper here and am glad that Chris has already responded with some questions.

Save: could you please tell us a bit more about this work, e.g. by attaching a powerpoint presentation you might have done about this work, or by copying the main conclusions from the paper to here?

I see that you're from the University of Malawi. Could you tell us more about your current work, too? Are you continuing research about UDDTs in Malawi?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 15 Feb 2017 12:01:48 +0000
Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20445 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20445
Welcome to the Forum and thanks for this information.

Is the entire paper available on the internet? It good to know that almost all of the users understand these systems. Were the users happy with these toilets? Which system did they like best? What experience had there been in the use of urine and decomposed feces in agriculture? Have ArborLoos been applied there very much. If so, it would be good to include them in the comparison.

Please tell us more about you and your work.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 15 Feb 2017 11:35:10 +0000
Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi - by: skumwenda http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20441 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/20441-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-use-of-fossa-alternas-and-double-vault-urine-diverting-dry-dvudd-latrines-in-malawi#20441 Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

Save Kumwenda, Chisomo Msefula, Wilfred Kadewa, Bagrey Ngwira, Tracy Morse, Jeroen H. J. Ensink
Published December 2016, 6 (4) 555-568; DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2016.177

++++++++++++

ABSTRACT
Fossa alternas and double vault urine diverting dry(DVUDD)latrines have been extensively promoted as ecological sanitation (EcoSan) latrine options in Malawi, but little is known about whether they are used properly. A qualitative study of EcoSan users was conducted in Blantyre and Chikwawa districts, Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs). Twenty-eight (28) and seventeen (17) IDIs were conducted with household heads that had Fossa Alternas and DVUDD latrines, respectively. Recorded data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Of the total 45 EcoSan users, 40 had moderate to high knowledge on EcoSan latrine use, four had low knowledge and only one had no knowledge of how EcoSan latrines operate. Blockages of urine diversion systems,intensive management and maintenance needed for the latrines were reported as some problems related to the negative attitudes about EcoSan use. Use of soil and ash, urine diverting, use of hot water and chemicals to kill maggots, urinating in the drop-hole of the DVUDDs and poor maintenance of the roof were some of the practices reported on use of these latrines. It is therefore recommended that government, through community workers, should be monitoring practices on EcoSan latrine use and provide necessary support to users.

The paper has uncovered some important challenges on EcoSan use which boarder on inadequate skills and lack of resources.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 14 Feb 2017 20:03:17 +0000
Re: Reducing desiccation time for feces in UDDT - question on research parameters - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#19957 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#19957
The excellent thing about Ascaris eggs is that there is a consensus that they are the most persistent fecal pathogens and we can see and identify them with the help of a microscope. There are obviously bacteria that are more life-threatening, but they are so small that we can only see their general shape in standard microscopes and we cannot identify them to species.

If your users do not have Ascaris worms (which, of course, is preferable), you could put Ascaris-laden feces in envelopes of plastic mesh into your toilets. This way, after storage and treatment, you can look at this material under the microscope, without having to do complicated techniques to concentrate the eggs, since they were concentrated from before.

Fecal Coliformes constitute a whole grab-bag of species that happen to able to live under certain conditions, so their analysis helps us little on this front. Molecular tests for E. coli, like PetriFilm are more useful. There are also molecular tests for other fecal bacteria, but I would suggest that Ascaris analysis would give us a more definitive answer ... and our funds support the local person who works as a laboratory technician. To keep the technician honest, you could give the samples only labeled with numbers and include samples spiked with Ascaris.

How did the trials with collecting feces in rice sacks go, as discussed with James Collector in the following thread?:

forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-uri...imit=12&start=12

Happy New Year,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 02 Jan 2017 13:45:03 +0000
Re: Reducing desiccation time for feces in UDDT - question on research parameters - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#19926 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#19926 lucasdengel wrote:

For this purpose we would need to understand on which pathogens to focus, besides the always-quoted ascaris ova. Which other pathogens will be the second and third most persistent and obstinate to survive in semi-dry feces resp. under desiccation conditions? Which pathogenic parasites, protozoa, bacteria to focus on if we would like to check on sanitisation / hygienisation i.e. complete pathogen-freedom within shorter periods, down to e.g. six months?


You are looking at it in a slightly wrong way; ascaris is not being tested for to evaluate the effectiveness of the process, but rather the final outcome (as they are very hard to kill).
What you would want is to have an indicator organism that somewhat acuratly models typical dieoff rates of relevant fecal-oral pathogens. I agree that the common one for this, i.e. E.coli is probably more suited for wet environments and thus fails to capture many spore forming bacteria.
I am not really aware of a specific one, but maybe a look at dry food process safty protocols might help. A short web searched showed this interesting article on this:
www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-arch...cessing-environment/

However with some care a general heterotrophic plate count (I think that is the same what the article above called aerobic plate count) could probably be used to show a general effect. But one probably needs to add a fungicide to the growth medium as I am quite sure various molds thrive in mostly dry UDDT feces.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Thu, 29 Dec 2016 05:11:41 +0000
Reducing desiccation time for feces in UDDT - question on research parameters - by: lucasdengel http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#19917 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19917-reducing-desiccation-time-for-feces-in-uddt-question-on-research-parameters#19917
A UDDT with two toilet pans and two separate chambers resp. receptacles for fecal matter is one of the technically simplest, hygienically safest, and most foolproof solutions for rural areas with deficient water supply.
However, a UDDT built as a separate outhouse takes a lot of space and is expensive. Reduction in size and cost would facilitate it becoming more widely used.

In this context we would like to conduct some research on methods to reduce the drying period of fecal matter - presently defined (as per WHO) as a minimum of 12 to 18 months under tropical conditions. Reducing this period - e.g. to six months - would permit to dispense with the second toilet pan (being used while the first toilet is sealed for 12-18 months) and instead to use exchangeable containers of smaller volumes, thereby reducing the sizing of the outhouse and its costs significantly.

For this purpose we would need to understand on which pathogens to focus, besides the always-quoted ascaris ova. Which other pathogens will be the second and third most persistent and obstinate to survive in semi-dry feces resp. under desiccation conditions? Which pathogenic parasites, protozoa, bacteria to focus on if we would like to check on sanitisation / hygienisation i.e. complete pathogen-freedom within shorter periods, down to e.g. six months?

In case the answers to my questions are readily available and I missed their publication in this forum, please point out where to find them. If they are not readily available, I request the forum to guide me to the literature or the researchers or the research institutions that are likely to be cooperative in guiding us to the answers.

Thank you, Lucas]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 28 Dec 2016 08:55:59 +0000
Progress on EarthAuger toilet installation in South Africa - by: ekellogg http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19573-progress-on-earthauger-toilet-installation-in-south-africa#19573 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19573-progress-on-earthauger-toilet-installation-in-south-africa#19573 www.earthauger.org is a low cost composting urine diverting toilet. EarthAuger was approved earlier this year for installation in all locations in peri-urban Dakar, Senegal by the Comité Technique National. EarthAuger has also been approved recently for an installation of 200 units by the South African government in a rural area near the town of Ida, a short distance from Queenstown in the eastern part of South Africa. The attached report details the status of the project as of late October 2016. We look forward to the operation and further evaluation of these EarthAuger toilets in the next few months.

The report also describes a prospective retrofit EarthAuger installation project at the Kleinbooi school in the same vicinity. I urge you to subsribe to SuSanA so that you can log in and view the attached report.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 15 Nov 2016 22:18:43 +0000
Re: Request for advice on UDDT slab design - and drying in vaults that are below ground? - by: kifle1adama http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19074-request-for-advice-on-uddt-slab-design-and-drying-in-vaults-that-are-below-ground#19510 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19074-request-for-advice-on-uddt-slab-design-and-drying-in-vaults-that-are-below-ground#19510
Hope your project is going good . I have same moled you can use fiber glass . They are easy to install, easy to casting and drains away the urine. Here in Adama Ethiopia +251911797053]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 04 Nov 2016 10:46:41 +0000
Re: Request for advice on UDDT slab design - and drying in vaults that are below ground? - by: Angus http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19074-request-for-advice-on-uddt-slab-design-and-drying-in-vaults-that-are-below-ground#19402 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/34-urine-diversion-systems-includes-uddt-and-ud-flush-toilet/19074-request-for-advice-on-uddt-slab-design-and-drying-in-vaults-that-are-below-ground#19402
Controversially, we aren't putting a vent pipe on the first round of UDDTs. This is because normally for any type of latrine the vent pipe is the first thing to go wrong, and I think that in this hot climate the faeces will be able to dry through the drop holes and through gaps in the structure. If it seems to be an issue we will retrofit them.

We haven't been able to eliminate the steps, only reduce them. Putting the toilets uphill is a nice idea, but most of the area we are working in isn't steep enough to mean there are no steps required. We are going house to house looking for people with disabilities, so if anybody can't use the steps then I will think of a specific solution for them.

Regarding the 'user interface', I would love to use a nice plastic insert but there are none available locally and it's not possible to import anything. I can't see why would round drop holes be easier to clean? I will have a hunt in the market again for anything that would be suitable for catching the urine.

The UDDTs are one per household, so I'm expecting the filling rate to be normal. The tiger worms are unrelated - we building worm toilets separately, and will see which works best. The Arboloo is great, and is similar to what is happening here - sturdy concrete slabs that are moved when the latrine is full. The reason for using the UDDTs and worm toilets though is that they are more suitable when the ground conditions aren't good. A lot of UDDTs were build in Dollo Ado, Ethiopia, where the ground was rocky, and here in Gambella there is black cotton soil which means that normal latrines are at risk of collapsing.

Angus]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Mon, 24 Oct 2016 14:20:16 +0000