SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:40:03 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Non-plastic removable container for UDDT (for project in Southern India) - by: StewMartin
Not sure if this thread has gone dormant. But to answer your question, our first effort at local material-produced containers will be bamboo frame with woven split bamboo to make the basket. We think some can make themselves, others will have to barter or purchase (at low cost). Still working out the quantity of containers in a vault of the UDDT. Yes, they will eventually rot; but much less than the woven gedek, alternative material. We're looking into plastic woven bags; not yet sourced.]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Thu, 24 Jul 2014 04:55:33 +0000
Re: Female genital mutilation and the use of UD toilets - by: muench
Thanks for your post. This might well be the very first time that someone writes on the internet about women who have undergone female genital mutilation using urine-diverting dry toilets and their difficulties with it (as UDDTs are till rare, and writing about practical, toilet-related FGM issues is also rare).

Just a question of clarification (and I am so glad that these Somali women trust you sufficiently to speak about this problem with you! That's a good sign for your focus group work):

Urine diversion is most tricky (also for non-cut women) when you urinate and defecate "at the same time" (I put this in quotation marks because in my experience there is nevertheless a time delay of a second or two, during which time one can slightly move forwards or backwards to hit the right hole). I can very well imagine that cut women could have trouble with this, because their urine comes out so slowly.

But one only defecates once per day or even less frequently if one is not getting enough food (unless you have diarrhoea then of course it would be more often).
If we assume that defecation is only once per day, then perhaps one has to live with the fact that on that occasion once per day some urine will enter the faeces hole. I don't think this would make the toilet fail, i.e. become too wet and smelly (add more sawdust? In fact what cover material are you adding if any?).

But on all the other occasions per day (4 times? 5 times?) when one only urinates, then aiming for the urination hole should work? Or would you say that the urination section is too small for such cut women? That would mean that they also night have trouble aiming for the hole of a conventional pit latrine?

It would be great if you could clarify this.

Just for those that don't know, I think you are talking about this type of toilet, right?:

The work with these MoSan toilets in Kenya is described in this thread:

Kind regards,
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 01 Jul 2014 11:56:40 +0000
Reply: UDT - by: Bhaskar
4. What do you need to add value to harvested urine

Use it to grow fish.

5. What is the mineral distribution in the diluted urine (1 urine:3 water)

The average nutrient content of urine is Nitrogen - 5 g per person per day and Phosphate - 0.5 g per person per day.

6. How does one arrive at the market value of the added value of both human waste respectively.

We can grow Diatoms upto 12 times the N content, i.e., 60 g per person using the toilet per day. This would increase fish weight by 6 grams per day.

If fish are harvested at 1 kg weight and sold for Rs 100 per kg, the income would be at least Rs 200 per user per year. The actual income is more since fish feces too is recycled in the ponds ( 60 g - 6 g mentioned above ).


Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sun, 29 Jun 2014 08:29:21 +0000
UDT - by: omulama [Start of Page 2 of the discussion thread]

After constructing six UDT for St. Monica girls secondary school we went there for a revisit and realized that most of the stool chambers are full. They are using the second chambers. This means that very soon they will be also full. The headmistress asked us who will be responsible for emptying them.

We concluded that though we trained them on O&M and she knows how to empty she is not ready for harvesting the manure. I have realised that there is a need to solve this gap economical. Therefore kindly assist me answer the following and I will make money out of this need.

1. What do you need for preparation of decomposed stool before emptying the vaults
2. What do you need when you want to add value to the decomposed stool
3. What is the mineral distribution in decomposed stool
4. What do you need to add value to harvested urine
5. What is the mineral distribution in the diluted urine (1 urine:3 water)
6. How does one arrive at the market value of the added value of both human waste respectively.

My regards]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 28 Jun 2014 14:10:12 +0000
Re: Female genital mutilation and the use of UD toilets - by: Ewoods
Sanivation is wrapping up a pilot sanitation pilot in Kakuma refugee camp with CDC and NRC. In our design, we use mobile, dry, urine diverting toilets. One of our target groups is Somali households. We have encountered some users that say due to their FGM they are not able to urine divert. That it is physically impossible, not just uncomfortable or new. We still do not know much about this and will be trying to collect more data during our Focus Group Discussions. We will share our findings once we are able.

I am wondering if anyone has encountered this before- the difficulty for women with FGM to use urine diverting toilets. Specifically type 3 FGM common in Somalia.

-Emily Woods
co-founder of Sanivation]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 27 Jun 2014 12:12:24 +0000
Re: Female genital mutilation and the use of UD toilets - by: muench
Sorry, you misunderstood me a little bit here. I do think that the issue of FGM (female genitale mutilation) - while to some extent removed from sanitation - does have a "place" on this forum, which is why I posted about it in connection with menstrual hygiene management. As we discussed in that other thread on the forum, there are common elements between FGM and sanitation which is being such a massive taboo topic, violence against women, more difficult for the women. See here:

But my question to Dan was (and I hope he will reply quite soon): why did you bring it up in the context of urine diversion? This is what I don't understand.

And I do agree with you that occasionally one has to draw the line when topics go too far beyond sanitation (in the case of FGM, however, it is still sufficiently closely connected, for the reasons described in the thread linked to above).

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 24 Jun 2014 21:33:42 +0000
Re: Female genital mutilation and the use of UD toilets - by: Ecogo As disastrous as FGM is, its issues are not aligned with the purpose of Susana. There are many disastrous situations in this world, (including torture, financial ruin, toxic toys, etc, and fortunately, there are appropriate forums for all of them.]]> Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 24 Jun 2014 15:35:55 +0000 Re: Female genital mutilation and the use of UD toilets - by: mwaniki
I would like to add some little information on what I know about FGM. This is a disgusting and backward tradition and is being fought from all fronts by the Government, the communities and religious leaders here in Kenya. In fact, the practitioners now risk long jail terms and a hefty fines if caught in the act. The facts are, we maybe way ahead in eradicating this practice in comparison with other countries in Europe and the North America where the Muslim communities have immigrated and the tradition is getting carried out secretly. Again, there are now safe houses within the counties in Kenya for girls who run away from home when they sense what their parents are up to.

At the moment the FGM is being practiced in remote rural communities who are still holding on to customary traditions which have no place in this century. So when we talk about UDTs in these areas of the country is tantamount to talking of a mansion in the middle of the Amazon forest.

Let us forget about the cost.When unfortunate cases of this nature take place, the chances of a reconstructive surgery are very slim given that the dispensaries are many kilometers away and may not have the facilities to conduct operations of this magnitude to save the victim. Mind you, quite a number of deaths have been reported after FGMs as a result of loss of blood and infection due to the unhygienic approach from the crude instruments of trade.

It is a sad affair that women don’t have total protection they deserve in many places and they have to undergo such abuse and permanent disfigurement and even death.

Kind regards / Mwaniki]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 21 Jun 2014 22:21:36 +0000
Re: Female genital mutilation and the use of UD toilets - by: muench
I am wondering what the background to your question is, i.e. what are you getting at?
Are you expecting to see any difference compared to use of conventional toilets?
From what I gathered, one important issue here is the extremely long time it takes to empty one's bladder when the genital cutting has been severe, as the urine only comes out drop by drop almost (20 minutes each time!?). So more toilets per family or more cubicles per shared toilet block would be required.

I wonder how much it costs to have that reconstructive surgery done. Probably beyond the reach of most affected women? (let alone the cultural barriers of course)

Oh, I just see you opened a new thread rather than continuing the existing thread on female gentital mutilation (FGM) which is here on the forum:
(on purpose? Maybe that thread should be moved out of the MHM category into the general health category?)

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 21 Jun 2014 14:44:30 +0000
Female genital mutilation and the use of urine diverting toilets (case of Kenya, refugee camps) - by: campbelldb Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Thu, 19 Jun 2014 18:12:14 +0000 Re: Uridan urinal for females - Re: Female urinal tested in Europe - by: ambaya
I thank you. So a technology can only develop if it is market driven. I wonder whether women who be interested to have urinals fitted in office buildings and other public places? That would require a complete shift in toilet habit if they did. Maybe some violation of privacy?...


Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Fri, 16 May 2014 01:42:00 +0000
Re: Replication challenges with urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in Uganda - by: Juergen
thanks for your contribution; just a few remarks:

Faecophobia is not an African problem, I found it in Asia (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka), too. In these countries, anything else but a pour-flush latrine wouldn't be acceptable, even in the drier regions - and there is water enough for flushing, since it's just a few litres which are used per flushing. That's nothing if compared to irrigation. Over large areas in Uganda, this might be viable, too. Well arranged wetlands are certainly a way of processing the sludge and some convenient use for using it afterwards may be found.

Anyway, the observation made about linking the toilet directly to the house and making it well aerated, lighted and roomy is a very good idea; in the Far Western Development Region of Nepal, exactly this made a failed project successful in the end, and the use of toilets became popular. As it turned out, the mere fact of being or feeling observed when walking to the toilet built outside the house had hindered many users -particularly women and girls- to use these toilets; second reason for not using it was the often offending smell and flies inside the toilets (initially dry toilets), which was dealt with through improved ventilation (pipe and windows) and the siphons keeping flies back in the pits.

Best regards,

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 14 May 2014 08:44:18 +0000
Re: Developing urine diversion systems in a developed world context - by: ToniFrench
The Town of Falmouth in Barnstable County, MA, for example, is experiencing impaired surface and ground waters from nutrients leaching from septic systems. This process is creating increased rates of eutrophication in fresh water ponds and coastal areas. Tourism and population growth have exacerbated the problems.

As a result, The Town of Falmouth assembled an Eco-Toilet Subcommittee
to bring together local experts, residents, and government representatives
to talk about alternative approaches. This article from Tufts University explains more.

The ecological challenges also spurred a coalition of organizations to hold an Eco Toilet Summit there in 2011. The summit was sponsored by The Green Center, and co-sponsored by Clean Water Action, FCAT (Falmouth Climate Action Team), GreenCAPE, Nature’s Circle, Cape & Islands Group Sierra Club, Water Alliance.

One regional organization that's exploring solutions is the Cape Cod Eco-Toilet Center, which is run by a 501(c)(3) non-profit, The volunteer-run organization supports projects that demonstrate ecologically derived forms of energy, agriculture, aquaculture, housing, and landscapes, and living in harmony with nature.

I hope these links are helpful. Kind regards,


Toni French, Consultant
Climate Foundation]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Wed, 14 May 2014 05:21:39 +0000
Re: Replication challenges with urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in Uganda - by: muench
Thanks a lot for your post with this important background and historical information about ecosan and sanitation in general in Uganda. I found it very interesting.

You mentioned the minister Maria Mutagamba (I checked in Wikipedia and was happy to see that she is still minister in the Ugandan government to this date!).

There was a movie about ecosan made by WASTE in 2005 (now 9 years ago!), called "The Human Excreta Index". In that movie there is an 8-minute segment about ecosan in Uganda and there is a point where Maria Mutagamba says "yes, yes, yes, I have one of these toilets (UDDTs) at my house and I make sure every visitor sees it and uses it!".

You can watch her statement exactly at this point in the video here, just after the enthousiastic school girl:

This is the link to the entire video (includes that well-known ecosan example at a school in Kalungu, see;type=2&id=141):

(I am wondering if now, 9 years on, the teachers and students are still as happy about their toilets as they were in that video? Would be remarkable if that was the case).

That statement by Maria Mutagamba prompted me to decide that I also want to have a UDDT at my home. First I installed one at my workplace (then UNESCO-IHE in Delft) and later in my house in Germany. In both cases it was a Separett UDDT from Sweden.

Oh, and what you said about Uno Winblad's sentiments, he spoke about them in an interview here where he praised how easy ecosan is in China - and he also mentions what he called "faecophobia" in Africa... (and in Hindu culture):

And just for fun, do check out what Arno Rosemarin had to say 9 years ago about the issue of phosphorus in the same series of interviews by WASTE (all still very relevant now):

More segments from the movie The Human Excreta Index are available here:;type=3&id=27

It's a little bit scary to see where we were 9 years ago and how we have progressed to some extent, but not as fast as we thought back then would be possible... Still the same issues 9 years later. OK, 9 years is nothing in the scheme of things, we have to be patient with sanitation and behaviour change...

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 13 May 2014 19:23:14 +0000
Re: Replication challenges with urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in Uganda - by: Schattauer
I also wish to write a few lines on the issue.
The swTws (South Western Towns Water and Sanitation) started in 1996 and still kind of exists today as WSDF-sw (Water and Sanitation Development Facility - south west) in Mbarara. WSDFs are the national approach for piped water supply and sanitation in Rural Growth Centers (RGCs) and Small Towns (STs) in Uganda. To reach out over the whole country - MWE has opened 3 more branches - the WSDF-N (north in Lira) - E (east in Mbale) and - C (center in Wakiso).

(See also this case study which I co-authored:;type=2&id=1558
Kwikiriza, L., Asiimwe, A. Nuwamanya, H., Schattauer, H. (2012). Large-scale peri-urban and rural sanitation with UDDTs, South Western region, Uganda - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA).)

EcoSan or better UDDTs have been seen as one of a sanitation solution soon after the project start and it was a difficult start. Uno Winblad - whom we had invited for the first trainings said - " ... if you guys want to break your horns here in faeceophobic Africa - I will support you but I would not try EcoSan again in Africa." (Remember - he has written Sanitation without Water together with Wen Kilama in Tanzania in the 70s and worked later mainly in Asia).

Consequently I see one of the major achievements of the introduction of UDDT technology in swTws - that now we can talk about human excreta in Uganda and East Africa without people turning away their heads or even leaving the meeting as it was in the late 90s.

A bit later - the in EcoSan well known Minister for Water and Environment - Hon. Maria Mutagamba helped a further big deal to talk about sanitation in Uganda and African Countries. She has a UDDT at home on the farm and she did not shy away from publishing 4 pagers about EcoSan in the Ugandan newspapers New Vision and Monitor.

The WSDFs are still promoting UDDTs as one of the sanitation options. Right now the Operations Manual for the WSDFs implementation of Water Supply is under review. In this context there will be also a close review of the Sanitation implementation approach and what Fredrick Tumusiime has mentioned - ".... embedding sanitation marketing and paying attention to FSM; e.g. construction of faecal sludge disposal facilities ... " will be among others included. Bye-laws and enforcement as Franz Höllhuber has put it here ".... there is an essential role for government. Full coverage will not come with carrots alone. Practical regulations and good enforcement are surely required!" ... will also have to play a big role.

The process has started, the final product - Sanitation Implementation Manual for WSDFs - should be out after workshops and feedback from the ground beginning 2015.

There was another question on how sanitation was and is promoted? The WSDFs are using among other methods local drama groups to inform the whole population of a town about sanitation and hygiene. I believe there must be tens of videos of shows staged by the Kinimba actors (Kabale) and other groups. Kinimba has done at least one show in english language - if one has the video I would like to have a copy.

Interesting to read that using manure from UDDTs is lesser a problem in Adjumani. I visited recently UDDTs in Karamoja (Namalu) with the WSDF-E and was surprised - have not seen better maintained UDDTs in a long time!

Costs of UDDT - I think a toilet needs at least be connected to the house and accessible under the same roof - it needs to be bright and light inside so you can see where you are stepping..... A toilet in the middle of a compound - hardly accessible at night or in the rain - is not very interesting for people to make a change. Attaching it to the house would also reduce the costs of UDDTs - as already one wall exists and the other walls could be much slimmer as they are stabilized / joined into the main building. Another thing I have learned - avoid 90 degree bends in urine piping, this avoids even little stagnant urine and therefore smell.

Thanks and greetings
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Tue, 13 May 2014 12:53:46 +0000