× UDDT stands for urine-diverting dry toilet. UD stands for urine diversion.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

  • skumwenda
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Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

New paper:
Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

Save Kumwenda, Chisomo Msefula, Wilfred Kadewa, Bagrey Ngwira, Tracy Morse, Jeroen H. J. Ensink
Published December 2016, 6 (4) 555-568; DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2016.177

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ABSTRACT
Fossa alternas and double vault urine diverting dry(DVUDD)latrines have been extensively promoted as ecological sanitation (EcoSan) latrine options in Malawi, but little is known about whether they are used properly. A qualitative study of EcoSan users was conducted in Blantyre and Chikwawa districts, Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs). Twenty-eight (28) and seventeen (17) IDIs were conducted with household heads that had Fossa Alternas and DVUDD latrines, respectively. Recorded data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Of the total 45 EcoSan users, 40 had moderate to high knowledge on EcoSan latrine use, four had low knowledge and only one had no knowledge of how EcoSan latrines operate. Blockages of urine diversion systems,intensive management and maintenance needed for the latrines were reported as some problems related to the negative attitudes about EcoSan use. Use of soil and ash, urine diverting, use of hot water and chemicals to kill maggots, urinating in the drop-hole of the DVUDDs and poor maintenance of the roof were some of the practices reported on use of these latrines. It is therefore recommended that government, through community workers, should be monitoring practices on EcoSan latrine use and provide necessary support to users.

The paper has uncovered some important challenges on EcoSan use which boarder on inadequate skills and lack of resources.
Last Edit: 15 Feb 2017 11:58 by muench. Reason: added title of paper
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  • canaday
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Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

Dear Skumwenda,

Welcome to the Forum and thanks for this information.

Is the entire paper available on the internet? It good to know that almost all of the users understand these systems. Were the users happy with these toilets? Which system did they like best? What experience had there been in the use of urine and decomposed feces in agriculture? Have ArborLoos been applied there very much. If so, it would be good to include them in the comparison.

Please tell us more about you and your work.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
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  • muench
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Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

The paper that Save has posted above appeared here:
washdev.iwaponline.com/content/6/4/555?etoc

It's in the IWA Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Unfortunately it is behind a paywall; I presume the costs for making it open access were prohibitive for the authors.

Nevertheless I had encouraged Save Kumwenda to post about his paper here and am glad that Chris has already responded with some questions.

Save: could you please tell us a bit more about this work, e.g. by attaching a powerpoint presentation you might have done about this work, or by copying the main conclusions from the paper to here?

I see that you're from the University of Malawi. Could you tell us more about your current work, too? Are you continuing research about UDDTs in Malawi?

Regards,
Elisabeth

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
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  • skumwenda
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Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

Thanks Chris,
The paper is available online on the following website: washdev.iwaponline.com/content/early/201.../20/washdev.2016.177 . The users have theoretical understanding of how the toilets work but their knowledge is not directly translated into the right practices because of several challenges including weather changes and lack of resources. The users preference of the system depended on location, those in peri urban areas preferred the urine diverting dry toilet because it looks a bit improved than the fossa alterna while those in rural areas could not afford the urine diverting dry toilet and they preferred the skyloo. But regardless of costs, all users preferred the urine diverting dry toilet.

In terms of use of faecal sludge, there was very low use in peri urban areas, most people just remove it and dispose the manure in the rubbish pits because they do not have gardens and have nowhere to sale. Others do not use for agriculture because they feel disgusted with the sludge/faeces. The usage was a bit higher in rural areas because households find artificial fertilizer as expensive but still a good number were still not using the faecal sludge. The important benefit that they treasure were saving space because it can be reused over and over again and that it does not collapse during rainy season for the case of fossa alterna common in rural areas. The urine was not used and was directed to a soakaway pit in all the toilets. People do not have adequate knowledge and skills to use urine.

Arborloos have been promoted but due to the added work of shifting the superstructure, they have been abandoned and are now almost non existence. We expected to find them but we didnt find any. It would have been really good to compare.

Thanks
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  • skumwenda
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Re: Knowledge, attitudes and practices on use of Fossa Alternas and double vault urine diverting dry (DVUDD) latrines in Malawi

Thanks Elisabeth, this work is part of my PhD at University of Malawi under Consortium for Advanced Research Training for Africa (CARTA) fellowship. Its currently completed but will be continued through my postgraduate funding. The background to this research is based on another study under SHARE which found that most of faecal sludge from EcoSan latrines sampled across Malawi had high levels of helminths despite some of them following the recommended guideline of 6months waiting period. My study was them aimed at discovering some practices that may lead to pathogen survival. It also compared the helminthic load in fossa alterna and UDDTs (Paperpunder review) and the research will also assess the health risk to users of such toilets.

The Study also followed up 55 EcoSan toilets for a period of 12 months. During this time of follow up, faecal samples were periodically analysed and temperature, humidity, moisture content, pH and ammonia were also monitored to understand the factors that contribute significantly to pathogen die off. This paper will soon be submitted for publication.

Next research is aimed at checking environmental contamination of helminths around households and fields where EcoSan sludge was used

I will share more soon..

Thanks
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