SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sun, 01 May 2016 02:19:42 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: WASHplus survey of private sector support for WASH in schools - by: campbelldb
My apologies for the late response. I am no longer with WASHplus but let me check with my colleagues there to see if I can get a response for you.

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Thu, 28 Apr 2016 13:26:50 +0000
Activities for playful learning on water, hygiene, energy, biodiversity and waste management now available in the SuSanA library - by: secretariat
I'm happy to announce that the SuSanA School Activity Collection is online!

The SuSanA School Activity Collection combines education on water, hygiene, energy, biodiversity and waste management with activities that enable playful learning. Everyone is invited to use the open source activities for their green club, school teaching, workshops and trainings, or any other environment where innovative learning approaches could be useful. Simultaneously, the collection is meant to grow and become richer in content and diversity by outward contributions. Standard forms for the different topics were developed and are available for download here:School Activities
These can be filled out and sent to the SuSanA secretariat, which will upload the activities here on the SuSanA platform.

Take a look at the existent activities here.

Kind regards

On behalf of the SuSanA secretariat]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 11:26:34 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: MarcelSiewert
that would be wonderful to see how the Three Star Approach will be adopted in Papua New Guinea!

Currently Laos PDR and Cambodia are also working on it! I will share it as soon as i can!

Best wishes,
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 28 Mar 2016 09:21:57 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: Esther
Exciting news about the achievement when the education department of ARMM endorsed the 3 star checklist.

Thank you for sharing the information. I have downloaded it to use as well. We are also doing the 3 star approach in Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea.

We will share with you all about our work so you too can be informed.

Cheers ]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Sat, 26 Mar 2016 01:22:56 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: MarcelSiewert
the checklist is designed to provide schools/Sub National Levels a realistic guidance to improve WASH Situation - step by step.
The UNICEF/GIZ Three Star Approach highlights that the third Star is the National Standard - for sure not all schools are able to reach the third Star immediately - but they know how to go there.

The important fact is, that children have drinking water during the day, to stay hydrated. The responsibility for drinking water is in the beginning (1st Star) with the parents, and is shifted step by step to the School, on its way to the national standards (3rd Star). Mandatory provision of potable water in a 1st star level would overwhelm the schools and Sub national levels - and water treatment is more likely to happen in private households. A common practice in some countries!

At the moment several countries are working on the local adoption of the 3 Star Approach. UNICEF is supporting the Ministry for example in Pakistan. In Laos PDR the Fit Program joined forces with the UNICEF colleagues to support the School Health Task Force. In Cambodia an Alliance of several UN-partners, DPs and NGOs are looking forward to the endorsement of the 'Minimum Requirements for WASH in Schools' in June! of course, will the local adoption look different in all countries, but at the Core is the step wise approach for incremental improvement of WinS.

Best regards,
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 21 Mar 2016 11:46:32 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: JKMakowka
The list of water supply options does not correspond to actual typical supplies in rural Philippine schools and it will be difficult to fulfill the 3 star "potability" question if there are hardly any labs that can do the full testing requirements (and the official certificate is also only valid for 3 months anyways).

It's also a bit funny that they consider water brought from home (as opposed for example to water filtered at the school) to be the equivalent of potable water, when in fact it will most likely come from the same or similar shallow tube well as the untreated water in the school.]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:18:28 +0000
Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: MarcelSiewert
as you might heard the Department of Education ARMM (Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao) just endorsed the 3 Star Accreditation Checklist!

The Checklist is the local adaptation of the Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools, a step-wise way to reach national standards for WASH in Schools, in order to create a healthy environment for learners.
The adaptation reflects the circumstances in the Schools right now. DepEd ARMM created a realistic checklist, which indicates simple and doable steps for schools and sub-national levels to make hygiene activities in schools reality. At the same time, the checklist provide guidance to the education sector in prioritizing investments.

For DepEd ARMM the next step was to create the WinS Monitoring Form (also attached). The form is already field tested and will be used in the next School Year. Later on some indicators will be incorporated into the National EMIS (BEIS).

Best regards!

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 18 Mar 2016 02:43:31 +0000
Re: WASHplus survey of private sector support for WASH in schools - by: AlexanderWinkscha
just stumbled across your call here and was wondering if the survey has been completed and analyzed yet. Are there any results you would be able to share?

Thanks in advance,

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Thu, 10 Mar 2016 06:55:57 +0000
Re: How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: linda
Many thanks for posting that question as it is probably one of the biggest problems that we face in terms of school toilets. How to keep them clean??
As you know, we are currently piloting the Fit for School approach in 10 schools in Moshi and Dar es Salaam. To improve Operation and Maintenance within the schools is one of the key focus areas. Marcel already shared some of the "secrets" from Fit for School in Asia and we hope to make good use of them here. We will extend our pilot until August 2016 and can also inbetween already share lessons learnt with you. For me school based management is a major issue - teachers themselves need to follow-up and take responsibility for the cleanliness of the school toilets. The SWASH clubs (older pupils from form 3)should also feel responsible and complain, if. eg. soap is not available.

It was also discussed about SWASH guidelines: Yes, there are SWASH guidelines in Tanzania available, but currently only as a draft. The guidelines have not yet been formally adopted. If you want, I can share the drafts with you, as they also give some ideas on how to best organize O and M, e.g. having a roster in place.

We are currently organizing a stakeholder meeting in Moshi for beginning of March. I think this is the next opportunity to discuss these issues in person.

Best regards
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Wed, 24 Feb 2016 16:09:45 +0000
Re: How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: MarcelSiewert
GIZ Regional Fit for School Program conducted in 2013 a survey, focusing on existing M&O habits of 20 schools in 4 countries (Philippines, Cambodia, Laos and Indonesia) to get a better understanding, how schools organize activities to keep facilities clean and functional. In all countries several schools with in general clean and dirty toilets were observe, to understand differences in management methods, efforts and results.

Key Findings:
  • Existing Infrastructure: Schools with well maintained WASH Facilities have a ratio of 53 Students per Toilet, dirty facilities have a ratio of 96 students/toilet
  • Tasks and Responsibilities: In a simplified ‘Plan-Do-Check-Act PDCA (see attachment)’ Circle one stakeholder (e.g. teacher) must be (co) responsible for at least 2 parts
  • Costs: clean toilets are cheaper
  • The way how cleaning activities are organized within the school influence the result.

For the PDCA, the majority of ‘clean schools’ one group (e.g. teacher) is responsible for two adjacent parts – so there is a consistency in responsibility of the overall target ‘cleanliness of facilities’. In the ‘clean’ schools in Laos, for example, the teachers are responsible for the scheduling of cleaning activities (Plan) and also for the cleaning (Act). In addition, they are not acting on their own in both tasks. For planning, also the principal is responsible; for cleaning also the students. This kind of pattern can be found in most of the clean schools. Most of the schools with dirty toilets , do not have overlaps of responsibilities and tasks between stakeholders.

And the following aspects are found to be important for the organization of cleaning activities:
  • Group Activity: The students work in small groups together
  • Transparency: Who is responsible for what at which time?
  • Equity: All students participate in an equal way
  • Role Model: Older students take more responsibility and help younger students. Teachers are role models for all students
  • Knowledge: Students know about their tasks and their responsibility for a healthy school environment.
  • Long-term reliability: System works continuous for a long time, so cleaning habits and culture can develop
  • Motivation: Acknowledgments for the cleaning groups, for example during school rituals like flag ceremonies, are more appropriately then rewards or awards.

The findings of the survey were used to develop a Sanitation Planner for ARMM/Philippines and the 'Cleaning Chapter' of the Fit for School Manual, both you can find here:

Best regards,
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Tue, 23 Feb 2016 09:29:29 +0000
Key documents for the sub-category on schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools)".

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools)", in reverse chronological order:

Various authors (2015). Making WASH in Schools more Sustainable Volume II. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

(Volume I available here:

The stories presented here shall raise awareness about the importance of ensuring access to WASH and in particular sanitation in school settings among decision-makers, planners and practitioners working in and with schools and interested people around the globe. They will also shed light on the good work that is being done by SuSanA members and partners.

WASHplus (2015). Teacher’s Guide to Integrating WASH in Schools. USAID/WASHplus Project, Washington DC, USA

This Teacher’s Guide supports the teaching and learning about water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in Zambian primary schools. WASH is part of the new national curriculum, which was launched in January 2014. This guide provides technical content for the teacher to familiarize himself/herself with the subject of WASH. It also provides ideas and suggestions on how WASH content can be integrated into classroom and out of class teaching and learning.

UNICEF, GIZ (2013). Field Guide: The Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools. United Nations Children's Fund and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Eschborn, Germany

The Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools is designed to improve the effectiveness of hygiene behaviour change programmes. The approach ensures that healthy habits are taught, practised and integrated into daily school routines. The Three Star Approach helps schools meet the essential criteria for a healthy and protective learning environment for children as part of the broader child-friendly schools initiative. It aims to address the bottlenecks that block the effectiveness and expansion of current WASH in Schools programmes.

Abraham, B., Fogde, M., von Münch, E., Wendland, C. (2012). Sustainable sanitation for schools - Factsheet of Working Group 7a. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The aims of this factsheet are to:
1. Advocate for sustainable sanitation in schools in developing countries and countries in transition
2. Highlight existing challenges
3. Explore various innovations both in hardware and software using examples from developing countries.
4. Identify the common principles that are needed to achieve the desired outcomes.

Morgan, P., Shangwa, A. (2010). Teaching Ecological Sanitation in Schools - A compilation of manuals and fact sheets. Aquamor, Zimbabwe

These manuals were originally written as chapters for a book which is still being researched and compiled. In order to make the valuable information available for others to use and adapt, the chapters have been converted into manuals which can be used separately if required. Technical manuals include: Building toilets at the school, construction techniques for toilets, the garden and trees, outreach programs, open day at the school etc.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here:

Abbreviations used:
SWASH = School water, sanitation and hygiene
WinS = WASH in schools

Closely related topics that should also be aware of:

Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection?

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 22 Feb 2016 06:39:39 +0000
Re: How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: F H Mughal
I'm attaching a publication, which, I reckon, you will find useful.
The document discusses the cleaning standards for toilets in schools. Look at this (from Introduction):

"Organisms that can be harmful to health can survive on environmental surfaces. Viruses, in particular, can be excreted in large numbers in respiratory secretions and stools and can stay on surfaces for hours and days. School children are recognized as at particular risk of contracting and passing on infections (such as E.coli) which can be contracted by frequent hand contact surfaces (such as toilet flushes, door handles, locks, taps or hand dryers). Personal hand washing and hygienic toilet and hand washing facilities are vital to prevent the person-to-person spread of infections."


F H Mughal]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 15 Feb 2016 16:15:15 +0000
Re: How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: muench
I saw your post in another thread but have pulled it out into a new thread as it introduces a new topic.

Ah, that's no good about the donor putting in pedestal toilets in schools if the pupils will only use squat toilets... Did the donor not show you their plans beforehand, were there no meetings between donor and school administration or local government? That's odd. (Do you work for the Moshi town council?)

About your other question regarding maintenance of school toilets. Well, that's the multi-million dollar question. Even schools in the global north grapple with that (e.g. vandalism of school toilets). Are there any SWASH guidelines in Tanzania that provide some guidance?

If not, you might find it useful to browse through some of the other threads in this category on school toilets here on the forum:

And in the SuSanA library we also have lots on school toilets. See e.g. the library content filtered for keyword "school":

Or filtered for Working Group 7 which deals with schools (amongst other things):;vbl_8%5B44%5D=44

Hope this helps. Please let us know if you have further questions and how you're progressing with this.

What's this Sanitation survey in Moshi Municipality all about? Is this specifically for schools only or for the whole town?

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Thu, 11 Feb 2016 12:55:40 +0000
How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: sebamug Note by moderator: This post was originally in this thread:


Dear Kumi,
I have read your post and became interested, really even in our country (Tanzania-east Africa) , the pedestal type of Toilet is not common in community facilities. Last week we had a discussion about the use of pedestal toilets in primary school. We got a donor who helped us to build a very nice and modern toilet in two primary schools, but at finishing stage we came to find out that pedestal toilet were fixed. Therefore now we are in discussion with the funder on how to change pedestal to Squatting toilets. If the situation will remain the same without changing , the toilets will not be used in a proper way as pupils will feel disgust to use and alternative will be to climb on top of them as we have already experienced in some schools which had pedestal type of toilet.
But the main issue here is how do we maintain cleanliness on those toilets ?, who clean those toilets? frequency of cleansing ? ,water availability is it stable? And hygiene education to the users.

Currently we are in preparations to conduct Sanitation survey in Moshi Municipality by collaborating with GIZ to find out the status of sanitation in Moshi and also we will obtain wishes of users on the question above.
Thank you,

Mgeta Sebastian]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Sun, 10 Jan 2016 14:05:20 +0000
Re: Toilets in Schools - Maharashtra government (India) initiative - by: F H Mughal

According to the news, “And where there are toilets, they are either in a shabby state or shut. Raghunath Gowda Patil, an RTE activist, told TOI, "About 50% of the toilets in government schools of Gadag district are always locked up as as they are in a bad shape.” “20% of girls have stopped going schools due to bad toilets and lack of them.”

Lack of toilets for girls leads to the high drop-out rates. As is noted above, 20 per cent of girls stop going to school, due to lack of toilets.

Moving on to the community level, a report ( talks of a new $1.5 billion World Bank program that will support the Government of India in implementing the rural component of the Clean India Mission.

The program will help accelerate results in India’s states by giving them performance-based incentives. “Implementation on the ground will be monitored. A national sample-survey of rural sanitation will be conducted every year by independent third-party agencies. Sanitation improvements will be measured in terms of the number of rural people who have stopped open defecation, sustaining the open defecation-free status of villages, and achieving improvements in solid and liquid waste management.” “The project will promote behavior change among rural communities and help accelerate results in India’s states by giving them performance-based incentives.”

Promotion of behavioral change is essential if success is to be achieved. However, there are two important issues. As noted by Mr. Imad above, maintenance and hygiene is more important than the installation of toilets because people will stop using them if the hygiene is bad and the toilets are left in terrible conditions. Likewise, a important point has been highlighted by Mr. Uzair Shah, above, when he says: “we found it every difficult to push them to be clean and keep your environment clean.”

Thus, in addition to behavioral change, it has to be established as to who will maintain the toilets in hygienic conditions, knowing fully well that it is very difficult to push people to keep toilets clean.

F H Mughal]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Thu, 31 Dec 2015 07:00:38 +0000