SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Mon, 25 Jul 2016 00:19:18 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Scaling Up the Fit for School Program: Sisattanak District Experience in Lao PDR - by: AlexanderWinkscha
Sunny greetings from Lao PDR!

Often good practices can be established but they remain limited in terms of impact if they cannot be sustained and implemented on scale by existing government structures. How do you get from a pilot to scale?

Today I would like to share with you a publication on the successful scale-up of the Fit for School program that focuses promoting basic daily group hygiene interventions (daily group handwashing and daily group toothbrushing) and bi-annual deworming in schools.

Lao PDR started to implement the Fit for School program in 2011. Twenty-two model schools in four districts in Vientiane capital were selected to carry out improvements in WASH facilities and apply the daily hygiene activities.
Five of these model schools are located in Sisattanak District. In 2014, the District Education Bureau of Sisattanak was able to expand the program to all primary schools in the district, covering 22 public primary schools and 17 private primary schools, on their own initiative.

This study describes how Sisattanak District was able to scale-up the Fit for School program to all of the primary schools in its area. The study focuses on analyzing the structures, processes and mechanisms that were applied to successfully scale-up the program with limited resources and without much external support. This case study aims to inform and guide the MoES and other WinS partners in supporting the scale-up process in other districts and provinces of Lao PDR.

Please find this joint publication by the Lao PDR Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), the Regional Center on Educational Innovation and Technology of the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation (SEAMEO INNOTECH) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale
Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH attached.

Alternatively, you can find it on the Fit for School Website:

I am looking forward to your comments and questions.

Happy Reading!

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 15 Jul 2016 08:29:11 +0000
Re: Exploring the Issues around Rural On-Site School Sanitation in South Africa - by: SudhirPillay In 2014/15, the WRC commissioned a study to better understand the needs of learners with regard to school sanitation, and the key issues that contribute to the failure of sanitation infrastructure at schools. Principals and learners were interviewed and focus groups and surveys were conducted with learners regarding practices, perceptions and attitudes around school sanitation. In addition, visual assessments of school sanitation facilities were conducted by the research teams.

The research indicated that while the finger is often pointed at service delivery, the visible failure of many of the toilets that have been delivered – both old and new – points to a range of issues both “hard” and “soft” issues. The key issues identified in this study can be summarised as follows:
• Toilets which place learners over a deep pit, such as the ventilated improved pit (VIP) toilet, create a risk of especially younger learners falling into the pit. The issue must be addressed from a design point of view: alternative designs should be sought; where VIPs are to be installed the design should be modified to reduce risk. This must also be addressed from a management point of view: toilets must be maintained in safe condition and children (particularly small children) who have to use toilets over a pit should be accompanied and assisted.
• The research has indicated that there is a mismatch between infrastructure and asset management. School infrastructure that is delivered without an effective management programme in place will fail. This applies to even newly built sanitation facilities. Conditions of safety, health and dignity cannot be maintained without vigilant management, which includes clear standards for managing toilets, providing the administration tools to implement these standards and providing support, monitoring and enforcement to ensure that standards are upheld.
• While all learners have a right to support and assistance in the toilets if needed, certain groups are in need of special assistance. Schools must ensure that small children, menstruating girls, children with physical or other special needs or children who are the target of bullying or other abusive behaviour can meet their needs safely and with dignity in the toilets.

Consequently, the WRC with independent researchers, Partners in Development, developed guidelines informed by the insights gained from these school assessments as well as best practices identified in literature. A Handbook for Managing School Toilets, which is provided as an annexure to the guideline. The handbook provides ideas for activities around launching a new management programme in order to help everyone at the school make a fresh start with the toilets and to cultivate a sense of ownership. I shall provide the Guideline on Susana once we get it back from designers.

We will also launch a school sanitation management model this year as a follow-on to this project in which schools principals are given appropriate training and support to identify and prevent risk of sanitation hardware failure.

Kind Regards
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 27 May 2016 09:22:37 +0000
Re: The SuSanA School Activity Collection is online - by: secretariat
Since the School Activity Collection is meant to grow and become richer in content and diversity by outward contributions, please feel free to send us school activity suggestions.

Standard forms for the different topics were developed and are available for download here:

These can be filled out and sent to the SuSanA secretariat, which will upload the activities here on the SuSanA platform.

Looking forward to funny and interesting suggestions,

On behalf of the SuSanA Secretariat]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Wed, 11 May 2016 09:07:17 +0000
Re: WASHplus survey of private sector support for WASH in schools - by: campbelldb
My apologies for the late response. I am no longer with WASHplus but let me check with my colleagues there to see if I can get a response for you.

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Thu, 28 Apr 2016 13:26:50 +0000
The SuSanA School Activity Collection is online - by: secretariat
I'm happy to announce that the SuSanA School Activity Collection is online!

Under the umbrella of the Green Wicket initiative and as a contribution to the SuSanA Indian chapter, GIZ, the Government of Karnataka and the Karnataka Cricket Association have developed a school activity collection for playful learning on water, hygiene, energy, biodiversity and waste management
The SuSanA School Activity Collection combines education on water, hygiene, energy, biodiversity and waste management with activities that enable playful learning. Everyone is invited to use the open source activities for their green club, school teaching, workshops and trainings, or any other environment where innovative learning approaches could be useful.

Take a look at the activities here:
Kind regards

On behalf of the SuSanA secretariat]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Wed, 13 Apr 2016 11:26:34 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: MarcelSiewert
that would be wonderful to see how the Three Star Approach will be adopted in Papua New Guinea!

Currently Laos PDR and Cambodia are also working on it! I will share it as soon as i can!

Best wishes,
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 28 Mar 2016 09:21:57 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: Esther
Exciting news about the achievement when the education department of ARMM endorsed the 3 star checklist.

Thank you for sharing the information. I have downloaded it to use as well. We are also doing the 3 star approach in Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea.

We will share with you all about our work so you too can be informed.

Cheers ]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Sat, 26 Mar 2016 01:22:56 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: MarcelSiewert
the checklist is designed to provide schools/Sub National Levels a realistic guidance to improve WASH Situation - step by step.
The UNICEF/GIZ Three Star Approach highlights that the third Star is the National Standard - for sure not all schools are able to reach the third Star immediately - but they know how to go there.

The important fact is, that children have drinking water during the day, to stay hydrated. The responsibility for drinking water is in the beginning (1st Star) with the parents, and is shifted step by step to the School, on its way to the national standards (3rd Star). Mandatory provision of potable water in a 1st star level would overwhelm the schools and Sub national levels - and water treatment is more likely to happen in private households. A common practice in some countries!

At the moment several countries are working on the local adoption of the 3 Star Approach. UNICEF is supporting the Ministry for example in Pakistan. In Laos PDR the Fit Program joined forces with the UNICEF colleagues to support the School Health Task Force. In Cambodia an Alliance of several UN-partners, DPs and NGOs are looking forward to the endorsement of the 'Minimum Requirements for WASH in Schools' in June! of course, will the local adoption look different in all countries, but at the Core is the step wise approach for incremental improvement of WinS.

Best regards,
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 21 Mar 2016 11:46:32 +0000
Re: Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: JKMakowka
The list of water supply options does not correspond to actual typical supplies in rural Philippine schools and it will be difficult to fulfill the 3 star "potability" question if there are hardly any labs that can do the full testing requirements (and the official certificate is also only valid for 3 months anyways).

It's also a bit funny that they consider water brought from home (as opposed for example to water filtered at the school) to be the equivalent of potable water, when in fact it will most likely come from the same or similar shallow tube well as the untreated water in the school.]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:18:28 +0000
Three Star Accreditation Checklist for WASH in schools in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao - by: MarcelSiewert
as you might heard the Department of Education ARMM (Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao) just endorsed the 3 Star Accreditation Checklist!

The Checklist is the local adaptation of the Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools, a step-wise way to reach national standards for WASH in Schools, in order to create a healthy environment for learners.
The adaptation reflects the circumstances in the Schools right now. DepEd ARMM created a realistic checklist, which indicates simple and doable steps for schools and sub-national levels to make hygiene activities in schools reality. At the same time, the checklist provide guidance to the education sector in prioritizing investments.

For DepEd ARMM the next step was to create the WinS Monitoring Form (also attached). The form is already field tested and will be used in the next School Year. Later on some indicators will be incorporated into the National EMIS (BEIS).

Best regards!

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 18 Mar 2016 02:43:31 +0000
Re: WASHplus survey of private sector support for WASH in schools - by: AlexanderWinkscha
just stumbled across your call here and was wondering if the survey has been completed and analyzed yet. Are there any results you would be able to share?

Thanks in advance,

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Thu, 10 Mar 2016 06:55:57 +0000
Re: How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: linda
Many thanks for posting that question as it is probably one of the biggest problems that we face in terms of school toilets. How to keep them clean??
As you know, we are currently piloting the Fit for School approach in 10 schools in Moshi and Dar es Salaam. To improve Operation and Maintenance within the schools is one of the key focus areas. Marcel already shared some of the "secrets" from Fit for School in Asia and we hope to make good use of them here. We will extend our pilot until August 2016 and can also inbetween already share lessons learnt with you. For me school based management is a major issue - teachers themselves need to follow-up and take responsibility for the cleanliness of the school toilets. The SWASH clubs (older pupils from form 3)should also feel responsible and complain, if. eg. soap is not available.

It was also discussed about SWASH guidelines: Yes, there are SWASH guidelines in Tanzania available, but currently only as a draft. The guidelines have not yet been formally adopted. If you want, I can share the drafts with you, as they also give some ideas on how to best organize O and M, e.g. having a roster in place.

We are currently organizing a stakeholder meeting in Moshi for beginning of March. I think this is the next opportunity to discuss these issues in person.

Best regards
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Wed, 24 Feb 2016 16:09:45 +0000
Re: How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: MarcelSiewert
GIZ Regional Fit for School Program conducted in 2013 a survey, focusing on existing M&O habits of 20 schools in 4 countries (Philippines, Cambodia, Laos and Indonesia) to get a better understanding, how schools organize activities to keep facilities clean and functional. In all countries several schools with in general clean and dirty toilets were observe, to understand differences in management methods, efforts and results.

Key Findings:
  • Existing Infrastructure: Schools with well maintained WASH Facilities have a ratio of 53 Students per Toilet, dirty facilities have a ratio of 96 students/toilet
  • Tasks and Responsibilities: In a simplified ‘Plan-Do-Check-Act PDCA (see attachment)’ Circle one stakeholder (e.g. teacher) must be (co) responsible for at least 2 parts
  • Costs: clean toilets are cheaper
  • The way how cleaning activities are organized within the school influence the result.

For the PDCA, the majority of ‘clean schools’ one group (e.g. teacher) is responsible for two adjacent parts – so there is a consistency in responsibility of the overall target ‘cleanliness of facilities’. In the ‘clean’ schools in Laos, for example, the teachers are responsible for the scheduling of cleaning activities (Plan) and also for the cleaning (Act). In addition, they are not acting on their own in both tasks. For planning, also the principal is responsible; for cleaning also the students. This kind of pattern can be found in most of the clean schools. Most of the schools with dirty toilets , do not have overlaps of responsibilities and tasks between stakeholders.

And the following aspects are found to be important for the organization of cleaning activities:
  • Group Activity: The students work in small groups together
  • Transparency: Who is responsible for what at which time?
  • Equity: All students participate in an equal way
  • Role Model: Older students take more responsibility and help younger students. Teachers are role models for all students
  • Knowledge: Students know about their tasks and their responsibility for a healthy school environment.
  • Long-term reliability: System works continuous for a long time, so cleaning habits and culture can develop
  • Motivation: Acknowledgments for the cleaning groups, for example during school rituals like flag ceremonies, are more appropriately then rewards or awards.

The findings of the survey were used to develop a Sanitation Planner for ARMM/Philippines and the 'Cleaning Chapter' of the Fit for School Manual, both you can find here:

Best regards,
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Tue, 23 Feb 2016 09:29:29 +0000
Key documents for the sub-category on schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools)".

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools)", in reverse chronological order:

Various authors (2015). Making WASH in Schools more Sustainable Volume II. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

(Volume I available here:

The stories presented here shall raise awareness about the importance of ensuring access to WASH and in particular sanitation in school settings among decision-makers, planners and practitioners working in and with schools and interested people around the globe. They will also shed light on the good work that is being done by SuSanA members and partners.

WASHplus (2015). Teacher’s Guide to Integrating WASH in Schools. USAID/WASHplus Project, Washington DC, USA

This Teacher’s Guide supports the teaching and learning about water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in Zambian primary schools. WASH is part of the new national curriculum, which was launched in January 2014. This guide provides technical content for the teacher to familiarize himself/herself with the subject of WASH. It also provides ideas and suggestions on how WASH content can be integrated into classroom and out of class teaching and learning.

UNICEF, GIZ (2013). Field Guide: The Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools. United Nations Children's Fund and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Eschborn, Germany

The Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools is designed to improve the effectiveness of hygiene behaviour change programmes. The approach ensures that healthy habits are taught, practised and integrated into daily school routines. The Three Star Approach helps schools meet the essential criteria for a healthy and protective learning environment for children as part of the broader child-friendly schools initiative. It aims to address the bottlenecks that block the effectiveness and expansion of current WASH in Schools programmes.

Abraham, B., Fogde, M., von Münch, E., Wendland, C. (2012). Sustainable sanitation for schools - Factsheet of Working Group 7a. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The aims of this factsheet are to:
1. Advocate for sustainable sanitation in schools in developing countries and countries in transition
2. Highlight existing challenges
3. Explore various innovations both in hardware and software using examples from developing countries.
4. Identify the common principles that are needed to achieve the desired outcomes.

Morgan, P., Shangwa, A. (2010). Teaching Ecological Sanitation in Schools - A compilation of manuals and fact sheets. Aquamor, Zimbabwe

These manuals were originally written as chapters for a book which is still being researched and compiled. In order to make the valuable information available for others to use and adapt, the chapters have been converted into manuals which can be used separately if required. Technical manuals include: Building toilets at the school, construction techniques for toilets, the garden and trees, outreach programs, open day at the school etc.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here:

Abbreviations used:
SWASH = School water, sanitation and hygiene
WinS = WASH in schools

Closely related topics that should also be aware of:

Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection?

Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 22 Feb 2016 06:39:39 +0000
Re: How do we maintain cleanliness of school toilets? Question from Tanzania - by: F H Mughal
I'm attaching a publication, which, I reckon, you will find useful.
The document discusses the cleaning standards for toilets in schools. Look at this (from Introduction):

"Organisms that can be harmful to health can survive on environmental surfaces. Viruses, in particular, can be excreted in large numbers in respiratory secretions and stools and can stay on surfaces for hours and days. School children are recognized as at particular risk of contracting and passing on infections (such as E.coli) which can be contracted by frequent hand contact surfaces (such as toilet flushes, door handles, locks, taps or hand dryers). Personal hand washing and hygienic toilet and hand washing facilities are vital to prevent the person-to-person spread of infections."


F H Mughal]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Mon, 15 Feb 2016 16:15:15 +0000