SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Fri, 12 Feb 2016 14:03:24 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Roman toilets gave no clear health benefit, and Romanisation actually spread parasites - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16478-research-roman-toilets-gave-no-clear-health-benefit-and-romanisation-actually-spread-parasites#16481 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16478-research-roman-toilets-gave-no-clear-health-benefit-and-romanisation-actually-spread-parasites#16481
One possibility Mitchell offers is that it may have actually been the warm communal waters of the bathhouses that helped spread the parasitic worms. Water was infrequently changed in some baths, and a scum would build on the surface from human dirt and cosmetics. “Clearly, not all Roman baths were as clean as they might have been,” said Mitchell.
Another possible explanation raised in the study is the Roman use of human excrement as a crop fertilizer. While modern research has shown this does increase crop yields, unless the faeces are composted for many months before being added to the fields, it can result in the spread of parasite eggs that can survive in the grown plants.
“It is possible that sanitation laws requiring the removal of faeces from the streets actually led to reinfection of the population as the waste was often used to fertilise crops planted in farms surrounding the towns,” said Mitchell.


It's actually the long known fact that towards the end of the Roman empire the bathhouse hygiene was hugely neglected and lots of diseases spread through them... thus I am bit skeptical about warm water hypothesis.

The part about the mandatory removal of feces leading to more (untreated) agricultural reuse is certainly feasible and a relevant topic to this very day.

However then the researcher is quoted saying:
This latest research on the prevalence of ancient parasites suggests that Roman toilets, sewers and sanitation laws had no clear benefit to public health. The widespread nature of both intestinal parasites and ectoparasites such as lice also suggests that Roman public baths surprisingly gave no clear health benefit either.

Which I think is a gross over-simplification and totally neglects the significant population increase in the cities and thus higher population densities that also took place in that time as far as I know. So I would rather say the interventions were not as effective as they have been assumed so far, but only through them it was possible to actually have larger cities in the first place.
And last but not least one should also not forget that the Romanization also brought a lot of trade and human travelling (incl. slave trade), which is generally related to the spread of diseases.]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Sat, 09 Jan 2016 17:42:39 +0000
Research: Roman toilets gave no clear health benefit, and Romanisation actually spread parasites - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16478-research-roman-toilets-gave-no-clear-health-benefit-and-romanisation-actually-spread-parasites#16478 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16478-research-roman-toilets-gave-no-clear-health-benefit-and-romanisation-actually-spread-parasites#16478 Roman toilets gave no clear health benefit, and Romanisation actually spread parasites

Recent research, conducted by Dr Piers Mitchell from University of Cambridge’s Archaeology and Anthropology Department and published in the journal Parasitology, is interesting and informative.

According to the research, archaeological evidence shows that intestinal parasites such as whipworm became increasingly common across Europe during the Roman Period, despite the apparent improvements the empire brought in sanitation technologies.

The Romans are well known for introducing sanitation technology to Europe around 2,000 years ago, including public multi-seat latrines with washing facilities, sewerage systems, piped drinking water from aqueducts, and heated public baths for washing. Romans also developed laws designed to keep their towns free of excrement and rubbish.

However, new archaeological research has revealed that – for all their apparently hygienic innovations – intestinal parasites such as whipworm, roundworm and Entamoeba histolytica dysentery did not decrease as expected in Roman times compared with the preceding Iron Age, they gradually increased.


The author, Piers Mitchell says (probably in a lighter vien): “It seems likely that while Roman sanitation may not have made people any healthier, they would probably have smelt better.”

More details can be seen at: www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/roman-toilet...20spread%20parasites


F H Mughal]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Fri, 08 Jan 2016 16:30:56 +0000
Re: Publishing a state-of-the-art reference work on water-related disease risks and intervention measures (UNESCO) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16285-publishing-a-state-of-the-art-reference-work-on-water-related-disease-risks-and-intervention-measures-unesco#16286 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16285-publishing-a-state-of-the-art-reference-work-on-water-related-disease-risks-and-intervention-measures-unesco#16286 This means when it's done, we can use content from it to update the relevant Wikipedia pages which will be awesome.

I have a question regarding the focus on waterborne diseases. You said that
It aims at helping to reduce mortality linked to water pathogens (in particular viruses, bacteria, protists and helminths)

However, not all helminths are waterborne (in fact many of them are not).
How about soil-transmitted helminths (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil-transmitted_helminthiasis) or the fecally transmitted infections (i.e. not transmitted via water but via soil or faeces directly)? See e.g. here on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/163-en...s-by-robert-chambers

This is closely linked to waterborne diseases and should therefore be part of the book? I know that the project leader, Blanca Jiménez-Cisneros, is very active in reseach on helminths (see e.g. her helminth identification project here on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/207-de...e-mexico-unam-mexico) - so I am sure that she will ensure this is not forgotten about, I am just puzzled by the terminology used ("water pathogens such as helminths").

Also you said that:
in order to improve the management of wastewater in the developing world

shouldn't it say "management of wastewater and excreta", i.e. including such sanitation systems which do not rely on water to transport the excreta?

Perhaps this is just semantics, but I just wanted to be sure I fully understand the scope and focus of this planned book. It certainly sounds like a great project!]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:56:57 +0000
Publishing a state-of-the-art reference work on water-related disease risks and intervention measures (UNESCO) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16285-publishing-a-state-of-the-art-reference-work-on-water-related-disease-risks-and-intervention-measures-unesco#16285 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/16285-publishing-a-state-of-the-art-reference-work-on-water-related-disease-risks-and-intervention-measures-unesco#16285 "Sanitation and Disease Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management" by Feachem et al, 1983.

The information about the project below was sent to me by Anaïs Chagankerian from UNESCO who's asked me to post it.


Title of grant: Global Water Pathogen Project
- Publishing a state-of-the-art reference work on water-related disease risks and intervention measures to replace Sanitation and Disease Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management by Feachem et al, 1983.


Name of lead organization: UNESCO
Primary contact at lead organization: Blanca Jiménez-Cisneros, Director of UNESCO’s Division of Water Sciences, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; Bruno Nguyen, Consultant at UNESCO, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
Grantee location: UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France
Developing country where the project will take place: The project has a global scope
Start and end date: 3 November 2015 - 30 April 2017
Grant type: Other
Grant size in USD: 300,000 USD as per BMGF grant database here


Short description of the project:

This Global Water Pathogen Project is aimed at developing a knowledge resource to guide future goals for achieving safe water. It aims at helping to reduce mortality linked to water pathogens (in particular viruses, bacteria, protists and helminths) and the lack of safe drinking water and basic sanitation through creating, publishing and disseminating the state-of-the-art replacement of the current benchmark reference work on water related disease risks and intervention measures, the book “Sanitation and Disease: Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management” (Feachem et al. 1983).

This book has not been rewritten in more than 30 years. Current information technologies, such as a collaborative online platform that includes a book authoring tool, will help in re-writing and disseminating the new book in printed and electronic format. The book will be available in at least three official languages of the United Nations (French, English and Spanish) and following the open access policy of UNESCO. The book is inspired by the structure and scope of Feacham et al, but it will expand beyond it, in every respect.


Goal(s):

The goal of the project is to reduce mortality linked to waterborne pathogens and the lack of sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, mainly in the developing world, in support of the development of quantitative microbial risk assessment (a framework supported globally for developing management strategies), water security and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Objectives:

The project will compile new data available regarding emerging pathogens, new technologies for measuring pathogens, new information on pathogen occurrence and persistence and new means of treatment and their evaluation. It will then disseminate the new knowledge globally, through UNESCO’s and contributors’ networks and in international events, in order to improve the management of wastewater in the developing world and reduce mortality linked to enteric and diarrheal diseases.

The project will produce and publish a benchmark reference publication, under open access license and in at least three official languages of the United Nations (English, French and Spanish).

Knowledge will be gathered thanks to the online platform currently being developed by AgroKnow and which will present data on pathogens, key indicators, source tracking markers and pathogen risks from excreta.


Research or implementation partners: Michigan State University, USA, in charge of coordinating the online platform and the network of contributors.


Links, further readings – results to date: Project website: www.waterpathogens.org/


Current state of affairs:

A workshop is being prepared to take place in Ghana in May 2016. It is aimed at bringing together the Global Water Pathogen Project (GWPP) network and end-users of the African region and different disciplines in order to optimize the scope and efficiency of the GWPP resource according to regional issues, experience and needs.


Biggest successes so far:

A worldwide network of more than 140 volunteering authors and editors, invited to contribute for their outstanding contribution to the field, has been built to write each chapter of the book. The online platform (www.waterpathogens.org/) already presents the content of the book and the summaries of each chapter are progressively being uploaded.


Main challenges / frustration:

The main challenges linked to the project relate to the coordination of a very wide network of contributors.


Anaïs Chagankerian
Programme Assistant
International Hydrological Programme (IHP)
Division of Water Sciences
UNESCO
7, Place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 07 SP
France
www.unesco.org/water]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:48:45 +0000
Re: Urban planning in megacities and/or sanitation infrastructure and/or the public health aspect of sanitation - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15650-urban-planning-in-megacities-andor-sanitation-infrastructure-andor-the-public-health-aspect-of-sanitation#16071 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15650-urban-planning-in-megacities-andor-sanitation-infrastructure-andor-the-public-health-aspect-of-sanitation#16071
Welcome to this place! We're always happy to help new people, however in your case I wasn't really sure what the question was? You wrote:
"I would greatly appreciate it if anyone would be willing to speak with me on the subject of urban planning in megacities and/or sanitation infrastructure and/or the public health aspect of sanitation."

Could you narrow down what your question is exactly? What's your research hypothesis or is your study more of a general literature review?

Greetings,
Elisabeth]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Fri, 27 Nov 2015 09:50:27 +0000
Urban planning in megacities and/or sanitation infrastructure and/or the public health aspect of sanitation - by: nschmidt http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15650-urban-planning-in-megacities-andor-sanitation-infrastructure-andor-the-public-health-aspect-of-sanitation#15650 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15650-urban-planning-in-megacities-andor-sanitation-infrastructure-andor-the-public-health-aspect-of-sanitation#15650
If you would be willing to speak with me, please either send me a message or reply to this post.

Regards,
N Schmidt]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 28 Oct 2015 09:20:06 +0000
Re: Contamination of drinking water by algal toxins due to agricultural run-off and fecal matter contamination (question from Bangladesh) - by: Bhaskar http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/14796-contamination-of-drinking-water-by-algal-toxins-due-to-agricultural-run-off-and-fecal-matter-contamination-question-from-bangladesh#15553 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/14796-contamination-of-drinking-water-by-algal-toxins-due-to-agricultural-run-off-and-fecal-matter-contamination-question-from-bangladesh#15553
We have a simple solution to prevent Cyanobacteria from growing in ponds.
We have a product to grow Diatom Algae, when Diatoms grow Cyano decline.
Diatoms are the natural food for fish, so fish consume them and fish catch in the ponds will increase.

Contact me for more information.

Regards

Bhaskar
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 21 Oct 2015 11:40:57 +0000
Re: Contamination of drinking water by algal toxins due to agricultural run-off and fecal matter contamination (question from Bangladesh) - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/14796-contamination-of-drinking-water-by-algal-toxins-due-to-agricultural-run-off-and-fecal-matter-contamination-question-from-bangladesh#15496 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/14796-contamination-of-drinking-water-by-algal-toxins-due-to-agricultural-run-off-and-fecal-matter-contamination-question-from-bangladesh#15496
I'm attaching an Australian publication that you will find useful. A CDC's factsheet is also attached.

Good Luck!

F H Mughal]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Sun, 18 Oct 2015 05:49:50 +0000
Re: Contamination of drinking water by algal toxins due to agricultural run-off and fecal matter contamination (question from Bangladesh) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/14796-contamination-of-drinking-water-by-algal-toxins-due-to-agricultural-run-off-and-fecal-matter-contamination-question-from-bangladesh#15452 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/14796-contamination-of-drinking-water-by-algal-toxins-due-to-agricultural-run-off-and-fecal-matter-contamination-question-from-bangladesh#15452 an example where cooking makes it less safe because it results in agal toxins (if the water was contaminated with nutrients from wastewater or agricultural run-off and thus algal blooms occurred).

Do we have someone on this forum who knows something about this? Is it something that we need to worry about? The health impacts are not diarrhea so it would not be picked up if only diarrhea is considered as a health indicator.

As Jess pointed out it could also happen in the Lake Victoria (Uganda) area? Anyone on the forum getting their drinking water from Lake Victoria? Should you be concerned as that lake is quite polluted by now, right?


Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 14 Oct 2015 21:15:54 +0000
Re: Benefits of water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional interventions for health and child development (Kenya, Bangladesh) - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15234-benefits-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-for-health-and-child-development-kenya-bangladesh#15428 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15234-benefits-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-for-health-and-child-development-kenya-bangladesh#15428
Regards,
F H Mughal]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 14 Oct 2015 02:43:42 +0000
Re: Benefits of water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional interventions for health and child development (Kenya, Bangladesh) - by: jcolford http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15234-benefits-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-for-health-and-child-development-kenya-bangladesh#15427 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15234-benefits-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-for-health-and-child-development-kenya-bangladesh#15427
Unfortunately, adding a third country at this stage of the study isn't possible. Several years of preparation were required to conduct the study in Kenya and Bangladesh in order to pilot the appropriate interventions. Carrying out such work in another country would require time and support far above the current resources of the project.

The study is being carried out according to a pre-specified analysis plan. Interim reports are not part of the plan because we do not want to introduce any bias into the subsequent collection of data.]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 14 Oct 2015 01:19:30 +0000
Re: Sanitation and Alzheimer's Disease - and "Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemic Fueled By Sewage Contamination" - by: caetano http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/5711-sanitation-and-alzheimers-disease#15332 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/5711-sanitation-and-alzheimers-disease#15332 In a previous post you comment on mishandling of information and the (unwarranted) fears this can cause with regard to wastewater reuse projects. I believe that here you may be doing that exact same thing.]]> Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 07 Oct 2015 13:48:53 +0000 Re: Appeal to SuSanA members for input - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/13099-sanipath-assessment-of-fecal-exposure-pathways-in-low-income-urban-settings-emory-university-usa-and-appeal-to-susana-members-for-input#15330 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/13099-sanipath-assessment-of-fecal-exposure-pathways-in-low-income-urban-settings-emory-university-usa-and-appeal-to-susana-members-for-input#15330 Katharine presented about Sanipath, and about her appeal to SuSanA members, at the SuSanA meeting in September:
See here: www.susana.org/en/events/susana-meetings...na-meeting-stockholm

Using the Control+F function you will find her presentation:

Katharine Robb (Emory University): The SaniPath Rapid Assessment Tool:Assessing Public Health Risks from Unsafe Fecal Sludge Management in Poor Urban Neighborhoods
www.susana.org/images/documents/04-meeti...t_Tool_Session_4.pdf

See the video of her presentation here:
youtu.be/DrvksjVXB9w?t=14m47s

Or go to time 14:47 here:


Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 07 Oct 2015 13:34:07 +0000
Re: Sanitation and Alzheimer's Disease - and "Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemic Fueled By Sewage Contamination" - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/5711-sanitation-and-alzheimers-disease#15323 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/5711-sanitation-and-alzheimers-disease#15323 forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-gre...r-valentina-lazarova

While still on the same note, I came across a by article by Gary Chandler titled: Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemic Fueled By Sewage Contamination. The article sent shivers through my spine. It is available at:

alzheimerdisease.tv/alzheimers-disease-e...ewage-mismanagement/

The article is rather long. Briefly, the article says:

People are dying of neurological disease at an accelerating rate;

Pathogen associated with neurological disease is spreading uncontrollably. Research suggests that food and water supplies around the world have been contaminated with an unstoppable form of protein known as a prion (PREE-on);

The prion problem is getting worse with rising populations, rising concentrations of people, intensive agriculture, reckless sewage disposal policies and other mismanaged pathways. As the epidemic strikes more people, the pathways for prion exposure explode and intensify. Reckless sewage disposal policies and practices alone are putting billions of innocent people in the crossfire right now. Entire watersheds are endangered thanks to a deadly pathogen that migrates, mutates and multiplies;

Although there are many causes and pathways contributing to the prion disease epidemic, many pathways are being mismanaged, including sewage, biosolids and reclaimed wastewater. As stated earlier, blood, saliva, mucas, urine, feces, milk and cell tissue all carry infectious prions. These human discharges are flushed down toilets and sinks billions of times every day. We all have flushed away toxic or infectious waste that we would never throw on our garden or in our water well. The magic wand at the sewage treatment plant doesn’t phase most of these elements;

Sewage treatment plants can’t detect or stop prions in municipal waste streams. Despite this important technical detail, we’re dumping tons of infectious sewage on crops, gardens, pastures, golf courses, playgrounds and open spaces in our forests every day. Wind, rain and other natural dynamics put the sewage right back into our air, food and water supplies;

Spreading sewage sludge, biosolids, and reclaimed wastewater anywhere is a risk. Dumping them directly into our food and water is reckless, incompetent and criminal. We’re dumping prions into our lifecycle by the trainloads daily. Every nation is guilty;

The condensed sludge from all of these places is then dumped on our farms and ranches by the truckload. Plastic packaging and other large items are often visible in this waste, which means that treatment is extremely minimal. If the Pope waved his hand over the sewage, it would likely receive better treatment than what we see today. Nothing stops a prion, but you would hope that billions of dollars of wastewater treatment would at least take out pill bottles, syringes, needles and used prophylactics;

Thanks to more and more people dying from TSEs, sewage systems are more contaminated with prions than ever. Wastewater treatment systems are now prion incubators and distributors. Sewage sludge, wastewater reuse, biosolids and other sewage byproducts are biohazards causing bioterror. Thanks to questionable policymakers and profiteers, you are eating and drinking from your neighbor’s toilet–and the toilets at the local nursing home and hospital. We might as well dump sewage out of windows again;

Thanks to more and more sewage mismanagement, we’re dumping more deadly prions on farms and ranches than ever. The wastewater industry and their consultants have convinced agricultural operations around the world that sewage and biosolids are safe, effective and profitable for all involved;

As it turns out, today’s sewage isn’t safe. Sewage sludge isn’t an effective fertilizer. The business is profitable, though—until the sickness and disease sets in for the farmers, workers and the consumers. Until the land is condemned for being hopelessly contaminated—making everyone downstream sick.


After reading Gary’s article, I was just wondering whether one should think twice before reusing treated wastewater.

Can anyone comment on this?

F H Mughal]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 07 Oct 2015 09:37:39 +0000
Re: Benefits of water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional interventions for health and child development (Kenya, Bangladesh) - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15234-benefits-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-for-health-and-child-development-kenya-bangladesh#15309 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/15234-benefits-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-for-health-and-child-development-kenya-bangladesh#15309
I believe, the final report(s) would be issued in Sep 2017. Perhaps, you may consider issuing interim reports.

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Tue, 06 Oct 2015 16:24:51 +0000