SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Thu, 21 Aug 2014 10:10:41 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: faecal transplants - by: Carol McCreary http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8539-faecal-transplants#9826 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8539-faecal-transplants#9826 Mother Jones magazine is an article on the current regulatory environment for fecal transplants for C diff [Clostridium difficile] in the US and likely developments at the federal level.

Should We Regulate Poop As a Drug? The future of fecal transplants, and a bevy of entrepreneurs, hinges on how the FDA decides to regulate the procedure.www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/08/...iome-rebiotix?page=1

There is definitely progress in this area. Last year the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the federal Food and Drug Agency (FDA) agreed physicians could perform the procedure albeit with lots of permissions and paperwork. Alternately, two companies have proposed pre-packaed and stabilized enemas, that are currently undergoing clinical trials with the. But is approval as a drug appropriate for something like feces, which varies so radically from person to person?

A few weeks after the meeting at NIH, the FDA changed its approach. Fecal transplants would still be regulated as a drug, but to keep them moving (at least until a treatment was finally approved), the agency said it would exercise "enforcement discretion"—meaning health care providers could go on administering transplants for recurrent C. diff patients without filing paperwork for new drugs.

In February 2014, the FDA issued a second draft of its guidelines. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, a 10,000-member organization of doctors and scientists, offered a blanket endorsement of the FDA's position.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 20 Aug 2014 16:44:18 +0000
Re: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: samantabb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9792 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9792
As requested I am sending the full document on the subject for your perusal and comments. Warm regdrs

BBSamanta]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:06:24 +0000
Re: Reply: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: samantabb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9791 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9791 Thanks for your interest. While you are looking at the link between open defecation and helminthic infestation, the project I am talking about is on Iron Deficiency Anaemia due to worm infestation (including helminthic infestation)and how to reduce that through better hygiene practices. Let me know whether you would like to have the full report on the process of planning and implementation of the project. Warm regards BBSamanta]]> Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 19 Aug 2014 05:59:30 +0000 Re: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: sampark http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9644 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9644 Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 07 Aug 2014 07:06:57 +0000 Reply: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: Bobbie http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9622 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9622
This is very interesting. I am managing a study looking at the relationship between open defecation, geophagia (soil eating) and helminthic infections. It would be useful to read about your work in more detail. Could you post your report?

-- Bobbie Louton Partners in Development 033 342 3012 073 766 1139]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 06 Aug 2014 09:42:14 +0000
Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: samantabb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9613 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9613 I am Bidhu Bhushan Samanta, PhD from India, currently Chairman (Hon) of a professional group in the eastern part of India called Multi Applied System (MAS). I am in WASH sector since 1978. Have worked in Government, consultancy group before joining UNICEF where I worked in the sector both in India and abroad for around 17 years.I am going to talk about a topic that is not so much discussed in WASH Sector.

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a condition where a person has inadequate amounts of iron in the blood to meet body demand. According to WHO nine out of ten persons suffering from anaemia live in developing countries and on an average every second pregnant women and four out of ten school going children are anaemic.

We all know that adolescence is a an critical phase in life that prepares human being for adulthood. It has been observed that during this period the adolescents gain 50% of their adult weight, 25% of their adult height and 50% of their skeletal mass. The requirements of iron among girls are more than that of boys for obvious reasons. We also know that anaemic adolescent girls when married young and get pregnant early, are more likely to deliver low birth weight babies leading to high infant and maternal mortality.

It has also been observed that the world's leading cause of gastrointestinal blood loss is parasitic infestation particularly hookworm. Over one billion people, mostly in tropical and sub-tropical areas are infested with these parasites and the daily blood loss is estimated to exceed 11 million litres. Round worm and whip worm that take the faecal-oral route also contribute to malnutrition among adolescent girls.

A three-year project (2008-2011)undertaken by MAS (in which I was the Project Director) in 25 villages covering a total of over 2,000 adolescent girls in the age-group 12-19 years found out that promoting improved sanitation and better hygiene practices led to a drastic reduction in IDA among adolescent girls. Even the changes in the process indicators on various hygiene practices supported such phenomenon. The project was funded by Population Foundation of India, New Delhi. It was a convergent project involving Rural Development (in charge of WASH), Health, Education and Women and Child Development. Both the bench mark survey and the end-project evaluation were carried out by independent agencies to maintain neutrality of the results. The whole process has since been documented and available.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 05 Aug 2014 16:48:55 +0000
Re: Open defecation solves the (lower) child mortality puzzle among Indian Muslims - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims?limit=12&start=12#9536 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims?limit=12&start=12#9536 [This is Page 2 of this discussion thread.]


Nice article in the Economist that pretty much summarizes our discussion here but also has additional facts:
]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 30 Jul 2014 06:40:48 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9535 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9535
We did some research on PCR techniques for helminth eggs determination as described in our paper from 2006 but based on our results, such method is not adequate, neither for the identification nor the determination of viability of Ascaris eggs (I suggest you read the paper for more detailed information). As mentioned before and as is written in the powerpoint presentation that I uploaded few days ago (see here: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena...e-mexico-unam-mexico), we are currently testing a software to identify and quantify helminth eggs (so far from 8 general) to improve precision and reduce time and cost with respect to the conventional technique (US EPA).

This project is being funded by the Gates Foundation (Phase II) and we are working on a website to validate the software and will be willing to try it out with pictures from other forum members.

Best Regards, Blanca]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 29 Jul 2014 22:28:25 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9498 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9498
Taking advantage of the orientation you have provided us, I would like to share with you a paper related to PCR method for the identification of Ascaris. We think it would enrich the blog:

Brian M. Pecson, José Antonio Barrios, David R. Johnson and Kara L. Nelson (2006) A real-time PCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs using the first internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(12):7864.

Abstract:

Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are infected with the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides. As a result, Ascaris eggs are commonly found in wastewater and sludges. The current microscopy method for detecting viable Ascaris eggs is time- and labor-intensive. The goal of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to determine the levels of total and viable Ascaris eggs in laboratory solutions using the first internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA. ITS-1 rDNA levels were proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. Treatments causing >99% inactivation (high heat, moderate heat, ammonia, and UV) eliminated this increase in ITS-1 rDNA levels and caused decreases that were dependent on the treatment type. By taking advantage of this difference in ITS-1 rDNA level between viable, larvated eggs and inactivated, single-celled eggs, qPCR results were used to develop inactivation profiles for the different treatments. No statistical difference from the standard microscopy method was found in 75% of the samples (12 of 16). ITS-1 rRNA was detected only in samples containing viable eggs, but the levels were more variable than rDNA levels and ITS-1 rRNA could not be used for quantification. The detection limit of the rDNA-based method was approximately one larvated egg or 90 single-celled eggs; the detection limit for the rRNA-based method was several orders of magnitude higher. The rDNA qPCR method is promising for both research and regulatory applications.



These results are the unique experiences we had with PCR technique.

Blanca]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:23:16 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9479 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9479 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. This is potentially very useful information which may help improve WWTP technology, but it also may give powerful justification for ending the practice of defecating and urinating in water.

In some cases, papers are not open access, but abstracts are also useful and it's good to know these new studies exist:

Exploring Variation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge over a Four-Year Period through a Metagenomic Approach
pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es4017365

Fate of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage treatment plant revealed by metagenomic approach
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135414003728

Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Sediments Receiving Various Wastewater Effluents with High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00248-014-0370-0

And a couple of scientific reviews likely including information culled from metagenomic studies:

Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance in water habitats: searching the links with the human microbiome
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1574...sAuthenticated=false

Human health implications of clinically relevant bacteria in wastewater habitats
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-013-1594-0

This recent piece in The Guardian speaks toward the end of mixing human waste with water:

Why the modern bathroom is a wasteful, unhealthy design
Piped water may be the greatest convenience ever known but our sewage systems and bathrooms are a disaster

www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/ju...ful-unhealthy-design]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:23:28 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9457 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9457 joeturner wrote:
But even if they are saying that, it still is not very helpful because you would have to be able to plate out lots of different microbes, which is expensive and not really the point of an indicator.


Hey Joe, based on your statement it appears you may not understand that 454 pyrosequencing based on amplification of microbial DNA is very fast and cheap. It's high throughput, meaning one pass of a probe reveals tons of data based on programming. I'm not an expert in this area, but believe this is the future. The equipment may be cost-prohibitive at present, but there are many institutions owning this equipment looking for research projects.

The same technology used to determine microbial populations in human intestines in the diarrhea studies I posted is also used in WWTP, but this is in its infancy. Functional medicine doctors order the same tests for their patients, called the future of medicine. Here's a 2012 WWTP study using pyrosequencing; this is opening up new worlds of information including previously unclassified bacteria dominant due to the wastewater treatment process:
Bacterial communities in different sections of a municipal wastewater treatment plant revealed by 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586070/

The original post states: "What pathogens should we test? Right now we are planning on a kit for helminth and E.coli."

My post is quite on topic as one of the studies I posted states E. coli is actually significantly decreased in diarrhea. This should be eye-opening to many who never considered E. coli as protective. The study implicates Bacilli as cause of diarrhea, so perhaps Bacilli would be a good indicator.

Thanks for your patience, folks, just trying to be helpful.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 23 Jul 2014 17:36:03 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: christoph http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9437 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9437 the title of the threat is "Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way?"

This is a topic I am very interested in. I don´t find it polite nor good for the quality if there are posts about totally other subjects and I would like to ask if we could not put up a rule which enables the forum organization to open a new section where all "misleading" posts are put or ask the "misleading"poster if he/she would like to open a new threat.

What do you think? I know I am missleaing s well with this post, but my post is related to the posts above (but feel free to reorganize I you feel it should not be here).

Yours
Christoph]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 22 Jul 2014 16:34:05 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9430 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9430
The issue is this: we cannot measure directly all of the microbial pathogens in faecal waste hence the need for a reliable indicator that we can measure which models the breakdown of all the pathogens that we cannot measure.

What these papers seem to be showing is the gut flora of people with and without diarrhea in Senegal - and have found a measurable difference between groups.

This is essentially descriptive. I don't think they are saying that one could analyse faecal waste and use this suite of species to tell whether pathogens have been destroyed. But even if they are saying that, it still is not very helpful because you would have to be able to plate out lots of different microbes, which is expensive and not really the point of an indicator.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 22 Jul 2014 08:10:12 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9416 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9416
Diarrhea in young children from low-income countries leads to large-scale alterations in intestinal microbiota composition
genomebiology.com/2014/15/6/R76

MALDI-TOF Identification of the Human Gut Microbiome
in People with and without Diarrhea in Senegal

www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10....journal.pone.0087419
In individuals with diarrhea, major commensal bacterial species such as E. coli were significantly decreased (85% versus 64%), as were several Enterococcus spp. (E. faecium and E. casseliflavus) and anaerobes, such as Bacteroides spp. (B. uniformis and B. vulgatus) and Clostridium spp. (C. bifermentans, C. orbiscindens, C. perfringens, and C. symbosium). Conversely, several Bacillus spp. (B. licheniformis, B. mojavensis, and B. pumilus) were significantly more frequent among patients with diarrhea.


Here's some press about the recent study posted above:
Diarrhea in young children from low-income countries leads to large-scale alterations in intestinal microbiota composition

"Scientists Identify New Microbes Associated with Severe Diarrhea"
cmns.umd.edu/news-events/features/2305

"Previously Unheralded Microbes Cause And Prevent Severe Diarrhea"
www.science20.com/news_articles/previous...vere_diarrhea-139500

Note: what causes diarrhea in one population may be different from another as flora balance varies considerably, i.e., European vs. African, the underlying beauty of diversity.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 20 Jul 2014 16:58:03 +0000
Re: Resources Regarding Sanitation in India NY Times Report - by: jselendy http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9410 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9410
I am so pleased that you asked me to “post any related texts or videos that are available on the Internet.” There are not only materials available on the Internet, but also the DVDs accompanying Horizon International are being provided for free to libraries and institutions in 139 countries and are now available nearly a third of those countries. I provide those details below.

Regarding those videos available on the Internet, there are several sources.

Both text from the book and videos are in the first article of Horizon International’s series "Realizing Sanitation and Hygiene for All" published on the Solutions Site, at www.solutions-site.org/node/1255. The article is largely based on and contains many quotes from the book and a couple of the videos from our book’s DVDs as well as from other sources. The videos also in our DVDs are: “Schistosomiasis: Ending the Anguish of a Silent Disease (The Carter Center),” and “The Carter Center's Trachoma Control Program.” This article focuses on the background of the problem and what it means for nearly half the people of the developing world who lack adequate sanitation and hygiene.

Another Horizon International Solutions Site article entitled “Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, Interventions and Preventive Measures,” (the same as our book’s title), available at http://www.solutions-site.org/node/532, includes the video “Guinea Worm's Last Stand: Southern Sudan.”
Among the sources for free access to the book and DVDs’ content is The Carter Center which has posted PDFs of four chapters from our book along with the Wiley flier for the book on its website at http://www.cartercenter.org/news/publications/health/experts.html. The chapters are:
Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease): Case Study of the Effort to Reduce Guinea Worm
Donald R. Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben
Using Kinship Structures in Health Programming: An Example of Preventive Measures and Successful Interventions
Moses N. Katabarwa
Onchocerciasis
Adrian Hopkins, Boakye A. Boatin
Trachoma
Joseph A. Cook, Silvio P. Mariotti.

Horizon International is contributing the book’s DVDs as part of the resources being distributed free of charge by the Global Development And Environment Institute (GDAE) at Tufts University. These multidisciplinary resources, covering diverse topics from anthropology to economics to global health are being sent to thousands of libraries, organizations, and institutions in 139 less-wealthy countries.

Contribution of these learning tools is made possible thanks to an innovative approach founded by Dr. Neva Goodwin, co-director of GDAE. It is called The Social Science Library: Frontier Thinking in Sustainable Development and Human Well-Being (SSL). These contributions come from the GDAE, the UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), the WorldWatch Institute, and Horizon International.

As of July 3rd these resources are being used by over 1,300 entities across 60 countries. The DVD contents are described in an insert that accompanies the DVDs with the SSL packets. The descriptive insert with the book’s table of contents is available here (www.solutions-site.org/dvd/insert.pdf). I have attached brief overview about this project, which includes a map, and links to pages to find which countries now have the resources. I have attached descriptive flyers.

In addition to the book and DVDs, there is substantial “Supplementary Material” for the book, more than 45 articles and other resources, thus far, which also provide substance for the popular book. It is published on a Wiley-Blackwell companion Web site for the volume, www.wiley.com/go/selendy/water and on the Horizon International Solutions Site www.solutionssite.org.

Wiley-Blackwell is making our book in print and eBooks as well as individual chapters available for reduced rates for developing countries.

The publication is available from many sources including directly from Wiley at: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle...ctCd-0470527854.html.
Wiley provides a chance to read an excerpt:
• Read Excerpt: Chapter (PDF)
• Read Excerpt: Index (PDF)
• Read Excerpt: Table of Contents (PDF)
Also available as e-books, ISBN: 978-0-470-52785-6
Wiley offers special prices for bulk sales and greatly reduced prices for purchases of the book in developing countries. The information is available “Request Pricing for Special Sales.”

Regarding pharmaceuticals, I wish to draw your attention to a chapter in the book, “Other Water Pollutants: Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria,” by Professor Amy Sapkota. She writes, “A variety of antibiotic resistant bacteria, expressing various resistance genes, have been detected in both untreated and treated wastewater.” Among the related sources drawing on our book, is the article, “Actions Combating Drug Resistance,” available on the Horizon International Solutions Site at www.solutions-site.org/node/675.

Regarding Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs), a couple of the articles in the Supplementary Material for our book, “Innovative Toilet Technology for the 21st Century, available at www.solutions-site.org/node/502, and “Sanitation Innovator Named 2013 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate, available at www.solutions-site.org/node/907. The latter has images such as “Gum trees watered with diluted urine to enhance their growth in school woodlot,” and a very good discussion about urine diversion by the inventor, Dr. Peter Morgan.

Warm wishes,
Janine]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 19 Jul 2014 17:45:00 +0000