SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Wed, 26 Nov 2014 00:15:40 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: squat for money - by: denniskl http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11095-squat-for-money#11106 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11095-squat-for-money#11106 www.squattypotty.my

The squatty potty is a great concept product for the western world (ie the land of the sitting toilet:)

Elderly and sick in developing countries (ie squatting toilets land)

Something like this may also be a way of addressing the issues of the elderly and the sick in the normal squatting toilets; it could mean we can do away with (or minimise) the need for hand rails, lift points etc as the elderly and sick can simply move their feet from the squatty potty stand to the normal sitting position before standing up.

I like it; I think I will incorporate the concept (if not the specific product)in future design and planning thinking]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 23 Nov 2014 23:58:54 +0000
squat for money - by: christoph http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11095-squat-for-money#11095 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11095-squat-for-money#11095
Very interesting - impressive sales numbers - never expected that.

tried to put it from the right minute it did not work - you have to watch it from 20:26 on.

have a look if you have time for 5 min.

Christoph]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 23 Nov 2014 05:06:09 +0000
Invention Gets Wastewater to Wash Itself - by: mwaniki http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11092-invention-gets-wastewater-to-wash-itself#11092 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11092-invention-gets-wastewater-to-wash-itself#11092
‘Invention Gets Wastewater to Wash Itself’

A new invention known as a Virtual Curtain tries to take some of the effort out of treating wastewater by enlisting contaminants as cleaning agents.

This article may be found in the Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Nov – Dec 2014 edition posted in the forum just the other day. It first appeared in Water Online and has been reprinted with permission.

You may view this edition via this link afriwater.org/virtual-magazine or afriwater.org/publication/online-magazines . You can also download a pdf version via afriwater.org/publication/publications

Regards / Mwaniki]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 22 Nov 2014 12:09:24 +0000
Re: The Sanitation Ladder - by: Makgatha http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11058-the-sanitation-ladder#11085 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11058-the-sanitation-ladder#11085
In support of the comments submitted by Florian.

Recent developments are that the sanitation ladder should NO longer be viewed in the context of technology, i.e. the ladder being technology prescriptive but rather be based on meeting particular criterion. This will at least make it easy for measuring progress (on sanitation provision) using a standard criteria irrespective of the technology employed in diffferent countries/regions compared.

Find the attached paper for sanitation ladder as currently defined.

Regards,

Charles Mpho Makgatha
Sanitary Engineering Professional
South Africa]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 21 Nov 2014 11:15:53 +0000
Re: The Sanitation Ladder - by: Florian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11058-the-sanitation-ladder#11063 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11058-the-sanitation-ladder#11063
I like the idea of country specific ladders. This might be a nice way to overcome the complexitiy of more complete concepts like the function based ladder, by limiting the range of options to the ones known or common in the countries.

I attach two slides, which are taken from a discussion we had in our projects in Moldova and the Ukraine about the strategy and objectives in rural sanitation. The first one takes up the idea of the function based ladder, I added the addtional element regarding status and comfort, which is what often matters most to the users. I then tried to place all existing and potentially applicable options in a 2-dimensional graph. I quite like this representation, though I'm not entierely happy with it. Still too complicated and oversimplifying at the same time...

To be clear, this is not an officially used sanitation ladder of Moldova or similar, it is just part of our on-going thinking process...]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 19 Nov 2014 17:01:11 +0000
The Sanitation Ladder - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11058-the-sanitation-ladder#11058 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/11058-the-sanitation-ladder#11058 The Sanitation Ladder

It was as early as 1998, when UK’s DFID (Department for International Development) developed a sort of sanitation ladder, listing a hierarchy of sanitation technologies from deficient facilities to appropriate facilities, which DFID called as Levels of Service (Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, UK). Four levels of service were proposed. These are (I have picked sanitation sector only; levels of service for water supply and sullage disposal are also given):


Typical levels of service providing access to and sanitation in rural and urban areas (pp 35)

Deficient (Open defecation OR dirty communal latrine)

Minimum Simple pit latrine on householder’s plot

Intermediate Improved pit latrine or pour-flush toilet on householder’s plot

High Flush toilet with septic tank OR sewerage (if water supply is sufficient)

These levels of service apply to both urban and rural areas. Major urban centers are connected with sewerage system (piped sewer system), as such, the proposed levels would apply more to peri-urban areas rather than the urban centers themselves.

The proposed levels of service are sensible and rational. The key aspect here is that, if I were to apply the proposed levels in rural areas of Pakistan, I would easily and readily get the picture, where a particular rural town stands, in terms of the sanitation level. For local government officials, the proposed levels of service provide guidance on the town’s sanitation-related status.

JMP’s Sanitation Ladder

In 2008, JPM proposed sanitation ladder (Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation – Special Focus on Sanitation, UNICEF/WHO, pp 6). Various rungs of sanitation ladder, from unimproved to improved sanitation, are:

Open defecation
Open defecation: Defecation in fields, forests, bushes, bodies of water or other open spaces, or disposal of human faeces with solid waste

Unimproved
Unimproved sanitation facilities: Facilities that do not ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact. Unimproved facilities include pit latrines without a slab or platform, hanging latrines and bucket latrines.

Shared
Shared sanitation facilities: Sanitation facilities of an otherwise acceptable type shared between two or more households. Shared facilities include public toilets.

Improved
Improved sanitation facilities: Facilities that ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact. They include:
• Flush or pour-flush toilet/latrine to:
- piped sewer system
- septic tank
- pit latrine
• Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine
• Pit latrine with slab
• Composting toilet.

JPM sanitation ladder's approach is pertinent, in that, sanitation technologies are given for each rung. Based on this ladder, local government officials will be able to easily classify sanitation status of a town. However, it must be mentioned here that the main thrust of JPM is on meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target, for monitoring sanitation target. In addition, JPM data is largely based on data furnished by the governments, which in some cases, may be highly inflated. For rural areas of Pakistan, JPM data show 90 per cent for sanitation coverage, whereas, in practice, it is hardly 10 per cent.

JPM sanitation ladder is, surprisingly, in reverse order, meaning that when one climbs the ladder (from bottom to top), it is from improved rung to open defecation rung!!

Kvarnström, et al. (2011) have corrected the order, which is given below:
[Kvarnström, E, McConville, J, Bracken, P, Johansson, M and Fogde, M (2011), The sanitation ladder – a need for a revamp? Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development]


Rung Description of what counts towards achievement of rung

Improved

Facilities that ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact. They
include:
• Flush or pour-flush toilet/latrine to:
– piped sewer system
– septic tank
– pit latrine
• Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine
• Pit latrine with slab
• Composting toilet

Shared


Sanitation facilities of an otherwise acceptable type shared between two or more
households. Shared facilities include public toilets

Unimproved

Facilities that do not ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human
contact. Unimproved facilities include pit latrines without a slab or platform, hanging
latrines and bucket latrines

Open defecation

Defecation in fields, forests, bushes, bodies of water or other open spaces, or
disposal of human faeces with solid waste


Kvarnström, et al. (2011), however, are of the view that the JPM’s sanitation ladder can be made more useful if it can be refined to use a function approach rather than a technology approach for each rung. They have presented a seven-step sanitation ladder where the seven steps are divided into health functions and environmental functions. Their suggested function-based sanitation ladder is shown below:

(Sorry, the image could not be copied here. It is on pp 8 of the paper)


While the function-based sanitation ladder is interesting, it is somewhat complicated, and perhaps, can be useful in areas where level of technical knowledge is relatively high. For a developing country like Pakistan, where expertise in sanitation is low (female literacy rate in rural Sindh is only 17 per cent. In rural areas, household water and sanitation is the responsibility of females), the function-based sanitation ladder would prove too complicated. This would also apply to the local government department functionaries. It is prudent to keep the sanitation ladder simple, so as to achieve its implementation.

In Africa, simplified form of the sanitation ladder, based on sanitation technologies, is used (Africa’s Infrastructure - A Time for Transformation, Eds. Vivien Foster and Cecilia Briceño-Garmendia, 2010, The World Bank).

WASHCost Sanitation Ladder

Sanitation ladder proposed by WASHCost is simple and can be used with relative ease in developing countries. The sanitation ladder is:
(Assessing sanitation service levels, Alana Potter with Amah Klutse, Mekala Snehalatha, Charles Batchelor, André Uandela, Arjen Naafs, Catarina Fonseca and Patrick Moriarty, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, Second Edition, July 2011, Working Paper 3)


Improved
All households members have easy access to and use at least one convenient, safe, clean
facility, regular or routine O&M, and there is non-problematic environmental impact and safe
re-use or disposal of sludge.

Basic
All household members have reasonable access to and use a safe, clean facility, weak maintenance provisions, and non problematic environmental impact or safe disposal of sludge.

Limited
A platform separates the user from faeces, there is little or no evidence of cleaning of the latrine,
and there is significant environmental pollution increasing with population density

No service
There is no separation between the user and faeces, e.g. open defecation, and there is
significant environmental pollution increasing with population density.


The Lao PDR Sanitation Ladder

The Lao PDR sanitation ladder is simple and is technology-based. The components of the ladder are shown below:

(Consumers Choice…… The Sanitation Ladder: Rural Sanitation Options in Lao PDR, National Water Supply and Environmental Health Programme, Ministry of Health, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Vientiane, Lao PDR, May 2001)

Option 6: Septic Tank System

Option 5: Single Pit Pour Flush latrine

Option 4: Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine

Option 3: Lid/ Cover Latrine

Option 2: Conventional Dry Latrine

Option 1: Improved Traditional Practice

I would appreciate, if the friends here highlight sanitation ladder used in their respective countries

F H Mughal]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 19 Nov 2014 16:06:30 +0000
Re: Urine Documentary - by: scottchen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#11027 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#11027 Thank for the information. But, I never succeed in watch it in China.
best regards
Scott]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 18 Nov 2014 09:44:55 +0000
Re: Reuse Documentary in the USA - by: ben http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#11026 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#11026
Just wanted to precise that Arte is THE best channel in France (can't say for germany), Probably some hundred thousand french and german have seen you in this documentary. They're is a lot of "china bashing" here in europe, critisizing china's environmental crisis, your urine re-use is therefore an amazing example of how good environmental practice can come from the east !

Thanks therefore for participating to change european's minds, it helps us local practicioners a lot !

Best,

Ben]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 18 Nov 2014 08:59:10 +0000
Re: Reuse Documentary in the USA - by: gsmikhael http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#10997 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#10997
I just ran across this documentary by VICE called "You Don't Know Shit" about the treatment and reuse of wastewater from New York City.

www.vice.com/video/you-dont-know-shit-full-185

A bit basic, but maybe interesting for some.

Georges]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 15 Nov 2014 20:21:26 +0000
Re: Urine Documentary - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#10995 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#10995 www.arte.tv/guide/de/048171-000/die-beso...issenschaft-vom-urin
(The same part scottchen linked starts after 21 minutes).

Edit: And the more interesting part from a SuSanA perspective starts after 33 minutes.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 15 Nov 2014 12:27:08 +0000
Urine Documentary - by: scottchen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#10993 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10993-urine-documentary#10993
boutique.arte.tv/f9918-superpouvoirs_uri...uperpouvoirs%20urine]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 15 Nov 2014 05:09:33 +0000
Re: How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10911 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10911
That is a very interesting and useful report. It is sad that Punjab government did not take any action. It is, in fact, a guidance manual, specific to our local conditions. Because of some similarities, the report would be useful for friends in India, as well. I see, you have been to Sukkur, Larkana and other northern Sindh towns.

Where can I find the report of Indian Central Pollution Control Board, you have referred to?

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Mon, 10 Nov 2014 11:00:47 +0000
Re: How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries - by: kevintayler http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10906 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10906
I have found a couple of pieces of information that may be interesting and am sending them as attachments. One provides a list of WWTPs constructed under the Yamuna Action Plan with design capacities. The second is one of the Japanese university reports that I mentioned. I do have some other relevant reports and will try to sort out the best ones]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 09 Nov 2014 22:44:59 +0000
Re: How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries - by: christoph http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10899 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10899 based on the data from Kevin I did a quick calc about the mentioned combination UASB and WSP in India which has a black effluent.
No wonder the effluent is black. please see this table



The actual load for the WSP is 4 !! times higher than the recommended load. Therefore the lagoon must by anaerobic, therefore presenting strong odour and black effluent. This seems not to be a problem of the technology but yes of dimensioning.
And I choose the values totally in favor a low load of the WSP.

Pawan and Kevin, could you check if my data are more or less correctly assumed?

Regards

Christoph]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 09 Nov 2014 18:59:39 +0000
Re: How to Design Wastewater Systems for Local Conditions in Developing Countries - by: kevintayler http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10897 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10768-how-to-design-wastewater-systems-for-local-conditions-in-developing-countries?limit=12&start=12#10897
As requested by Mughal, I am trying to add the Punjab wastewater report as an attachment. I hope that it works - it is almost 2Mb and I am not sure whether there is a limit.

In answer to Christoph, I think that the UASB plants in India varied in capacity from about 5000m3/d up to 25000m3/d and above. I have another report which should provide details but will have to look for it.

A couple of points, first -responding to Pawan's point on the effluent quality of the Indian UASBs. The UASBs were followed by 'polishing' ponds that were meant to provide secondary treatment but they only had a bout 1 day's retention and only reduced perhaps 25 - 30% of the polluting load. UASBs are what I would refer to as enhanced primary treatment - they remove more BOD and SS than a conventional sedimentation tank but nowhere near the amount required to meet generally accepted effluent standards. This was a big flaw in the design and it would have been better to have provided proper secondary treatment.

With regard to Mughal's point about failure to provide maintenance for WSPs in Sindh - I saw the same thing a few years ago in Sukkur, Larkana and other North Sindh towns. Also, I designed a system for Kohat in the north that was built but never commissioned. I think that Mughal's point about the difficulties of getting staff to maintain ponds that require fairly simple maintenance is an important one. There is a good report by the Indian Central Pollution Control Board that examines the operation of a large number of plants throughout India. I looked at the findings to see whether there was any correlation between simplicity of process and successful operation, focusing particularly on WSPs. The result supports Mughal's point - hardly any of the WSPs were operating satisfactorily. I think that that report is available on the internet.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 09 Nov 2014 17:23:33 +0000