SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Wed, 23 Apr 2014 09:21:47 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: PatrickBBB http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8202 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8202
as far as I know this technology is meant to test drinking water sources and not effluent from sanitation systems. Of course it is possible still to use this for sanitation systems, but while E.coli is a good indicator organism (proving fecal contamination) it is a bad way to assess the performance of a sanitation system.

With that said, we should rather look at low cost, easy-to-use approaches like the one mWater is promoting rather than something similar to Del Agua. Providing technology and methodology that is viable for the user himself (or a local community sanitation volunteer) to use is the way for sustainable monitoring.

Attaching a guide made by UN-Habitat for more details on the approach mWater is promoting.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Regarding a better way to test pathogen inactivation:

I would like to again stress on the importance of an low-cost and easy-to-use technology as pointed out by both Canaday and Turner. In my opinion, this monitoring should be conducted by the user itself or by local community groups.

As for a microscope, it might be viable in some situations, where knowledge of how to use it is available, but as I said I would rather see a technology that is cheap and requires little training.

Raman spectroscopy seems quite interesting, but I am a bit skeptical to the scenario that you envision Joe. I would think the environment in which the test is to be conducted has to be quite stable to have a reliable output which can be interpreted. The level of sophistication in this technology is not something that I think can fit into a handheld gadget, at least not for a long time.

It does though remind me of ">Spoiler it also uses light scattering.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 11 Apr 2014 11:02:59 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: ben http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8199 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8199
Just to share this apps mWater, which isn't detailed at all on the website ... anyone heard some more about ? play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=co.mwater.clientapp

Article from the last Sandec News (07/2013) :

Android App to Count E. Coli

New enzyme-based tests for indicator bacte- ria are changing the way microbial water quality monitoring can be done. Sandec has partnered with the non- profit tech startup, mWater, to develop an An- droid app with which cellphone cameras can count E. coli and total coliform colonies on one such product, the Nissui Compact Dry EC plates. An automatic counter can reduce user error and simplify sample processing, especially when large numbers of samples must be analyzed. The mWater app already includes a colony counter for a similar testing product (3M Petrifilm), along with Sanitary Inspection forms and GPS functions. It requires a 5 MP autofocus camera for best results and is a free download in the Google Play store at: play.google.com/store/apps/ details?id=co.mwater.clientapp

Wishing you a good day,

Ben]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 11 Apr 2014 08:11:46 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8188 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8188 canaday wrote:
Hi Andrew and Joe,

Very important topic that needs to be fine-tuned.

Joe, I had a look at the article on Raman Spectroscopy in Wikipedia and I did not see how this could search for an Ascaris egg in a pile of dirt. Please enlighten us on this.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raman_spectroscopy


Hi Chris - I was offering this as a possible 'ideal' solution rather than anything which could be implimented soon.

The public laboratory have been working on producing a very low cost desktop spectrometry system, see here: store.publiclab.org/products/desktop-spectrometry-kit

Raman spectrometry is, apparently, possible using low-tech pointers see here optics.org/news/3/10/15

And microbiologists are investigating the use of raman spectrometry in identifying microbes in samples, see for example here www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21958140

Of course, you are right that this is all speculation - but if we're talking about what we'd like to see, then being able to use a cup of faeces, shaking it up in water and shining a hand-held and low-cost scientific gadget into it to determine the presence or absence of seems to me to be hard to beat. I repeat that I don't have the skills to put these things together - just remarking that it'd be great if it was possible.

I suggest we work out a protocol that does not require anything specialized or expensive beyond a microscope (which is extremely hard to do without). This may involve washing a large sample of treated feces (say a kilogram) with something like a saturated salt solution, straining it through a mesh into a 3-liter Coke bottle, and allowing the Ascaris eggs to float to the top overnight and stick to the microscope slide placed on the mouth of the bottle. A quick examination of the slide under the microscope the next day should give a fairly definitive answer to the question of whether or not there are Ascaris eggs in the sample. This is based on a WHO document cited in the following post, only taken to a bigger scale to have a more definitive answer with less microscopy:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-uri...lum-sanitation#2495.


I remember when we discussed this before that we were told that the protocol is not as simple as just presence or absence of ascaris, because it can be present but not active. Personally I'm not sure that this is the way to go as it seems to require significant input from highly trained microbiologists.

In my view, some kind of mechanised test (perhaps using a simple DNA based dye test or something) is ideally what we want.

I also suggest that small envelopes of plastic mesh containing feces known to have Ascaris could be dropped periodically into UDDTs, for analysis at the end of the process. This would reduce or eliminate the need to concentrate the Ascaris eggs.


I agree, spiking of samples with Ascaris (or other index pathogen) seems like a very good idea. Some samples might have none present at the end of the process simply because there was none there in the first place. Good point Chris, I hadn't thought of that.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 10 Apr 2014 14:12:16 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8176 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8176
Very important topic that needs to be fine-tuned.

Joe, I had a look at the article on Raman Spectroscopy in Wikipedia and I did not see how this could search for an Ascaris egg in a pile of dirt. Please enlighten us on this.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raman_spectroscopy

I agree that Ascaris is the organism to look for, since there seems to be a good consensus this is the most resistant of all fecal pathogens AND we can actually see it and identify it with a microscope. (Andrew, I understand why you had to use the canine helminth Toxocara in your study in Chile, as almost no one had Ascaris, but it is better to work on the actual human parasite (Ascaris).)

I suggest we work out a protocol that does not require anything specialized or expensive beyond a microscope (which is extremely hard to do without). This may involve washing a large sample of treated feces (say a kilogram) with something like a saturated salt solution, straining it through a mesh into a 3-liter Coke bottle, and allowing the Ascaris eggs to float to the top overnight and stick to the microscope slide placed on the mouth of the bottle. A quick examination of the slide under the microscope the next day should give a fairly definitive answer to the question of whether or not there are Ascaris eggs in the sample. This is based on a WHO document cited in the following post, only taken to a bigger scale to have a more definitive answer with less microscopy:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-uri...lum-sanitation#2495.

I also suggest that small envelopes of plastic mesh containing feces known to have Ascaris could be dropped periodically into UDDTs, for analysis at the end of the process. This would reduce or eliminate the need to concentrate the Ascaris eggs.

Anyone looking for a thesis?

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 10 Apr 2014 10:12:03 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8162 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8162
log reductions are not the way to you as what you really want to know is whether the remaining levels of pathogens are safe, not how many you've managed to destroy.

In my view, the only way to do the above is with a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) using a Monte Carlo simulation - we have discussed this before on this forum.

Once the above analysis has been done and a baseline 'safe' exposure has been calculated, I think what is then needed is a rapid system to analyse whether the treatment has met the standard or not.

Personally I think the price-point is another critical factor. All systems need to be tested regularly, preferably on a batch-testing regime. So I think $1000 is far too high.

In an ideal world, $1000 would be the cost to establish safe dose levels from reference pathogens of particular sanitation technologies in particular places, then the actual testing of samples would be as near to $0 as possible. I would see this as a validation mechanism using known microbiological techniques followed by some kind of instantaneous scanning electrical device to establish the presence/absence of the model pathogen, most likely ascaris helminths. I read once that there was work on building low cost hand-held Raman Spectroscopy unitss - which is currently under investigation by microbiologists as a way to identify microbes - which sounds to me like it would tick all the boxes.

I am not offering to do any of this, sadly I am not an engineer or a microbiologist. But that's the direction I would be looking in.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 09 Apr 2014 10:11:08 +0000
Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: AFoote http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8161 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way#8161
For awhile now I've been a bit frustrated by how difficult it is to understand if treatment solutions are being effective. As far as I know, there is no real quick test on how to tell if something is working or if it's quick it is very expensive. I am a strong believer that having good measurement and quick monitoring is crucial for innovation and system sustainability. Is anyone already using a system or know of one out there?

I think as a SunSanA community we can come up with a better way to test pathogens reduction. I'd love to see us develop something like the Del Agua but for sanitation systems (
)

I've put together and update on how Sanivation is starting to address this issue and I'd love your input! See: http://sanivation.com/our-projects/mobile-pathogen-kit/

Some of the initial questions we are debating are:

  • What pathogens should we test? Right now we are planning on a kit for helminth and E.coli
  • What should be the price point? Right now we are thinking under $1,000
  • What is the right mix of precision and labor required? Right now we are wanting to be able to do log reductions


What do you think? Please reply to this topic as a way to share ideas and to collaborate on designing a kit that meets all of our needs.

Very excited about this project!
Andrew]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 09 Apr 2014 09:36:19 +0000
World Health Day, April 7, 2014: Focus on Vector Borne Diseases - by: susanaforum http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8138-world-health-day-april-7-2014-focus-on-vector-borne-diseases#8138 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8138-world-health-day-april-7-2014-focus-on-vector-borne-diseases#8138 World Health Day 2014, with the focus of this year on vector-borne diseases.

Let us know how you have recognized the day today, and how sanitation has an impact and connection to health.

For more information: www.who.int/campaigns/world-health-day/2014/en/

(Posted by Roslyn)]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:09:47 +0000
Links to recent WASH studies - by: campbelldb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7787-links-to-recent-wash-studies#7787 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7787-links-to-recent-wash-studies#7787
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

wash/nutrition library- blogs.washplus.org/washnutrition

- Interventions to Address Maternal and Childhood Undernutrition: Current Evidence
- Can an Integrated Approach Reduce Child Vulnerability to Anaemia?
- Systematic review and meta-analysis: association between WASH and maternal mortality
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
household drinking water quality updates - blogs.washplus.org/drinkingwaterupdates

- Effect of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene on the Prevention of Trachoma
- Assessing the Impact of Water Filters and Improved Cook Stoves on Drinking Water Quality and Household Air Pollution
- Editorial – The elusive effect of water and sanitation on the global burden of disease
- CAWST – Newly updated Drinking Water Quality Testing Manual
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
urban health updates - blogs.washplus.org/urbanhealthupdates

- Health in perspective: framing motivational factors for personal sanitation in urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya
- Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities
- Urban settings do not ensure access to services: findings from the immunisation programme in Kampala Uganda
- Electronic waste – an emerging threat to the environment of urban India
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SANITATION UPDATES - sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/

- Editorial – The elusive effect of water and sanitation on the global burden of disease
- #KeepTheHinWASH: Hygiene being left out from Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
- UN partners WSSCC and OHCHR gather diverse stakeholders to foreground sanitation, rights and dignity for women
- Towards total sanitation workshop report – key findings
- Study examines sustainability of CLTS programmes in Africa​]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 13 Mar 2014 18:53:29 +0000
Re: Why is there pathogens in the first place ? - by: ben http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7754 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7754
Just wanted to thank you all for having taken the time to share these informations and links. I've been learning a lot on the subject and hope it's been usefull for others on this forum, thanks to you all.

I like your post Mughal, taking a comparative point of view (jumbo jet - 5 minute american shower) is always more impactful than simple figures.

Wish you all a good day,

Ben]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 12 Mar 2014 10:35:10 +0000
Re: Why is there pathogens in the first place ? - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7750 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7750
While the question of your 12 years old niece has been taken care of by the colleagues, I have packed small information for your niece. The information is from various sources (WHO, UNICEF, and WB):

2.6 billion people or nearly half of humanity lives without access to adequate sanitation.

700,000 children die every year from diarrhoea.

Diarrhoea is the second biggest killer of children under five years.

60 million children are born into homes without sanitation.

Lack of access to clean water and sanitation kills children at a rate equivalent of a jumbo jet crashing every four hours.

780 million people lack access to an improved water source; approximately one in nine people.

The water and sanitation crisis claims more lives through disease than any war claims through guns.

An American taking a five-minute shower uses more water than the average person in a developing country slum uses for an entire day.

More people have a mobile phone than a toilet.

1.1 billion still practice open defecation.

Of the 60 million people added to the world's towns and cities every year, most move to informal settlements (i.e. slums) with no sanitation facilities.

Half of the hospital beds in the world are occupied by patients suffering from diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.

Every 21 seconds, a child dies from diarrhea.

An estimated 200 million hours are spent each day globally collecting water.

About 4 billion cases of diarrhoea per year cause 1.8 million deaths, over 90 per cent of them (1.6 million) among children under five. Repeated episodes of diarrhoeal disease makes children more vulnerable to other diseases and malnutrition.

Without sanitation facilities to safely contain and dispose of human faeces, which are the primary source of diarrhoeal pathogens, the health of a community, especially its children who are most vulnerable to disease, is put at risk. It is estimated that globally more than 200 million tons of human waste and untold millions of tons of wastewater are discharged, uncontained and untreated, into watercourses every year.

One gram of faeces can contain:
10,000,000 viruses
1,000,000 bacteria
1,000 parasite cysts
100 parasite eggs

443 million school days are lost each year due to water-related illness.

F H Mughal]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 12 Mar 2014 07:47:03 +0000
Re: Forum user of the month in March 2014 is FH Mughal from Pakistan! - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7723-links-between-polio-and-poor-sanitation#7737 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7723-links-between-polio-and-poor-sanitation#7737 Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 11 Mar 2014 05:26:24 +0000 Re: Forum user of the month in March 2014 is FH Mughal from Pakistan! - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7723-links-between-polio-and-poor-sanitation#7725 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7723-links-between-polio-and-poor-sanitation#7725 polio vaccine effectiveness and poor sanitation discussed?

Sometimes I think I'm the only person talking about it as the problem is usually described as being about malnutrition, not malabsorption syndrome caused by poor sanitation.

Congratulations, Mr. Mughal!]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Mon, 10 Mar 2014 16:59:32 +0000
Links between polio and poor sanitation - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7723-links-between-polio-and-poor-sanitation#7723 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7723-links-between-polio-and-poor-sanitation#7723 This post used to be here in this thread where Mughal had asked "Polio is a problem here, as you have read in newspapers. I would appreciate, if some friends can shows specific pathways of how poor sanitation leads to polio.": forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-by-...l-from-pakistan#7722

+++++++++
Interesting interview! Having lived for about a year in Pakistan before, I can definitely relate to some of the issues Mughal rises.

About the polio-sanitation link:
This is fairly well established, for a quick overview this should do:
www.polioeradication.org/Polioandprevention.aspx
There are even some that think improved WASH had an higher effect on polio eradication in most of the world than the vaccine has.
An interesting recent emerging topic is that bad sanitation (through environmental enteropathy and premature immune-system aging) also lowers the efficiency of child vaccination and thus has also indirectly an effect on the persistence of polio in some countries.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Mon, 10 Mar 2014 16:01:07 +0000
Re: Why is there pathogens in the first place ? - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7701 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7701
Recent study about inhalable microbes suggests one reason China leads the world in diabetes:
pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es4048472
www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2540955...iananmen-Square.html

Air pollution linked with diabetes:
www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100929105654.htm
www.loe.org/shows/segments.html?programI...0002&segmentID=5

Earth surrounded by microbes in the upper atmosphere, likely feeding on particulate pollution as prebiotic:
www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-06/bacteria-33000-feet
(not long ago, sugar was discovered in space, suggesting extraterrestrial microbial life.)]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 09 Mar 2014 18:47:50 +0000
Re: Why is there pathogens in the first place ? - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7700 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/7589-why-is-there-pathogens-in-the-first-place-?limit=12&start=12#7700 KeithBell wrote:
Even inhaled through air they reach the small intestine via lungs which is why air pollution is now associated with diabetes. That's right, there are even inhalable microorganisms.


Sure, plenty... with Tuberculosis (TB) probably the one that causes the most problems world wide.
But I am unaware of a direct path for microorganisms from the lungs to the small intestine (apart from general systemic, i.e. blood or lyme infections that might originate from the lungs). Do you have a source describing such an infection pathway of the small intestine?]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 09 Mar 2014 17:32:00 +0000