SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:26:02 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9479 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9479 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. This is potentially very useful information which may help improve WWTP technology, but it also may give powerful justification for ending the practice of defecating and urinating in water.

In some cases, papers are not open access, but abstracts are also useful and it's good to know these new studies exist:
Exploring Variation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge over a Four-Year Period through a Metagenomic Approach
pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es4017365

Fate of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage treatment plant revealed by metagenomic approach
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135414003728

Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Sediments Receiving Various Wastewater Effluents with High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00248-014-0370-0

And a couple of scientific reviews likely including information culled from metagenomic studies:
Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance in water habitats: searching the links with the human microbiome
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1574...sAuthenticated=false

Human health implications of clinically relevant bacteria in wastewater habitats
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-013-1594-0

This recent piece in The Guardian speaks toward the end of mixing human waste with water:
Why the modern bathroom is a wasteful, unhealthy design
Piped water may be the greatest convenience ever known but our sewage systems and bathrooms are a disaster

www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/ju...ful-unhealthy-design]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:23:28 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9457 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9457 joeturner wrote:
But even if they are saying that, it still is not very helpful because you would have to be able to plate out lots of different microbes, which is expensive and not really the point of an indicator.


Hey Joe, based on your statement it appears you may not understand that 454 pyrosequencing based on amplification of microbial DNA is very fast and cheap. It's high throughput, meaning one pass of a probe reveals tons of data based on programming. I'm not an expert in this area, but believe this is the future. The equipment may be cost-prohibitive at present, but there are many institutions owning this equipment looking for research projects.

The same technology used to determine microbial populations in human intestines in the diarrhea studies I posted is also used in WWTP, but this is in its infancy. Functional medicine doctors order the same tests for their patients, called the future of medicine. Here's a 2012 WWTP study using pyrosequencing; this is opening up new worlds of information including previously unclassified bacteria dominant due to the wastewater treatment process:
Bacterial communities in different sections of a municipal wastewater treatment plant revealed by 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586070/

The original post states: "What pathogens should we test? Right now we are planning on a kit for helminth and E.coli."

My post is quite on topic as one of the studies I posted states E. coli is actually significantly decreased in diarrhea. This should be eye-opening to many who never considered E. coli as protective. The study implicates Bacilli as cause of diarrhea, so perhaps Bacilli would be a good indicator.

Thanks for your patience, folks, just trying to be helpful.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 23 Jul 2014 17:36:03 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: christoph http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9437 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9437 the title of the threat is "Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way?"

This is a topic I am very interested in. I don´t find it polite nor good for the quality if there are posts about totally other subjects and I would like to ask if we could not put up a rule which enables the forum organization to open a new section where all "misleading" posts are put or ask the "misleading"poster if he/she would like to open a new threat.

What do you think? I know I am missleaing s well with this post, but my post is related to the posts above (but feel free to reorganize I you feel it should not be here).

Yours
Christoph]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 22 Jul 2014 16:34:05 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9430 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9430
The issue is this: we cannot measure directly all of the microbial pathogens in faecal waste hence the need for a reliable indicator that we can measure which models the breakdown of all the pathogens that we cannot measure.

What these papers seem to be showing is the gut flora of people with and without diarrhea in Senegal - and have found a measurable difference between groups.

This is essentially descriptive. I don't think they are saying that one could analyse faecal waste and use this suite of species to tell whether pathogens have been destroyed. But even if they are saying that, it still is not very helpful because you would have to be able to plate out lots of different microbes, which is expensive and not really the point of an indicator.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 22 Jul 2014 08:10:12 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9416 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9416
Diarrhea in young children from low-income countries leads to large-scale alterations in intestinal microbiota composition
genomebiology.com/2014/15/6/R76

MALDI-TOF Identification of the Human Gut Microbiome
in People with and without Diarrhea in Senegal

www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10....journal.pone.0087419
In individuals with diarrhea, major commensal bacterial species such as E. coli were significantly decreased (85% versus 64%), as were several Enterococcus spp. (E. faecium and E. casseliflavus) and anaerobes, such as Bacteroides spp. (B. uniformis and B. vulgatus) and Clostridium spp. (C. bifermentans, C. orbiscindens, C. perfringens, and C. symbosium). Conversely, several Bacillus spp. (B. licheniformis, B. mojavensis, and B. pumilus) were significantly more frequent among patients with diarrhea.


Here's some press about the recent study posted above:
Diarrhea in young children from low-income countries leads to large-scale alterations in intestinal microbiota composition

"Scientists Identify New Microbes Associated with Severe Diarrhea"
cmns.umd.edu/news-events/features/2305

"Previously Unheralded Microbes Cause And Prevent Severe Diarrhea"
www.science20.com/news_articles/previous...vere_diarrhea-139500

Note: what causes diarrhea in one population may be different from another as flora balance varies considerably, i.e., European vs. African, the underlying beauty of diversity.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 20 Jul 2014 16:58:03 +0000
Re: Resources Regarding Sanitation in India NY Times Report - by: jselendy http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9410 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9410
I am so pleased that you asked me to “post any related texts or videos that are available on the Internet.” There are not only materials available on the Internet, but also the DVDs accompanying Horizon International are being provided for free to libraries and institutions in 139 countries and are now available nearly a third of those countries. I provide those details below.

Regarding those videos available on the Internet, there are several sources.

Both text from the book and videos are in the first article of Horizon International’s series "Realizing Sanitation and Hygiene for All" published on the Solutions Site, at www.solutions-site.org/node/1255. The article is largely based on and contains many quotes from the book and a couple of the videos from our book’s DVDs as well as from other sources. The videos also in our DVDs are: “Schistosomiasis: Ending the Anguish of a Silent Disease (The Carter Center),” and “The Carter Center's Trachoma Control Program.” This article focuses on the background of the problem and what it means for nearly half the people of the developing world who lack adequate sanitation and hygiene.

Another Horizon International Solutions Site article entitled “Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, Interventions and Preventive Measures,” (the same as our book’s title), available at http://www.solutions-site.org/node/532, includes the video “Guinea Worm's Last Stand: Southern Sudan.”
Among the sources for free access to the book and DVDs’ content is The Carter Center which has posted PDFs of four chapters from our book along with the Wiley flier for the book on its website at http://www.cartercenter.org/news/publications/health/experts.html. The chapters are:
Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease): Case Study of the Effort to Reduce Guinea Worm
Donald R. Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben
Using Kinship Structures in Health Programming: An Example of Preventive Measures and Successful Interventions
Moses N. Katabarwa
Onchocerciasis
Adrian Hopkins, Boakye A. Boatin
Trachoma
Joseph A. Cook, Silvio P. Mariotti.

Horizon International is contributing the book’s DVDs as part of the resources being distributed free of charge by the Global Development And Environment Institute (GDAE) at Tufts University. These multidisciplinary resources, covering diverse topics from anthropology to economics to global health are being sent to thousands of libraries, organizations, and institutions in 139 less-wealthy countries.

Contribution of these learning tools is made possible thanks to an innovative approach founded by Dr. Neva Goodwin, co-director of GDAE. It is called The Social Science Library: Frontier Thinking in Sustainable Development and Human Well-Being (SSL). These contributions come from the GDAE, the UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), the WorldWatch Institute, and Horizon International.

As of July 3rd these resources are being used by over 1,300 entities across 60 countries. The DVD contents are described in an insert that accompanies the DVDs with the SSL packets. The descriptive insert with the book’s table of contents is available here (www.solutions-site.org/dvd/insert.pdf). I have attached brief overview about this project, which includes a map, and links to pages to find which countries now have the resources. I have attached descriptive flyers.

In addition to the book and DVDs, there is substantial “Supplementary Material” for the book, more than 45 articles and other resources, thus far, which also provide substance for the popular book. It is published on a Wiley-Blackwell companion Web site for the volume, www.wiley.com/go/selendy/water and on the Horizon International Solutions Site www.solutionssite.org.

Wiley-Blackwell is making our book in print and eBooks as well as individual chapters available for reduced rates for developing countries.

The publication is available from many sources including directly from Wiley at: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle...ctCd-0470527854.html.
Wiley provides a chance to read an excerpt:
• Read Excerpt: Chapter (PDF)
• Read Excerpt: Index (PDF)
• Read Excerpt: Table of Contents (PDF)
Also available as e-books, ISBN: 978-0-470-52785-6
Wiley offers special prices for bulk sales and greatly reduced prices for purchases of the book in developing countries. The information is available “Request Pricing for Special Sales.”

Regarding pharmaceuticals, I wish to draw your attention to a chapter in the book, “Other Water Pollutants: Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria,” by Professor Amy Sapkota. She writes, “A variety of antibiotic resistant bacteria, expressing various resistance genes, have been detected in both untreated and treated wastewater.” Among the related sources drawing on our book, is the article, “Actions Combating Drug Resistance,” available on the Horizon International Solutions Site at www.solutions-site.org/node/675.

Regarding Urine-Diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs), a couple of the articles in the Supplementary Material for our book, “Innovative Toilet Technology for the 21st Century, available at www.solutions-site.org/node/502, and “Sanitation Innovator Named 2013 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate, available at www.solutions-site.org/node/907. The latter has images such as “Gum trees watered with diluted urine to enhance their growth in school woodlot,” and a very good discussion about urine diversion by the inventor, Dr. Peter Morgan.

Warm wishes,
Janine]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 19 Jul 2014 17:45:00 +0000
Re: Resources Regarding Sanitation in India NY Times Report - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9405 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9405
Thanks for posting info on this important book that you edited.

Does the book include a discussion of Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs) as an important and accessible option to prevent disease transmission, water pollution, and other related problems?

Unfortunately, not only finances, but also distance, lack of credit cards, etc., limit my access to this book. Please post any related texts or videos that are available on the internet.

Now that modern metagenomics permit this, it would be important for detailed studies to be done on the impact of water-based sanitation (even with current wastewater treatment) on human and non-human microbiomes and therefore human and ecosystemic health. To begin with, this should take into account the pharmaceuticals and other chemicals that cannot be reliably removed from wastewater and the microbes that are getting resistant to the chemicals used in wastewater treatment.

By the way, the New York Times article's graph of the % childhood stunting versus the number of people who defecate outside per square kilometer is very impressive. (Why weren't more of the dots precisely identified?) This article is important for everyone to read.

Best wishes,
Chris


Note by moderator: see also this related thread where we also discussed the New York Times article:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-hea...-indian-muslims#9352]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 19 Jul 2014 13:30:34 +0000
Re: Resources Regarding Sanitation in India NY Times Report - by: jselendy http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9399 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9399 www.solutions-site.org/dvd/insert.pdf and from the Wiley-Blackwell description at www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470527854.html .]]> Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 18 Jul 2014 18:51:13 +0000 Book: Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, Interventions and Preventive Measures - by: jselendy http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9395 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9395 www.nytimes.com/2014/07/15/world/asia/po...I%3A6%22%7D&_r=0), I wish to share with you that major related coverage is to be found in this book from 2011 and its accompanying DVDs, “Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, Interventions and Preventive Measures" a Wiley-Blackwell collaboration with Horizon International at Yale University, written by 59 experts. (I am the editor of this book)

Also, 50 plus articles and other resources published on a Wiley-Blackwell companion Web site for the volume, www.wiley.com/go/selendy/water and on the Horizon International Solutions Site available at http://www.solutions-site.org. More than 2.4 billion individuals lack adequate sanitation.

Horizon International welcomes your input for its coverage.

Warm wishes,
Janine]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 18 Jul 2014 16:55:19 +0000
Re: Resources Regarding Sanitation in India NY Times Report - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9397 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9395-book-water-and-sanitation-related-diseases-and-the-environment-challenges-interventions-and-preventive-measures#9397
Not only does stunting contribute to the deaths of a million children under the age of 5 each year, but those who survive suffer cognitive deficits and are poorer and sicker than children not affected by stunting. They also may face increased risks for adult illnesses like diabetes, heart attacks and strokes.


Unfortunately, things like sanitation and toxic pollution aren't yet on the NCD agenda. Experts still believe NCDs are about diet, exercise and smoking. Yet our diabetes epidemic in the developed world with our flushing toilets is nearly as bad as India. This is one of the factors leading me to believe defecating in water must end. This is not just about open defecation. We're putting too much trust in wastewater treatment.

In 2011, the UN held its first high level meeting on health in a decade about NCDs. Sanitation was not on the agenda. Last week, there was another UN high level meeting to review the 2011 meeting. Sanitation was still not on the agenda:
allafrica.com/stories/201407161464.html
www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/20...GA-ncds-epidemic/en/
www.news-medical.net/news/20140713/UN-Me...-burden-of-NCDs.aspx

“Our realization about the connection between stunting and sanitation is just emerging,” said Sue Coates, chief of water, sanitation and hygiene at Unicef India. “At this point, it is still just an hypothesis, but it is an incredibly exciting and important one because of its potential impact.”
]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 18 Jul 2014 16:53:09 +0000
Re: Open defecation solves the (lower) child mortality puzzle among Indian Muslims - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9381 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9381 muench wrote:
Dear Kris,

I didn't fully understand your sentence here: ?
a bit strange how their entire argument is carefully "santitized" to simply state a geospatial correlation.


Are you saying the authors glossed over the data so that they only mention results for certain regions of India without trying to figure out the specific characteristics of these regions that might cause that effect? (as Sowmya has pointed out above, it could be tricky to do so, with unpleasent, and perhaps even dangerous, side effects for the national politics)


Pretty much, but the entire argument is left somewhat hanging because of that. They are so careful not to state a obvious correlation that the paper becomes very abstract and a bit hard to follow.


Concerning the NYT's graphic: I think the OD/square km measure makes a certain sense and should probably be used more often. I also don't think the overall population density in India is distorting this, as the neighbouring countries are similar densely populated (or even much more e.g. Bangladesh! see also: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sovereign_...y_population_density) and still do not fall out of the normal range like India does.
The graphic does fail in correlating child stunting to OD in India though, as many countries with a much lower OD/area rate show similar levels of child stunting.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 17 Jul 2014 14:16:02 +0000
Re: Open defecation solves the (lower) child mortality puzzle among Indian Muslims - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9377 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9377
According to the news in ProPoor Newsletter of 17 July 2014, Indian government will provide toilets to every houe by 2019. See below for details:

Indian government gets robust about sanitation
OneWorld South Asia
Jul 16, 2014

Giving high priority to sanitation, the Indian government said that we intend to provide toilets to every house by 2019.

New Delhi: With an objective to provide sanitation to every household by 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the Indian Finance Minister Arun Jaitley announced Rs 4,260 crore for Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan which includes Rs 426 crore for northeast regions and Sikkim.

The Budget-2014 also allocates Rs 11,000 crore for National Rural Drinking Water Programme and the rural water supply sector including Rs 1,100 for northeast regions and Sikkim.

In an order to improve inland waterways transport, the government announced a project titled ‘Jal Marg Vikas’ (National Waterways-I) on river Ganga. It will cover a distance of 1,620 kms from Allahabad to Haldia. It will also enable commercial navigation of at least 1,500 tonne vessels. With an estimated period of six years to get it completed, the Budget allocates Rs 4,200 crore.

‘Namami Gange’, an integrated Ganga development project has also been allocated Rs 2037 crore. The government has also announced ‘Neeranchal’, a watershed development programme, with an estimated outlay of Rs 2,142.

It also announced to introduce metro-rails in Lucknow and Ahmedabad through public-private partnership.

In an effort to improve water availability throughout the year, the government again opened the ambitious project on interlinking rivers.

Let us hope, sanitation scenario improves in India in foreseeable future!

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 17 Jul 2014 10:55:36 +0000
Re: Open defecation solves the (lower) child mortality puzzle among Indian Muslims - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9375 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9375
I didn't fully understand your sentence here: ?
a bit strange how their entire argument is carefully "santitized" to simply state a geospatial correlation.


Are you saying the authors glossed over the data so that they only mention results for certain regions of India without trying to figure out the specific characteristics of these regions that might cause that effect? (as Sowmya has pointed out above, it could be tricky to do so, with unpleasent, and perhaps even dangerous, side effects for the national politics)

About the New York Times article (which has been all over Twitter, everyone seems to tweet about it!):

That graph that you have copied here is remarkable. I have never before seen open defecation expressed in this "density" unit, i.e. "number of people who defecate outdoors per square kilometre". This is what makes India stand out like this: so much open defecation plus a country that is very densely populated (according to Wikipedia: Density 378.8/km2 (31st most densely populated country in the world)). All the other figures from WHO and UNICEF quote only the % of people in a given population practicing open defecation. Here, India doesn't stand out as much. But when it's expressed as per square kilometre, then India does stand out!

What I was wondering in the NYT article: they talk about India as a whole but surely also with the stunting there must be huge differences in the different states of India. I guess one would have to dig into the cited sources to see that. But a "stunting map" overlain with a "open defecation per km2" map for inside of India could be quite revealing.

I do get the feeling (or is it just wishful thinking?) that India will start to tackle their sanitation problems more seriously now as the evidence is simply mounting and it is - maybe - getting too embarrassing for the Indian government as well (?). Or maybe I don't know enough about Indian politics yet.

Greetings,
Elisabeth]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 16 Jul 2014 20:06:48 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9358 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9358 development of software to identify and quantify helminth eggs.

You can find it here on the forum:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena...ico-unam-mexico#9351]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:30:09 +0000
Re: Open defecation solves the (lower) child mortality puzzle among Indian Muslims - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9352 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims#9352
The location they have identified is what some people refer to as the "hindu belt" however, where up to 95% percent of the population is of that religion.

Also interesting is this recent article in the NYT:
www.nytimes.com/2014/07/15/world/asia/po...ml?_r=1&referrer
And especially the graphic it includes that shows just how much of an outlier India is globally when it come to open defecation:]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 15 Jul 2014 07:05:02 +0000