SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Tue, 23 Sep 2014 04:20:33 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Videos from Seminar Securing Water, Energy, Sanitation and Livelihoods through Consensus: Community led approaches in Africa (SEI, Africa Ahead), Sept. 2014 - by: arno http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10105-videos-from-seminar-securing-water-energy-sanitation-and-livelihoods-through-consensus-community-led-approaches-in-africa-sei-africa-ahead-sept-2014#10105 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/10105-videos-from-seminar-securing-water-energy-sanitation-and-livelihoods-through-consensus-community-led-approaches-in-africa-sei-africa-ahead-sept-2014#10105
www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLoJ3pxCzM...-share_playlist_user

This is the first video in the Playlist but each of the presentations below have their own video (accessible through the Playlist):



Securing Water, Energy, Sanitation and Livelihoods through Consensus: Community led approaches in Africa

Convenor: Africa AHEAD www.africaahead.org
Co-convenor: Stockholm Environment Institute www.sei-international.org
programme.worldwaterweek.org/event/securing-water-energy-3460

This seminar examines the Community Health Club (CHC) Model, a methodology for achieving fully functional communities enabling villagers to manage their own health and development initiatives in a sustainable integrated way. This is achieved by establishing voluntary village structures known as Community Health Clubs (CHCs) as a vehicle for development, enabling villagers to transit through four phases: firstly by using health education & hygiene promotion as an entry point, leading to self-supply of sanitation and safe solid waste disposal, protecting water resources and the environment, and finally to sustainable livelihoods through ‘Food, Agriculture and Nutrition’ (FAN) programme. The seminar provides a unique opportunity to understand the social psychology of the CHC Model as well as hearing first-hand examples drawn from case studies in Zimbabwe, Rwanda and Uganda, with similar examples of community led approaches in Kenya and Benin. This is an opportunity for discussion and debate as to whether the CHC Model is replicable at scale in other developing countries as we seek practical ways to ‘Fight poverty post 2015 by securing access to energy, food and water’.

Programme:
Chair Dr Arno Rosemarin, Stockholm Environment Institute

Arno Rosemarin on behalf of Dr. Fidele Ngabo, Head of Maternal & Child Health, Ministry of Health, Rwanda. Hygiene Behaviour Change through CBEHPP in Rwanda

Dr. Juliet Waterkeyn, CEO, Africa AHEAD.
“I am Not Nothing Now” - How Community Health Clubs Empower Women

Anthony Waterkeyn, Chairman, Zimbabwe AHEAD.
The 5x5 Strategy: Scaling up Community Health Clubs

Dan Wolf, Director, International Lifeline Fund
Mobilising Communities for Improving Water, Energy and Sanitation in Uganda

Lisa Nash, Director, Blue Planet Network.
Sharing the Power of Community Health Clubs

Dr. (cand) Nelson Ekane, Stockholm Environment Institute.
Community-based Sanitation Programs in Burera District, Rwanda

Dr. Caroline Ochieng, Stockholm Environment Institute
Feasibility and Sustainability of Financial Incentives for Health in a Kenyan Community

George de Gooijer, Embassy of the Netherlands, Benin.
Community Sanitation and Hygiene in Benin

Discussion with Participants and Summary]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 10 Sep 2014 21:10:46 +0000
Re: faecal transplants - by: Carol McCreary http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8539-faecal-transplants#9826 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8539-faecal-transplants#9826 Mother Jones magazine is an article on the current regulatory environment for fecal transplants for C diff [Clostridium difficile] in the US and likely developments at the federal level.

Should We Regulate Poop As a Drug? The future of fecal transplants, and a bevy of entrepreneurs, hinges on how the FDA decides to regulate the procedure.www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/08/...iome-rebiotix?page=1

There is definitely progress in this area. Last year the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the federal Food and Drug Agency (FDA) agreed physicians could perform the procedure albeit with lots of permissions and paperwork. Alternately, two companies have proposed pre-packaed and stabilized enemas, that are currently undergoing clinical trials with the. But is approval as a drug appropriate for something like feces, which varies so radically from person to person?

A few weeks after the meeting at NIH, the FDA changed its approach. Fecal transplants would still be regulated as a drug, but to keep them moving (at least until a treatment was finally approved), the agency said it would exercise "enforcement discretion"—meaning health care providers could go on administering transplants for recurrent C. diff patients without filing paperwork for new drugs.

In February 2014, the FDA issued a second draft of its guidelines. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, a 10,000-member organization of doctors and scientists, offered a blanket endorsement of the FDA's position.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 20 Aug 2014 16:44:18 +0000
Re: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: samantabb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9792 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9792
As requested I am sending the full document on the subject for your perusal and comments. Warm regdrs

BBSamanta]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:06:24 +0000
Re: Reply: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: samantabb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9791 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9791 Thanks for your interest. While you are looking at the link between open defecation and helminthic infestation, the project I am talking about is on Iron Deficiency Anaemia due to worm infestation (including helminthic infestation)and how to reduce that through better hygiene practices. Let me know whether you would like to have the full report on the process of planning and implementation of the project. Warm regards BBSamanta]]> Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 19 Aug 2014 05:59:30 +0000 Re: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: sampark http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9644 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9644 Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 07 Aug 2014 07:06:57 +0000 Reply: Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: Bobbie http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9622 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9622
This is very interesting. I am managing a study looking at the relationship between open defecation, geophagia (soil eating) and helminthic infections. It would be useful to read about your work in more detail. Could you post your report?

-- Bobbie Louton Partners in Development 033 342 3012 073 766 1139]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 06 Aug 2014 09:42:14 +0000
Reduction of Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescent Girls through Control of Worm Infestation - by: samantabb http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9613 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9613-reduction-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-adolescent-girls-through-control-of-worm-infestation#9613 I am Bidhu Bhushan Samanta, PhD from India, currently Chairman (Hon) of a professional group in the eastern part of India called Multi Applied System (MAS). I am in WASH sector since 1978. Have worked in Government, consultancy group before joining UNICEF where I worked in the sector both in India and abroad for around 17 years.I am going to talk about a topic that is not so much discussed in WASH Sector.

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a condition where a person has inadequate amounts of iron in the blood to meet body demand. According to WHO nine out of ten persons suffering from anaemia live in developing countries and on an average every second pregnant women and four out of ten school going children are anaemic.

We all know that adolescence is a an critical phase in life that prepares human being for adulthood. It has been observed that during this period the adolescents gain 50% of their adult weight, 25% of their adult height and 50% of their skeletal mass. The requirements of iron among girls are more than that of boys for obvious reasons. We also know that anaemic adolescent girls when married young and get pregnant early, are more likely to deliver low birth weight babies leading to high infant and maternal mortality.

It has also been observed that the world's leading cause of gastrointestinal blood loss is parasitic infestation particularly hookworm. Over one billion people, mostly in tropical and sub-tropical areas are infested with these parasites and the daily blood loss is estimated to exceed 11 million litres. Round worm and whip worm that take the faecal-oral route also contribute to malnutrition among adolescent girls.

A three-year project (2008-2011)undertaken by MAS (in which I was the Project Director) in 25 villages covering a total of over 2,000 adolescent girls in the age-group 12-19 years found out that promoting improved sanitation and better hygiene practices led to a drastic reduction in IDA among adolescent girls. Even the changes in the process indicators on various hygiene practices supported such phenomenon. The project was funded by Population Foundation of India, New Delhi. It was a convergent project involving Rural Development (in charge of WASH), Health, Education and Women and Child Development. Both the bench mark survey and the end-project evaluation were carried out by independent agencies to maintain neutrality of the results. The whole process has since been documented and available.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 05 Aug 2014 16:48:55 +0000
Water AID - Assessing the water, sanitation and hygiene needs of people living with HIV and AIDS in Papua New Guinea, 2014 - by: sebastian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9603-water-aid-assessing-the-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-needs-of-people-living-with-hiv-and-aids-in-papua-new-guinea-2014#9603 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/9603-water-aid-assessing-the-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-needs-of-people-living-with-hiv-and-aids-in-papua-new-guinea-2014#9603


Sanitation Updates wrote:
The research revealed that people living with HIV in PNG have increased needs for WASH, and that these needs are not being adequately met. Stigma and discrimination were found to be barriers to access to WASH for respondents and their families. In addition, this study identified priority areas for service providers to direct future activities and best integrate WASH into programming for people living with HIV. Priority areas include hygiene education, safe treatment and storage of water, self-treatment for diarrhoea, latrine construction, and education around the transmission of HIV.
See on Sanitation Updates website

Is there a section in this Forum on this topic?

Sebastian Klos]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Mon, 04 Aug 2014 10:00:14 +0000
Re: Open defecation solves the (lower) child mortality puzzle among Indian Muslims - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims?limit=12&start=12#9536 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8882-open-defecation-solves-the-lower-child-mortality-puzzle-among-indian-muslims?limit=12&start=12#9536 [This is Page 2 of this discussion thread.]


Nice article in the Economist that pretty much summarizes our discussion here but also has additional facts:
]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 30 Jul 2014 06:40:48 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9535 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9535
We did some research on PCR techniques for helminth eggs determination as described in our paper from 2006 but based on our results, such method is not adequate, neither for the identification nor the determination of viability of Ascaris eggs (I suggest you read the paper for more detailed information). As mentioned before and as is written in the powerpoint presentation that I uploaded few days ago (see here: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena...e-mexico-unam-mexico), we are currently testing a software to identify and quantify helminth eggs (so far from 8 general) to improve precision and reduce time and cost with respect to the conventional technique (US EPA).

This project is being funded by the Gates Foundation (Phase II) and we are working on a website to validate the software and will be willing to try it out with pictures from other forum members.

Best Regards, Blanca]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 29 Jul 2014 22:28:25 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9498 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8161-wanting-a-better-way-to-test-pathogen-inactivation-us-too-can-you-help-me-crowdsource-a-better-way?limit=12&start=24#9498
Taking advantage of the orientation you have provided us, I would like to share with you a paper related to PCR method for the identification of Ascaris. We think it would enrich the blog:

Brian M. Pecson, José Antonio Barrios, David R. Johnson and Kara L. Nelson (2006) A real-time PCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs using the first internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(12):7864.

Abstract:

Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are infected with the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides. As a result, Ascaris eggs are commonly found in wastewater and sludges. The current microscopy method for detecting viable Ascaris eggs is time- and labor-intensive. The goal of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to determine the levels of total and viable Ascaris eggs in laboratory solutions using the first internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA. ITS-1 rDNA levels were proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. Treatments causing >99% inactivation (high heat, moderate heat, ammonia, and UV) eliminated this increase in ITS-1 rDNA levels and caused decreases that were dependent on the treatment type. By taking advantage of this difference in ITS-1 rDNA level between viable, larvated eggs and inactivated, single-celled eggs, qPCR results were used to develop inactivation profiles for the different treatments. No statistical difference from the standard microscopy method was found in 75% of the samples (12 of 16). ITS-1 rRNA was detected only in samples containing viable eggs, but the levels were more variable than rDNA levels and ITS-1 rRNA could not be used for quantification. The detection limit of the rDNA-based method was approximately one larvated egg or 90 single-celled eggs; the detection limit for the rRNA-based method was several orders of magnitude higher. The rDNA qPCR method is promising for both research and regulatory applications.



These results are the unique experiences we had with PCR technique.

Blanca]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:23:16 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9479 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9479 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. This is potentially very useful information which may help improve WWTP technology, but it also may give powerful justification for ending the practice of defecating and urinating in water.

In some cases, papers are not open access, but abstracts are also useful and it's good to know these new studies exist:

Exploring Variation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Activated Sludge over a Four-Year Period through a Metagenomic Approach
pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es4017365

Fate of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage treatment plant revealed by metagenomic approach
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135414003728

Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Sediments Receiving Various Wastewater Effluents with High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00248-014-0370-0

And a couple of scientific reviews likely including information culled from metagenomic studies:

Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance in water habitats: searching the links with the human microbiome
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1574...sAuthenticated=false

Human health implications of clinically relevant bacteria in wastewater habitats
link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-013-1594-0

This recent piece in The Guardian speaks toward the end of mixing human waste with water:

Why the modern bathroom is a wasteful, unhealthy design
Piped water may be the greatest convenience ever known but our sewage systems and bathrooms are a disaster

www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/ju...ful-unhealthy-design]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Thu, 24 Jul 2014 15:23:28 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9457 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9457 joeturner wrote:
But even if they are saying that, it still is not very helpful because you would have to be able to plate out lots of different microbes, which is expensive and not really the point of an indicator.


Hey Joe, based on your statement it appears you may not understand that 454 pyrosequencing based on amplification of microbial DNA is very fast and cheap. It's high throughput, meaning one pass of a probe reveals tons of data based on programming. I'm not an expert in this area, but believe this is the future. The equipment may be cost-prohibitive at present, but there are many institutions owning this equipment looking for research projects.

The same technology used to determine microbial populations in human intestines in the diarrhea studies I posted is also used in WWTP, but this is in its infancy. Functional medicine doctors order the same tests for their patients, called the future of medicine. Here's a 2012 WWTP study using pyrosequencing; this is opening up new worlds of information including previously unclassified bacteria dominant due to the wastewater treatment process:
Bacterial communities in different sections of a municipal wastewater treatment plant revealed by 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586070/

The original post states: "What pathogens should we test? Right now we are planning on a kit for helminth and E.coli."

My post is quite on topic as one of the studies I posted states E. coli is actually significantly decreased in diarrhea. This should be eye-opening to many who never considered E. coli as protective. The study implicates Bacilli as cause of diarrhea, so perhaps Bacilli would be a good indicator.

Thanks for your patience, folks, just trying to be helpful.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Wed, 23 Jul 2014 17:36:03 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: christoph http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9437 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9437 the title of the threat is "Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way?"

This is a topic I am very interested in. I don´t find it polite nor good for the quality if there are posts about totally other subjects and I would like to ask if we could not put up a rule which enables the forum organization to open a new section where all "misleading" posts are put or ask the "misleading"poster if he/she would like to open a new threat.

What do you think? I know I am missleaing s well with this post, but my post is related to the posts above (but feel free to reorganize I you feel it should not be here).

Yours
Christoph]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 22 Jul 2014 16:34:05 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9430 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-health-hygiene-and-disability-issues/8517-high-throughput-microbial-gene-detection-seems-like-the-future-and-technology-used-to-identify-dysbiosis#9430
The issue is this: we cannot measure directly all of the microbial pathogens in faecal waste hence the need for a reliable indicator that we can measure which models the breakdown of all the pathogens that we cannot measure.

What these papers seem to be showing is the gut flora of people with and without diarrhea in Senegal - and have found a measurable difference between groups.

This is essentially descriptive. I don't think they are saying that one could analyse faecal waste and use this suite of species to tell whether pathogens have been destroyed. But even if they are saying that, it still is not very helpful because you would have to be able to plate out lots of different microbes, which is expensive and not really the point of an indicator.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Tue, 22 Jul 2014 08:10:12 +0000