Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience
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TOPIC: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience

Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 16 Jul 2014 20:49 #9374

  • pjbury
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Dear all

This is one of my first questions to the forum since I joined in 2012.
I'm working on Climate Resilient Development in the WASH sector, more in particular on providing principles based but practical guidance at national strategy and planning level (also there where this level guides decentralized levels).

I'm not sure I have categorized my question in the best possible way, as yes this is about building resilience and risk assessment based vulnerability reduction. I would have expected a category about national sector management including strategy and planning, but it seems that category is not available.

Question:

I'd like to get in touch with those of you working in the same field and be pointed to relevant resources, experiences, documentation and conversations.

Look forward to read reactions.

Greetings from near Bologna, Peter J. Bury (former IRC International Water and Sanitation)
Peter J. Bury
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Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 24 Oct 2014 14:01 #10683

  • denniskl
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Hi Peter

Interesting topic but I am not quite clear about what you are looking for.

By "Climate Resilient Development" are you raising design questions regarding sanitation systems that can be fortified / protected against climate change impacts?
Creator of the JigSaw Puzzle in-country capacity building Programme

See latest JigSaw Puzzle Programme overview here: tinyurl.com/JigSawPuzzle7

Philosophy

* See a problem.
* Make sure it's the real problem (by talking to the people with the problem).
* Find people who are solving this problem somewhere in the world and collaborate - and learn from them to solve the problem
OR
* Create a new solution where none exists
* Find passionate people who care about the problem to help implement solutions

Our solution approach - what's yours?

Dennis McMahon
Author "The Poverty Pit" www.gbjvt.com/povertypit
Creator "The JigSaw Puzzle Programme"
Owner, Green Business JV Marketing Sdn Bhd
www.gbjvt.com
From Australia; based in Malaysia

Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 25 Oct 2014 14:49 #10693

  • canaday
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May 2014
Hi Peter,

Thanks for posting this very important topic that needs much more attention. It would be great for someone to do a thesis to bring together all the numbers on this, but it is clear the UDDTs have much to offer. In the following text from my blog, I mention some of the factors involved.

----
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/2014/02/the-dry...weapon-to-fight.html

The Dry Toilet as a Weapon to Fight
Global Climate Disruption

We are all becoming more and more aware that our world's climate is getting messed up. It is not raining when, where and how it should ... and it is all due to what the human species has done, burning petroleum, burning forests, grazing cattle, and defecating in the water.

You may not have known about that last one, but it is a bigger factor than you may think.
Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (www.ecosanres.org, www.susana.org) have much to offer:

--If we mix everything in water, it ferments in the absence of oxygen and produces large amounts of Methane (Greenhouse Gas #2).
--The urine goes as straight as possible to the soil as fertilizer, thus keeping the feces drier and these also get covered in an absorbant dry material, like soil or wood ash. Some CO2 is produced as they decompose, but the plants that are fertilized absorb more CO2.
--Water consumption is greatly reduced and this almost always has petroleum or electricity invested in its pumping and treatment.
--The need for chemical fertilizers is greatly reduced, and these are responsable for emitting Nitrous Oxide (Greenhouse Gas #3) in their production and use. (And, of course, we have to start forgetting about chemical fertilizers, as they are all non-renewable resources.)
--We sequester carbon into the soil, improving its water-holding capacity.
--Less cement would be needed to build sewers.

It is clear that water scarcity will intensify with Global Climate Disruption and the spread of disease will become more unpredictable (class.coursera.org/warmerworld-001/lecture/41). So this is all the more reason to resolve our own problems productively, on our own, instead of dumping them into the global atmosphere.

----

The UDDT a key tool for adapting to ever scarcer water.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday
Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
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Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 25 Oct 2014 15:57 #10694

  • denniskl
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Hi Chris

Love the simple UDDT design at the links (am going to build out a few for the experience:) but I think it will need the inclusion of the "frills" - seat, privacy structure, etc - to make it more acceptable to users

Otherwise it looks like a temporary "thing" that I think permanent residents will balk at (even now, a lot of the trouble with UDDT's seems to be the perception of them being inferior to a flush sewer or septic tank toilet - again, the marketing needs to be better!)

Great concept though - cheap, easy to make, easy to manage, but people being people, marketing and packaging is what will get them to aspire to it (and therefore want it and use it)
Creator of the JigSaw Puzzle in-country capacity building Programme

See latest JigSaw Puzzle Programme overview here: tinyurl.com/JigSawPuzzle7

Philosophy

* See a problem.
* Make sure it's the real problem (by talking to the people with the problem).
* Find people who are solving this problem somewhere in the world and collaborate - and learn from them to solve the problem
OR
* Create a new solution where none exists
* Find passionate people who care about the problem to help implement solutions

Our solution approach - what's yours?

Dennis McMahon
Author "The Poverty Pit" www.gbjvt.com/povertypit
Creator "The JigSaw Puzzle Programme"
Owner, Green Business JV Marketing Sdn Bhd
www.gbjvt.com
From Australia; based in Malaysia
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Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 26 Oct 2014 06:45 #10697

  • F H Mughal
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Dear Peter,

The attached IRC publication would be useful to you.

Enjoy!

F H Mughal
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F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan

Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 26 Oct 2014 12:11 #10699

  • canaday
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Hi Everyone,

Dennis, I am glad you found the Minimalist UDDT on my blog interesting and I look forward to hearing about your trials of it:
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/2013/10/a-free-...ist-uddt-part-1.html
(Remember to follow to Part 2 for more explanation of its functionality,
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/2013/10/a-free-...ist-uddt-part-2.html)
Yes, privacy structures are very important, but are independant of the actual toilet. Part of this minimalist concept is that it could be applied in a corner of a slum dwelling (maybe with a curtain) or out in a field with palm leaves stuck in the ground around it. I propose that this be considered a solid, bottom rung in the ladder of functional, dependable and acceptable UDDTs, and one that can be applied in extreme poverty, emergencies, or to gain experience and demonstrate understanding of the UDDT concept, with essentially no monetary investment.

Elsewhere on my blog, there are more elegant and permanent models of UDDT.

I am sure that the 96-page document that Mughal posted must have some very important analyses, but, to me, it seems to be only bla bla bla. For example, in no place does it even mention the UDDT or the concept that if water resources become more limited maybe we should avoid (or reduce) mixing precious clean water with excrement. In fact, the following quote (which seems to be the only mention of the word 'toilet') seems to show that the author has little concept of water quality, blind faith that all wastewater treatment in the world is 100% effective, and/or no concept of the importance of water conservation:

---
For example, in the case of a typical house connected to a
main sewer system, some 95% of the water delivered by the water utility is returned
for treatment and subsequent reuse. Regardless of this fact, wild claims are often
made in respected journals that vast quantities of water can be ''saved'' by increasing
''efficiency'' through the use of low-flow showers and mini-flush toilets. Contrary to
this, the fact remains that the consumptive use of a shower bath or toilet is nearly zero if they are connected to a sewer. Just as importantly, it is invariably the hydrological
location of the diversion and return flows that determines the impact of shower or
toilet designs on total water use and consumption.
---

The author also includes the following questionable concept (or wording):

---
Optimal ignorance: Optimal ignorance is understanding the difference between
what is worth knowing and what is not. This avoids the collection of too much
irrelevant data. Appropriate imprecision recognises that in conventional assessments,
much of the information collected has a degree of precision that is unnecessary and/or
is inconsistent (in terms of precision) with other information that is being collected.
---

Maybe it is optimal to keep wasting and contaminating water while looking the other way, but I do not think so.

Peter, please share with us what you find on resiliency of WASH to Climate Change. Do you have students who may want to do a thesis on this? (Does anyone else?)

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday
Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com

Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 28 Oct 2014 21:27 #10716

  • jdoczi
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Hi Peter,

Apologies to have missed your question from July until now, but glad it has been revived.

I work for the Overseas Development Institute, the UK's leading international development think tank. In our water policy team, we have done a lot of work on this exact topic of climate resilient WASH and water resources management.

Please allow me to share our most relevant resource with you - a three-country assessment we did for DFID, where we built a climate risk screening tool for national and donor-level WASH investments and a modified cost-benefit analysis method for assessing potential adaptation options.
Here's the link: www.odi.org/publications/8154-climate-ch...ash-water-sanitation

Please do get in touch if you'd like to discuss more, and do also peruse our website for more useful reports and opinion pieces on the subject.

Many thanks,

Julian Doczi
Research Officer, Water Policy
Water Policy Programme
Overseas Development Institute, London, UK
---
Julian Doczi
Research Officer - Water Policy
Overseas Development Institute
UK

Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 29 Oct 2014 05:52 #10720

  • F H Mughal
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Dear Julian,

That is an interesting study on adaptation to CC in WASH in Africa. Does ODI have similar study for Pakistan or South Asia?

Regards,

F H Mughal
F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan
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Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 29 Oct 2014 09:22 #10724

  • jdoczi
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Hi F H Mughal,

Not yet, but keep an eye on our large DFID/IDRC-funded CARIAA project, known as PRISE (Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies) (no project website yet, but here's the donor website: www.idrc.ca/en/programs/agriculture_and_...ails.aspx?NewsID=620). This project will be looking at water sector and green growth strategies for several countries, including Pakistan and Tajikistan.

We also have a project with BGS that's surveying groundwater resources in the Indo-Gangetic basin. Again, no publications out yet, but you can see a brief of the project here: www.odi.org/projects/2670-groundwater-re...-indo-gangetic-basin

Thanks and best wishes,

Julian
---
Julian Doczi
Research Officer - Water Policy
Overseas Development Institute
UK

Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 29 Oct 2014 11:46 #10731

  • F H Mughal
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Thanks, Julian. That is great!

I would, however, request ODI to kindly develop adaptation to CC manual in WASH sector for Pakistan. That would be a great contribution by DFID/ODI for Pakistan.

Regards,

F H Mughal
F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan

Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 10 Nov 2014 21:47 #10915

  • pjbury
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Dear Denniskl

Thanks for your question and sorry for such a late reaction!
No I'm not raising (technical) design questions in specific.

Rather I'm looking for people working in or with WASH or any of its subsectors (at any level, in any role) that in general have started to look into if and how climate variability or structural change affect directly or indirectly WASH infrastructure or WASH services in general. If anyone has, then the question is "what have you started to look into".

Please also read a new more elaborate question I will upload here in a few minutes, which hopefully explains better what I'm looking for.

A big question to me is: can WASH become climate resilient at all, or is it very much dependent on what other sectors responsible malpractices in for instance irrigation; agriculture; overgrazing, deforestation, poor settlement choices do about adapting these to reduce climate related risks that may also affect WASH infrastructure.

To give a very simple example: does it really help to elevate latrines / toilets to keep them dry during flooding, or should one look in a much more broader way if an how such flooding of settlements can be reduced or better completely eliminated (for instance through better drainage systems or larger scale protection of settlements, or even more radical consideration of moving settlements to safer places).

Peter
Peter J. Bury

Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience 10 Nov 2014 21:56 #10916

  • pjbury
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Dear Chris

Thanks for your contribution and advocacy for UDDT (I had to read your full contribution to remember what it stands for . You may know Richard Holden, a good friend of mine, who surely agrees with you! Sorry for my late reaction, hope you are reading me.

What I think we need for each potential solution that contributes however little to make WASH services (here sanitation) more climate resilient is to provide a checklist that guides a decision-maker (at any level) when and maybe when not this solution is indeed the appropriate one.

Why? Because each context is different. Each expression of climate variability or long term change is different. Not everywhere water is becoming scarcer! Flooding is also often an issue, so is the increase of frequency of extreme weather (storms of all sorts), or landslides due to erosion.

Without had the time to read more in detail you blog, my question is thus, have you worked on technology selection criteria, pre-requisites, etc... for UDDT?

Thanks, Peter


[End of Page 1 of the discussion]
Peter J. Bury
Last Edit: 10 Nov 2014 22:07 by muench.
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