Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent?

  • sjoerdnienhuys
  • sjoerdnienhuys's Avatar Topic Author
  • Long-term forum user
  • Technical advisor on low-cost sanitation, worked for Aga Khan in the Himalayas, PUM in Asia,/Afica and Latin America, SNV in Nepal, DGIS in Latin America UNhabitat in Africa, and Waste /Gouda in India on ECO sanitation and biogas
  • Posts: 84
  • Karma: 5
  • Likes received: 21

Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent?

The development of biogas from human and animal waste needs to include elimination of contagious diseases. When on a farm Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE or Anthrax are identified, and eventually all attle is destroyed, what should happen with the biogas production and effluents?

Sjoerd from The Netherlands.
Pronounce: 'Sured'
Some of my work on: www.nienhuys.info
for correspondence: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • canaday
  • canaday's Avatar
  • Long-term forum user
  • A biologist working toward sustainability
  • Posts: 334
  • Karma: 18
  • Likes received: 130

Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent?

Dear Sjoerd,

This is an important question.

It seems that what I just posted on another thread may give sufficient treatment:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-fae...ment-of-septage#9272

I would not worry about disease transmission via the biogas. Have bacteria ever been documented to be carried by biogas? In any case, all the biogas should hopefully get burned, right?

Wikipedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthrax#Site_cleanup_and_decontamination
mentions a number of toxic and non-toxic options.

What about solar pasteurization of the effluent in solar hot water heaters (as was mentioned recently for treating urine in Vermont or Connecticut in the USA)?

BSE (or Mad Cow Disease) is a bigger problem as it is caused by a prion that does not reportedly even get distroyed when cooked.

I am still confident that the root zone treatment in the constructed wetlands that I mentioned may be able to eliminate all of these pathogens. Metagenomics would be a good tool to test this.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_spongiform_encephalopathy
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metagenomics

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
You need to login to reply
  • joeturner
  • joeturner's Avatar
  • Long-term forum user
  • Posts: 653
  • Karma: 22
  • Likes received: 153

Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent?

I don't know about these particular pathogens, but bioaerosol emissions from biogas systems are certainly a known issue.

The microbial diversity of biogas was analyzed in order to examine the aerosolization behavior of microorganisms. Six biogas samples were analyzed: five from mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestors treating different wastes, and one from landfill. Epifluorescent microscopic counts revealed 106 prokarya m-3. To assess the difference occuring in aerosolization, 498 biogas-borne 16S ribosomal DNA were analyzed and compared to published anaerobic digestor microbial diversity. Results show a large microbial diversity and strong discrepancy with digestor microbial diversity. Three different aerosolisation behaviour patterns can be identified: (i) that of non-aerosolized microorganisms, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Thermotogae, Chloroflexi phyla and sulfate-reducing groups, (ii) that of passively aerosolized microorganisms, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla and (iii) that of preferentially aerosolized microorganisms, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, as well as strictly aerobic and occasionally pathogenic species, presented high levels of aerosolization.


Microbial characteristics of biogas Marina Moletta, Nathalie Wery, Jean-Philippe Delgenes and Jean-Jacques Godon, Water Science & Technology www.iwaponline.com/wst/05704/wst057040595.htm

Whilst one might hope that all pathogens would be destroyed by combustion, there is obviously still a risk given that this will very likely not be complete combusion.
You need to login to reply
  • joeturner
  • joeturner's Avatar
  • Long-term forum user
  • Posts: 653
  • Karma: 22
  • Likes received: 153

Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent?

This 2008 handbook from the WHO regarding the management of anthrax might answer some of the questions you are asking:

www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/anthrax_web.pdf
You need to login to reply
  • sjoerdnienhuys
  • sjoerdnienhuys's Avatar Topic Author
  • Long-term forum user
  • Technical advisor on low-cost sanitation, worked for Aga Khan in the Himalayas, PUM in Asia,/Afica and Latin America, SNV in Nepal, DGIS in Latin America UNhabitat in Africa, and Waste /Gouda in India on ECO sanitation and biogas
  • Posts: 84
  • Karma: 5
  • Likes received: 21

Re: Remains of Foot-and-Mouth disease, BSE and Anthrax in biogas effluent?

@joe, thanks, I worked myself through the documentation but for anthrax it seems that, as long as you do not throw the carcasses in the biogas reactor, there may be no harm from the excrements.
@ canaday, The gas is commonly burned directly or first purefied and than burned. It is the effluent which is ploughed into the land which may cause problems. In The Netherlands there is insufficient sun to sterelize the effluent the whole year through.

I keep searching for more answers.

Sjoerd from The Netherlands.
Pronounce: 'Sured'
Some of my work on: www.nienhuys.info
for correspondence: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
Share this thread:
Time to create page: 0.432 seconds