SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Mon, 31 Aug 2015 13:13:40 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: History of ecosan - Causes for abandoning recovery of nutrients from human excreta (and Wikipedia article on ecosan) - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14671 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14671
adlib.everysite.co.uk/adlib/defra/conten...262994&id=263072

Of course, as discussed above, sewage sludge is not the same as fresh excreta, there is an issue with metals and other contaminates and so on. But there is a genuine agricultural value in reusing the treated sludge from an industrial sewage works.

Also, of course, the characteristics of urine or untreated (or differently treated) excreta is going to be different.]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:55:30 +0000
Re: History of ecosan - Causes for abandoning recovery of nutrients from human excreta (and Wikipedia article on ecosan) - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14670 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14670
Peak Phosphate is discussed as (opposed to Peak Nitrogen) because of the different way that the nutrients behave in the environment. Nitrogen is indeed high in urine as urea, but unlike phosphate there are other ways to get nitrogen ions into the soil (for example some plants are able to get it directly from the atmosphere). In contrast, phosphate can only be obtained from rock phosphate (ie mined) or reused.

In one sense the Peak Phosphate discussion is an economic one (about the future supply of rock phosphate) which is a bit irrelevant, given all of the phosphate which is being washed into the seas and causing an environmental problem - and which could be collected and reused. Even if it doesn't run out, there is still a big negative in terms of the Planetary Boundary of inefficient use.

Another point is that the excreta needs to supply the needs of the plants. Many soils are actually short of P, so the limiting factor for plant growth might be P rather than N. Applying more that is actually being used may just lead to the nutrients being washed out of the soil (or lost to the atmosphere) and causing a problem somewhere else.]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:41:00 +0000
Re: Fwd: history of ecosan work in Sweden... - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14667 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14667
Thanks for giving the Wikipedia page on ecosan a once over review, with a particular focus on the section on "history of ecosan" (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_sanitation#History)!

I've made some of the changes that you suggested:

You said:
A workshop on ecological sanitation was held in Balingsholm, Sweden in Aug 1997, where all the established experts, including Håkan et al., Peter Morgan, Ron Sawyer, George Anna Clark, Gunder Edström etc, participated, so that workshop preceeded the 1999 one in Mexico for sure.

--> I have added this, however it would still be good to have something to cite for the 1997 workshop?

You said:
Good you mention Sudea in Ethiopia, as far as I understand they really are the pioneers!

--> I wrote it like this but again I am wondering what reference I could cite for this?:
The term "ecosan" was first used in about the 1990s (or perhaps even late 1980s) by an NGO in Ethiopia called Sudea. They used it for urine-diverting dry toilets coupled with reuse activities.


An example of a blackwater treatment plant is shown in this video, about 10 mins into the video: Ripples on Baltic Waters.

--> Can you give me a better reference for this? I can't really cite the video.

You said:
It is said that Tanum went through with their urine diversion to save phosphorus, which I do not believe is true. To my understanding Tanum pushed for urine diversion due to their very rocky and challenging terrain initially, not to save P.

--> I have changed this now to:
For example, Tanum Municipality in Sweden has introduced urine separation toilets due to their very rocky and challenging terrain initially, and later also to recover phosphorus.

--> again, which document could be cited?

You said:
Among the good cases I think Sumaj Huasi merits a mentioning with their great work they do in El Alto and its surroundings with dry systems including greywater filters

--> I have not included it here but add it as an example on the Wikipedia UDDT page:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine-diverting_dr...ilet#Other_countries

About Hamburg and Sneek, I have not added those as that's too much detail, I think. Also the Hamburg case is only in planning, not yet implemented.

Then you also said this:

- On the P note, to my understanding the more important nutrient in human excreta actually is N, so it is unfortunate that P is always brought forward. Håkan has written some really good things on this topic but maybe so far only in Swedish. Håkan, do you have any good explanations in English why N is the more important nutrient to recycle from human excreta?

--> Here I don't know what to do about it. I have the impression that Hakan Jonsson and Arno Rosemarin disagree a bit on whether phosphorus is in danger of running out that "soon" or not?
For urine as a fertiliser, it is more of an N-rich fertiliser than a P-rich fertiliser, i.e. most people would focus more on plants that need a lot of nitrogen when they fertliser them with urine.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 24 Aug 2015 22:19:53 +0000
Fwd: Re: [SuSanA forum] What is the difference between soil and compost? Results from a twitter conversation with Joe and Susi (Composting processes) - by: DrBates http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13002-what-is-the-difference-between-soil-and-compost-and-the-importance-of-soil?limit=12&start=12#14662 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13002-what-is-the-difference-between-soil-and-compost-and-the-importance-of-soil?limit=12&start=12#14662
I made the post a long time ago, but was sent to the wrong place.

As far as there being "competition" for the lime, I see it different.

If there is an acidic soil that this treated waste could be applied to, the use of the lime in this bathroom, would better ensure the main purpose of the toilet (to eliminate pathogens), and then applying the treated waste to the soil afterwards, would give the lime a second use.

If a farmer actually needs lime for his soils, then of course he has to get a different supply of lime. In this area, quick lime was in abundance. It has to be considered a part of the cost of operation. Wood ash could be used as a substitute.

Let's keep up the dialogue.

David]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 24 Aug 2015 16:10:22 +0000
Re: Update on re-using Peepoo as fertiliser in Kenya - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13837-update-on-re-using-peepoo-as-fertiliser-in-kenya#14474 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13837-update-on-re-using-peepoo-as-fertiliser-in-kenya#14474
Thanks for posting about these Peepoo reuse trials here. For those who don't know: Peepoos are small bags made out of degradable plastic and designed in a special way to be used as a safe toilet (containing urea for pathogen kill).

We have talked about Peepoos here on the forum before:
For urban slums in Kenya:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/52-mob...s-ideas-and-research

and also here for schools:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/52-mob...ncome-areas-in-kenya

and here for emergencies:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-eme...yan-in-the-philippes

Maria, I have some small questions to you:
  1. Is a report available from the mentioned pilot trial which could be shared?
  2. How well is the plastic degrading in practice and do the farmers have to somehow sieve it out of the soil?
  3. Do you have any photos to share (also to be put on the SuSanA flickr database and on Wikipedia Commons? We have so far these: www.flickr.com/photos/gtzecosan/collections/72157626218228932/ )


Let me just add two photos here for those who are not familiar with Peepoos:

How_to_Use_Peepoo__Niklas_Palmklint_Peepoople[1] by SuSanA Secretariat, on Flickr

Bethel pee poo by SuSanA Secretariat, on Flickr

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S.:
Could be time to have more content about Peepoos on Wikipedia, so far it is only mentioned on these two pages:
en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=peep...l%3ASearch&go=Go]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Thu, 13 Aug 2015 11:29:16 +0000
Seminar: Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods: What Have We Learned and What Are Barriers to Scale and Sustainability? (Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops) - by: madeleine http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#14197 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#14197
There is a significant growing interest in reuse. We had full house during our event and there were two more events on reuse at the conference also with good attendance and a new crowd. Some of the normal suspects came in late to our event and could not find a seat!

One of the presentation were reflecting two recent stocktaking studies on the development and lessons learnt in Niger and Burkina Faso concerning Ecological Sanitation and reuse. SEI is supporting the study to give us an idea of where we stand today. There is a huge gap on information caused by the previous chaotic situation at WSA.

Several African universities are doing research on reuse with very promising results-. Dr. Roshain Nikiema made a very interesting presentation on IMWIs research on reuse in Ghana , with the foresight of starting up a fertilizer factory in brief.

From the audience there was a sincere demand on more information and many raised questions why there were not more information about the potentials of reuse during the conference.
There is an interesting and thriving development taking place on the African continent where reuse and more systems thinking is core, many universities are involved in this process.

Dr Sudhir Pillay made an impressive presentation from South Africa where a lot research has been undertaken by many Universities and there is now evidence for bringing forward reuse and has also developed a new water policy focusing now or low water use and no sludge Very promising development !

Cheers
Madeleine]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 15 Jul 2015 12:51:20 +0000
Re: Seminar: Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods: What Have We Learned and What Are Barriers to Scale and Sustainability? - by: SudhirPillay http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#14194 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#14194
The regulatory environment is different in South Africa than Burkino Faso. Many of the gap technology systems required scientific validation of the processes. For standard systems, we have guidelines (eg. sewerage sludge) etc. For faecal sludges, there were concerns whether it could be buried safely and used for beneficiation. This led to research into pathogen die-off and leaching from faecal sludge for agroindustries. It was the same with using effluent from DEWATS plant, algal pond systems or struvite reactors (how soil conditions change, do we see more growth, etc).]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 15 Jul 2015 09:38:52 +0000
Re: Seminar: Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods: What Have We Learned and What Are Barriers to Scale and Sustainability? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#14184 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#14184 Thanks for sharing the presentations from your event at AfricaSan about "Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods".

I clicked through the presentations and found them very interesting, especially the one from South Africa because South Africa for me was not a country where reuse activities were strongly emphasised in the past (unlike Burkina Faso from where we have heard a lot about ecosan in the past).

Do you think you reached some new audiences with your session or was it bit like preaching to the converted? Were there any surprising questions asked or statements made?

How are things moving forwards in Burkina Faso and Niger now, after those former ecosan projects have come to an end? Who is now the local champion for reuse activities there?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Tue, 14 Jul 2015 14:38:51 +0000
Fwd: history of ecosan work in Sweden... - by: elkv http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14146 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=24#14146
I had a look at the "history of ecosan" section of the Wikipedia page on ecosan that you and others have edited:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_sanitation#History


Few comments (regarding the Swedish perspective):

- A workshop on ecological sanitation was held in Balingsholm, Sweden in Aug 1997, where all the established experts, including Håkan et al., Peter Morgan, Ron Sawyer, George Anna Clark, Gunder Edström etc, participated, so that workshop preceeded the 1999 one in Mexico for sure.

-Good you mention Sudea in Ethiopia, as far as I understand they really are the pioneers!

- In the examples you mention Sweden and blackwater from latrines. The blackwater collected is from blackwater systems, preferably from vacuum toilets, to closed tanks, not to latrines. An example of a blackwater treatment plant is shown in this video, about 10 mins into the video: Ripples on Baltic Waters. The video is about three farmers around the Baltic doing good to save the Baltic Sea from eutrophication.

- Also, the certification did not come into place 2003, but the report from SP was published in December 2012: www.sp.se/sv/units/certification/product.../SPCR/SPCR%20178.pdf so maybe it was meant to say 2013?

- It is said that Tanum went through with their urine diversion to save phosphorus, which I do not believe is true. To my understanding Tanum pushed for urine diversion due to their very rocky and challenging terrain initially, not to save P. I have cc.ed Mats and Anna Richert to this email both who knows more than I do about the Swedish developments. Hopefully they can shed more light on the Tanum case.

- Among the good cases I think Sumaj Huasi merits a mentioning with their great work they do in El Alto and its surroundings with dry systems including greywater filters. There is a good case study from SuSanA on their experience.

- On Erdos, it may be good to clarify that many challenges have been identified for urban DRY ecosan. On urban ecosan it could be mentioned the city of Hamburg which has plans for separate collection and treatment with possible reuse of blackwater in their Jenfelder Au project, and similar plans, definitely with reuse exist for the H+ area in Helsingborg, Sweden. These projects will all generate a lot of new knowledge and show the future for urban ecosan projects. Separate collection and treatment of blackwater in urban areas but on smaller scale and without reuse, already exists e.g. in Sneek in the Netherlands.

- On the P note, to my understanding the more important nutrient in human excreta actually is N, so it is unfortunate that P is always brought forward. Håkan has written some really good things on this topic but maybe so far only in Swedish. Håkan, do you have any good explanations in English why N is the more important nutrient to recycle from human excreta?

All for now!


Kind regards

Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 10 Jul 2015 13:38:36 +0000
Seminar: Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods: What Have We Learned and What Are Barriers to Scale and Sustainability? - by: madeleine http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#13913 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#13913 very good summary of our event and all the presentations here:
sei-international.org/sustainable-sanitation/updates/3168

The SEI Initiative on Sustainable Sanitation organized a session at AfricaSan 4 in Dakar entitled Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods: What Have We Learned and What Are Barriers to Scale and Sustainability?

The objective of the session was to take stock and learn from some important productive sanitation projects, businesses and research to date. There is an increasing awareness of the importance of considering the full sanitation chain, from toilet to disposal and/or reuse of resources found in wastewater streams. This is reflected in the draft Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Sustainable and productive sanitation, taking the “reuse route” instead of simply disposing of wastewater, can support progress in many aspects of development beyond sanitation and health, notably food security and energy access. The important challenge is to ensure reuse efforts are sustained over time and create the enabling environment needed to take them from small-scale projects to scale.

Key messages from the session

  • We cannot continue to overlook the potential co-benefits from reuse.
  • Businesses capitalizing on the full sanitation chain to reuse are taking off–but they need stronger policy and regulatory support
  • Rural productive sanitation has to make the transition from projects to programmes/policies


Programme
17:40-17:45 Welcome and introduction by Hon. Dr Francois Lompo, Madeleine Fogde Chair and moderator

17:45-17:50 Recovering what and why: the potential of productive sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa: Linus Dagerskog, SEI

17:50-18:30 Looking back: What can we learn from past productive sanitation experiences? What has worked and what has failed – and why?

Panelists:

Savadogo Karim, CEFAME and SNV, Burkina Faso
Kailou Hamadou, Niger Ministry of Hydraulics and Sanitation
Dr Sudhir Pillay, Water Research Commission, South Africa
Dr Josiane Nikiema, International Water Management Institute Ghana

18:30-19:10 Moving forward: How do we make productive sanitation sustainable, especially at scale; and how can we overcome the remaining barriers?

Panelists:

Anselme Vodounhessi, GIZ/African Union
David Auerbach, SANERGY, Kenya
Brenda Achiro, Water for People, Uganda
Josephine Ouedraogo, Sanitation Directorate of Burkina Faso

All presentations and summaries of the discussions available here:
sei-international.org/sustainable-sanitation/updates/3168]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Sun, 28 Jun 2015 18:43:12 +0000
Update on re-using Peepoo as fertiliser in Kenya - by: mariaberndtsson http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13837-update-on-re-using-peepoo-as-fertiliser-in-kenya#13837 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13837-update-on-re-using-peepoo-as-fertiliser-in-kenya#13837
Currently there are 23 farmers using Peepoo fertiliser in Kirinyaga, Kenya, and around 60 that are awaiting delivery. The nutrient value has proven to be very good; Peepoo fertiliser is providing both immediately available nutrients and improving long-term soil fertility. The pilot, which was conducted together with University of Nairobi and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, has also demonstrated that Peepoo fertiliser also improves the water-holding capacity in the soils. The yields are increasing and the crops have better quality and are, according to the farmers, worth more when sold.

However there is still a fair bit to be investigated around the full commercialisation. We do not yet know the exact monetary value of Peepoo fertiliser and we do not know in which form it is preferably sold. Today it is used through so called "direct application" were used Peepoos are placed directly in the ground as they are. It works really well for cultivation, however since each Peepoo can vary in weight and in content it might be difficult to commercialise as it is.

Therefore we are now searching for funding to do proper market research and to commercialise Peepoo fertiliser on scale. For more information and/or if you have any recommendations, please contact the project manager This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

In April The Standard Kenya interviewed some of the farmers in Kirinyaga, the article is available here: www.standardmedia.co.ke/lifestyle/articl...to-kirinyaga-farmers]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 24 Jun 2015 07:51:05 +0000
AfricaSan4 sideevent : tomorrow Productive Sanitation , Food Security and Resilient livelyhood - by: madeleine http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#13431 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13913-seminar-productive-sanitation-food-security-and-resilient-livelihoods-what-have-we-learned-and-what-are-barriers-to-scale-and-sustainability#13431 AfrikaSan4 is about to start and we would like to invite you all in Senegal now to our very exiting Side event tomorrow 25 May 2015 17:40 -19.10
We are very honored that the Minister of Agriculture will chair our session.
We can promise a very exiting session with lesson learned from a decade of implementation of Productive Sanitation in Africa. Most welcome to you all.

Productive sanitation, taken to scale, could be a key to broad-ranging sustainable development in many African countries. An SEI side event at AfricaSan 4 will revisit past experiences for lessons on how to make it happen.

Food security and access to decent sanitation and hygiene services are fundamental to healthy and productive lives; but far too many people in low- and middle-income countries lack both. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) a quarter of the population were undernourished in 2011-2013, 80% have no electricity access, and a staggering 70% – 640 million people – still use substandard sanitation systems or none at all, despite marked improvements in recent years.

All of these are urgent challenges, particularly with the population growth and rapid urbanization projected for the region in the coming decades. But as diverse as the challenges are, they do not always need separate solutions. In particular, filling the region’s huge sanitation gap would not only vastly improve the health and living standards of that 640 million people, but in the process it could make a significant contribution to improving food security and meeting a range of other sustainable development targets.

Crucial to achieving this would be large-scale implementation of so-called productive sanitation systems – systems that make productive (and safe) use of nutrients, organic matter and water content of human excreta and wastewater for crop and energy production. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in one person’s human excreta can boost yields by around 50 kg of cereals per year, on a conservative estimate, much more cheaply than commercial synthetic fertilizers. Productive sanitation can also strengthen local livelihoods and increase resilience to external pressures such as rising fertilizer prices and climate events.

Productive sanitation can take many forms, from household dry toilets or decentralized community-level systems right up to municipal scale. It is most immediately and obviously relevant to rural communities, and particularly smallholder farmers, who too often neglect to consider recycling human excreta even as they carefully manage local natural resources to ensure sustained crop production. It can also reduce pollution and degradation of local water resources. However, there is also vast potential in SSA’s fast-growing urban centres, where existing sewerage networks and sewage treatment systems often meet only a fraction of even today’s demand.

Looking back and looking ahead

Productive sanitation has proved its value in smaller, local projects. The question is how to take it to scale, and do so sustainably. Productive sanitation has to contend with all of the barriers and difficulties inherent in implementing conventional “disposal-oriented” sanitation in areas of low coverage – for example, the upfront investments, ensuring that the governance arrangements, technical capacity and financing models are in place to keep the systems working – and more on top. For example, productive sanitation demands long-term planning and cooperation between several government sectors: water, agriculture, energy, health and others. At the same time, people need to be convinced and supported to safely handle and reuse human excreta, and to trust foods fertilized with humanure,.

One of the central aims of the new SEI Initiative on Sustainable Sanitation is to see what we can learn from experiences with implementing productive sanitation and, in particular, to cast a fresh eye over some of the ostensible success stories of the past. Are they still working a few years after the final project evaluation? Which aspects of the system have changed and which have stood the test of time? And what can we learn from that about what is needed to sustain productive sanitation?

A side event hosted by SEI at AfricaSan 4, in Dakar, Senegal, on Monday 25 May will be a chance to do just that. The side event, titled Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods, will start by looking back and learning. Among the presentations, Savadogo Karim, of CEFAME/SNV, will talk about experiences with taking ecological sanitation (ecosan) to scale in Burkina Faso. Kailou Hamadou of the Niger Ministry of Hydraulics and Sanitation will reflect on the legacy of a productive sanitation project in Aguié, Niger, five years on. Dr Sudhir Pillay of the Water Research Commission will talk about experiences in South Africa. (For a full list of presentations download the session programme in English or French.)

The second part of the session will look ahead. To be implemented in a sustainable way, productive sanitation systems need to be socially acceptable, economically viable, and technically and institutionally appropriate. An expert panel will guide discussions on how to overcome the barriers to scale and sustainability.]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Sun, 24 May 2015 12:49:11 +0000
Re: What is the difference between soil and compost? And the importance of soil. - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13002-what-is-the-difference-between-soil-and-compost-and-the-importance-of-soil?limit=12&start=12#13249 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13002-what-is-the-difference-between-soil-and-compost-and-the-importance-of-soil?limit=12&start=12#13249
*but not impossible! I would strongly encourage anyone considering studying and getting more knowledge on the subject to do so. But just don't imagine that you'll be able to get much useful soil knowledge in an afternoon, it is hard work**.

**well, it was for me, and to be honest we soil scientists are not the brightest sparks ]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 08 May 2015 10:22:38 +0000
Re: What is the difference between soil and compost? Results from a twitter conversation with Joe and Susi - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13002-what-is-the-difference-between-soil-and-compost-and-the-importance-of-soil?limit=12&start=12#13248 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13002-what-is-the-difference-between-soil-and-compost-and-the-importance-of-soil?limit=12&start=12#13248 Well, reading through this thread but also reading the tweets that are coming out because it's International Year of Soil this year.

FAO has put up a nice 2 minute video about soil: An animated introduction to soils functions and threats.
They pointed out that: Soil is a non-renewable resource, its loss and degradation is not recoverable within a human lifespan.



So I've realised that apart from everything else (climate change, water pollution, peak oil...), I now also have to start worrying about loss and degradation of soil.

The video does also mention composting of organic household matter:

"Up to half of our household waste could be composted to nurture our soil."

This is where we as sanitation people come in! I know they are talking about food waste when they say "household waste" but we may expand that to human excreta - with of course the added risks of pathogens which have to be managed.

Anyway, I thought I might share this little video with you as well as my learning curve. ]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 08 May 2015 10:02:28 +0000
Practical applications and pathogen challenges of wastes as handled by farms - by: SusannahSoilet http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13222-practical-applications-and-pathogen-challenges-of-wastes-as-handled-by-farms#13222 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/13222-practical-applications-and-pathogen-challenges-of-wastes-as-handled-by-farms#13222
I can't think of many livestock production system where the excreta is added to water just for transport - on all organic farms, the productive re-use of the nutrients and organic matter - without endangering ecosystems or challenging flock/herd health with excessive exposure to pathogens and parasites - is a core system. The wastes are rarely 'sterile' from a pathogen or parasite point of view, but livestock with a robust constitution do not need to rely on anthelmintics or antibiotics to stay healthy, even with moderate levels of challenge. 'Clean' grazing would be allocated to the youngest stock, who have the least developed immunity.

I will follow with interest!

Susi]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 06 May 2015 11:03:49 +0000