SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Tue, 28 Feb 2017 06:01:02 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Reuse of Faecal Sludge in Agriculture in Mzuzu, Malawi - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20531 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20531
Searching for Ascaris and other Helminth eggs is not so high-tech, beyond having access to a microscope, which should presumably be feasible (e.g., at university or a health ministry malaria lab). Under the microscope, Ascaris eggs are quite distinctive and sort of look like beautiful, intricate, golden sculptures, so it is a bit like an Easter Egg Hunt, except that you will not want to eat them.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascaris_lumbricoides

Here are some simple techniques, which are aimed at use with animals, but would also work here:
www.fao.org/Wairdocs/ILRI/x5492E/x5492e05.htm

I have also suggested here that these sorts of techniques be fine-tuned for looking for Ascaris eggs in treated feces:
forum.susana.org/component/kunena/207-de...ce-a-better-way#8176

Ela, one of the big challenges is to safely and productively direct urban residents' urine to urban agriculture, thus avoiding the need to process and transport large volumes over long distances. These could be roof-top gardens, vertical gardens on walls, and micro-farms in vacant lots. This could be after struvite extraction and the urine could be mixed with graywater.

We also discussed other urban options for productively using urine in this thread:
www.forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17...n-anaerobic-digestor

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:47 +0000
Re: Reuse of Faecal Sludge in Agriculture in Mzuzu, Malawi - by: goeco http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20529 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20529
cheers
Dean]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 20 Feb 2017 23:20:50 +0000
Re: Reuse of Faecal Sludge in Agriculture in Mzuzu, Malawi - by: Adrianm318 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20514 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20514
Thanks for the responses.

Chris:

Interesting suggestions and many thanks for them. Unfortunately there isn't equipment for testing for ascaris here currently. Having done an inventory can mainly test for nutrients as nitrogen and phosphates which will help assess suitability for agriculture and there's also COD testing equipment.

I'm not sure currently but hoping to understand more about what the farmers do with the sludge and what they pay for it. I've seen some ecosan projects and groups applying waste from latrines after 5 years of non-use. Hoping to get more of an understanding of these processes as I progress with data collection. I'll keep you posted

Ela:

Thanks for suggestions, space is an issue in some of the denser, poorer areas where currently they build a new latrine every time an old one fills which has limitations in terms of space. Some projects have implemented Urine Diverting toilets in the area which I'm hoping to look at to see how they are maintained and peoples use of them.

As I say I'll update you more as I get more of an understanding of how things currently work here.

Adrian]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 20 Feb 2017 08:08:57 +0000
Re: Reuse of Faecal Sludge in Agriculture in Mzuzu, Malawi - by: Ela http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20430 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20430
I am looking into a similar topic for my MSc graduation research, nutrient recovery from domestic waste streams for a project area in Amsterdam. I will be looking into biogas production and struvite precipitation from the effluent, but also urine separation.

For project areas where space is not of major concern (like Malawi?) storage might be quite a good low tech option, according to WHO for urine (which contains major parts of N and P and usually no pathogens) 6 months, for fecal matter 2 years - is required for safe reuse in agriculture.

If you are interested I can recommend you some literature.

Groetjes, and success!]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 13 Feb 2017 19:04:07 +0000
Re: Reuse of Faecal Sludge in Agriculture in Mzuzu, Malawi - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20429 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20429
Welcome to the Forum and congratulations for embarking on such an important study.

Here are a few suggestions:
--Planted Drying Beds (as described in the FSM book) would seem to be a good way to start, in order to remove most of the solids and Ascaris eggs (?), while producing abundant grass for animal forage and excellent soil for agriculture.
--The effluent from these would still bear abundant nutrients but also considerable health risk, so it could be used to irrigate fields via Subsurface Drip Irrigation, or, if that is too expensive, simply perforated hoses under a layer of mulch.
--Hydroponics and aquaculture may also be very productive.
--It would be great to emphasize the fertilizer value of source-separated urine from UDDTs and especially urinals (which would have minimal risk of fecal contamination).
--I think Ascaris eggs are our best indicator, since they are the most resistant fecal pathogen, they infect about 1/7 of all humans, and we can actually identify them under the microscope (in contrast to bacteria and viruses).
forum.susana.org/component/kunena/207-de...ce-a-better-way#8176

What do the local farmers currently do with the faecal sludge? How much do they pay for it?

Please keep us up-to-date on your project and let us know how we can help.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 13 Feb 2017 13:55:08 +0000
Reuse of Faecal Sludge in Agriculture in Mzuzu, Malawi - by: Adrianm318 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20425 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20425-reuse-of-faecal-sludge-in-agriculture-in-mzuzu-malawi#20425
My name is Adrian Mallory and I'm a PhD candidate studying at University of Edinburgh looking at reuse of faecal sludge as a business. I am currently in Mzuzu with the centre of excellence doing a case study looking at reuse of faecal sludge, particularly in agriculture as that is being practiced and implemented here in Mzuzu in different ways already.

There are a group of farmers near the designated disposal site that pay for sludge to be disposed directly on their farm, and a number of ecosan toilets have been implemented in different areas. Here I am planning in depth semi-structured interviews to understand peoples experiences and the risks/benefits. I also plan to test the soil where farmers have applied faecal sludge to assess the nutrients and the health risks. For this I would be interested to hear from anyone who has conducted soil tests to assess the risk of faecal sludge application in agriculture.

Any contributions would be greatly appreciated,

Thanks,

Adrian Mallory]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 13 Feb 2017 06:44:53 +0000
"Circular Economy - transforming waste into resources" 33rd AGUASAN Workshop – 26th to 30th June 2017, Spiez, Switzerland - by: eluisa http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20397-qcircular-economy-transforming-waste-into-resourcesq-33rd-aguasan-workshop--26th-to-30th-june-2017-spiez-switzerland#20397 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/20397-qcircular-economy-transforming-waste-into-resourcesq-33rd-aguasan-workshop--26th-to-30th-june-2017-spiez-switzerland#20397 this year’s AGUASAN Workshop titled:
Circular economy – transforming waste into resources
The focus of this year’s AGUASAN Workshop will be dedicated to exchanging and generating
knowledge to assist participants in transitioning from linear to circular water and sanitation
models. Participants will do so by looking at the concept of circular economy in relation to the water and nutrient cycles and by identifying barriers and drivers in transitioning to a circular economy.
They will analyse successful and failed approaches, apply them to managing water and nutrient
cycles and prioritize entry points and courses of action for the transition.
The workshop will feature topic-specific inputs, case studies and the expertise gathered by the
participants. Supported by a professional team of facilitators and interactive formats the participants
will share experiences and leave the event with practical tools as well as strengthened professional ties across the different communities. The accompanying announcement outlines the concept of the workshop in more depth.
If you are interested in attending the event, please complete the enclosed pre-registration form
and return it to us as indicated, but not later than March 19th 2017. If you wish to forward this
information to colleagues and partner organisations, please feel free to do so. Since we need to
limit the number of participants to optimise the working environment, the applications will undergo a selection procedure. A well-balanced mix of participants regarding their expertise and gender as well as their thematic, organisational as well as geographic backgrounds is aimed at, whilst ensuring that communication in English can be achieved. Participants that are willing to prepare and present a relevant case study, poster or similar are given priority in the selection
procedure. The workshop steering committee bears the responsibility for handling the selection
procedure.]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Thu, 09 Feb 2017 17:22:19 +0000
Re: What is Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) all about? Hype or ingenious? - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/3082-what-is-terra-preta-sanitation-tps-all-about-hype-or-ingenious?limit=12&start=36#19657 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/3082-what-is-terra-preta-sanitation-tps-all-about-hype-or-ingenious?limit=12&start=36#19657
But never the less it is still a very important topic as this recent reminder on the UN world soil day illustrates:
www.scientificamerican.com/article/only-...gradation-continues/
About a third of the world's soil has already been degraded, Maria-Helena Semedo of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) told a forum marking World Soil Day.
(...) Unless new approaches are adopted, the global amount of arable and productive land per person in 2050 will be only a quarter of the level in 1960, the FAO reported, due to growing populations and soil degradation.
]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Sun, 27 Nov 2016 04:31:38 +0000
Re: A new article on the effects of lacto-fermented mix of faeces and bio-waste supplemented by biochar on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) - by: nadia http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19519 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19519
I agree with your suggestions that the cover material include some percentage of the finished treated feces, after whatever the treatment is done (long storage, lacto-fermentation, vermicomposting, thermophilic composting, etc.) to inoculate the new feces and break them down efficiently.

The pressmud from the sugar factory is a good option as a cover material in UDDTs. It will add to odor reduction, the faeces are sticking to it, becoming a homogenous mass, which is easy to decompose. In Moldova press mud does not have any uses, it is just piled around the sugar factory, occupying a big portion of potentially good land. Also there is lot of waste from charcoal produced from grilling which again uses land with potential value. The pressmud itself is not good to apply alone, since it is dusty, can be inhaled by the toilet users, but in combination with charcoal is an excellent cover, since if we wish to do vermicomposting of faeces afterwards, the earthworms will just devour it. The press mud can also be added to lacto-fermented material since that is too moist and not that good to be applied to the soil.

Kind regards,
Nadia]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 04 Nov 2016 20:30:18 +0000
Re: Research on the effects of lacto-fermented mix of faeces and bio-waste supplemented by biochar on growth and yield of corn - in Moldova - by: MRonteltap http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19516 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19516
I'm very happy to announce that Nadia submitted her thesis...!!
However, as she is still busy submitting her papers to journals, we are at this stage not yet ready to share the PDF. This will happen in a couple of weeks though.

Thanks all for the interest and support! Nadia did a tremendous amount of field work, it's great she'll be soon sharing this with all of you. Wish her luck for the defense early next year..

Nice weekend in advance, best regards, Mariska.


_____
Dr.ir. Mariska Ronteltap
Senior Lecturer in Sanitary Engineering
Environmental Engineering and Water Technology Department
UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
T: +31 15 215 1767 | E: m.ronteltap@unesco-ihe.org
NB. Not in the office on Wednesdays]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 04 Nov 2016 13:24:00 +0000
Re: A new article on the effects of lacto-fermented mix of faeces and bio-waste supplemented by biochar on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19493 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19493
My suggestion is that the cover material include some percentage of the finished treated feces, after whatever the treatment is (long storage, lacto-fermentation, vermicomposting, thermophilic composting, etc.). This would create a biological feedback loop, in which the soil microbes (esp. bacteria and fungi) that decompose feces can inoculate the new feces and break them down efficiently with less smell and fewer flies. There could even be microbes that attack fly larvae.

In this interview, I cite scientific studies that show that finished compost is excellent cover material for controlling smell:
www.chekhovskalashnikov.com/human-waste-disposal/

This percentage could be so small as to be imperceptible for the users, since microbes reproduce so quickly in the right substrate and conditions. Most of the treated feces + cover material could go to agriculture. In an inner city or isolated location, where agricultural recycling is not practical or desired, almost all of the treated feces + cover material could be used as cover material again, remembering that feces are mostly water that evaporates and microbes that each other, with the small excess going to landscaping and urban agriculture or being trucked to rural agriculture. This inoculates the new feces and largely eliminates the need to transport anything long distance.

The pressmud from the sugar beet factory sounds like a good, abundant cover material. Is it dry and fibrous? I think this is important in any of these treatments, so more air can filter into the pile. This is another reason that it is great that you are adding biochar, which does not biodegrade and keeps fulfilling this function year after year. I also like to mix in egg shells and rice hulls, as they also help air to filter in and they do not break down quickly.

I know that most of the users will consider dirt to be dirty, but where would we be without soil? People want to believe that they live on a cloud, but they need to recognize and celebrate that they live on Planet Earth. It is also feasible to add the cover material mechanically. Plus, if users are worried about using dirty cover material, this will encourage them to wash their hands.

In future studies, it may be worthwhile to look at the effect of the pressmud on its own in corn production. And it should be mentioned as an ingredient in the lacto-fermented mix of feces.

Congratulations on the important work being done in Moldova. Keep up the good work, inform us of new advances, and please let us know how we can help.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 02 Nov 2016 13:54:41 +0000
Re: A new article on the effects of lacto-fermented mix of faeces and bio-waste supplemented by biochar on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) - by: Carol McCreary http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19475 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19475
Yes, I agree, we need experimentation. Grassroots. In the field. Among kindred practitioners using scientific processes to monitor, measure, and document results. Why is this so hard to do in many places? Like North America. Particularly the CSZ earthquake zone where we need to plan for climate change AND a seismic disaster.]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 02 Nov 2016 06:20:01 +0000
Re: A new article on the effects of lacto-fermented mix of faeces and bio-waste supplemented by biochar on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) - by: nadia http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19457 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19457 In the experiments on lacto-fermentation of faeces in UDDT, I have used few types of cover materials: sawdust, a mixture of sawdust and pressmud (a waste product from sugar factory) in a proportion of 3:1 and a mixture of sawdust:charcoal and pressmud. Pressmud is easily available and is very good feedstock for earthworms if treatment of faeces in UDDT will be consider integrated lacto-fermentation and vermicomposting. Sawdust is a better cover material if lacto-fermentation will be combined with thermophilic composting. All these are only preliminary observations and would require further research. As regarding the odour reduction, both pressmud and charcoal contribute to odour reduction when used as cover materials.

We have not reused stored faeces, since wanted to see if faeces can be treated right after collection, without preliminary storage. However, for field experiments, since we needed a lot of material we have used stored faeces from school UDDTs. Reuse of dried faeces probably will add with beneficial microbes, however, field studies have shown that drying of faeces may not contribute to a complete sanitization or composting. Lacto-fermentation can be applied as a secondary treatment of faeces, where it can be combined with kitchen waste (a study suggested by Asrat Yemaneh at Hamburg University). Normally, lacto-fermentation does not last long (10-14 days). After that, for soil application, it is better to do additional treatment as vermicomposting or thermophilic composting since the obtained lactic acid material is anaerobic, not good for plants.
Some general information can be found on this link www.wecf.eu/english/publications/2015/terrapreta-handbook.php
Concerning the urine application, in our case it was sprayed on the soil by a sprinkler, during spring, before sowing, other equipment was not available at the local level.

Kind regards,
Nadia Andreev]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 31 Oct 2016 18:58:40 +0000
Re: A new article on the effects of lacto-fermented mix of faeces and bio-waste supplemented by biochar on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19444 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19444
Congratulations on this important work.

Are the methods you are applying published anywhere on the internet? I look forward to reading your dissertation and papers. Please let me know if you would like me to help proofread your English texts.

What cover material are you currently using with the faeces? Have you tried using the finished, treated faeces as cover material?

In 2011, I wrote the following on this Forum:
I suggest that our best reuse of cover material with a small percentage of dried feces (after approximately 6 months in tropical countries or 12 months in temperate countries) is to use it again as cover material. Advantages include
--Not needing to ever search for more cover material, after the initial 7 or 13 months (this is key since many UDDTs fail due to lack of cover material).
--Containment of any potential lingering pathogens.
--Fewer smells and flies (at least according to my subjective experience).
--Innoculation of the beneficial soil microbes that decomposed the feces of previous cycles.


I have been doing this since the beginning of 2011 and it is very effective at controling smell and flies. The treated faeces themselves have no smell and, if the users are worried about germs, this will help to remind them to wash their hands, which we want them to do anyway.

In places with dispersed settlement, it may be worthwhile to experiment with distributing urine into the soil via perforated hoses buried in the soil. Burying would reduce the likelihood of freezing, right? Urine should also freeze at a lower temperature than water. This might be worthwhile at least during the summer.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Sun, 30 Oct 2016 01:18:52 +0000
Re: A new article on the effects of lacto-fermented mix of faeces and bio-waste supplemented by biochar on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) - by: nadia http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19440 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/18841-research-on-the-effects-of-lacto-fermented-mix-of-faeces-and-bio-waste-supplemented-by-biochar-on-growth-and-yield-of-corn-in-moldova#19440
Thanks for your comments for the article. I am currently working in Moldova the Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Ecotoxicology, also collaborating with Research Institute of Field Crops from Balti. Additionally, I work in WiSDOM association.

Currently our NGO is implementing a small project in the South of Moldova and hope we can include lacto-fermentation as an approach for treatment and reuse of excreta for horticultural activities (for example willow plantation and decorative plants).

As regarding the PhD thesis I am currently at the stage of finalization, the thesis is currently under examination before it will be sent to the Examination Committee.

I found quite interesting to apply lacto-fermentation of urine and faeces at a larger scale in Moldova. Indeed, as Claudia mentioned we already have a good number of UDDT spread all over the country to start from and it is nice that the code on construction and operation of UDDT was approved.

The UDDT technology is well accepted, however I think Moldova still lacks some good examples of sustainable reuse of products. Here I find lacto-fermentation as a good example in trying to improve the efficiency of nutrient and carbon matter recycling, speed up sanitization and reduce odor.

For faeces fraction lacto-fermentation it would probably economically feasible if it is combined with manure or kitchen/food industry waste. Among the main limitations at the moment I see it is that we need molasses, which for example during cold time you cannot buy it due to solidification. Also, there is the biochar, however, our experiments showed that waste charcoal (small pieces and charcoal dust) also works.

Regarding faeces from UDDT, I have used in the experiments faeces from school UDDTs but also from household. We have found that for an effective faeces lacto-fermentation it is important to consider the type of cover material. We also have obtained interesting results for urine lacto-fermentation, at the moment they are not yet published, it is quite tough to publish research based on laboratory scale, at the same time, there are nice results suggesting good practical applications for improving UDDTs.

I consider that such an approach would be easy to implement and it not costly for urine treatment. In Moldova, from my experience, odor is a big issue, especially from the urine tanks. At the same time, considering the quantity of urine accumulated, its fertilizing value, it would be nice to apply lacto-fermentation, it considerable decrease odor and ammonia volatilization and has better germination than the stored urine. The results are at the incipient stage, but I think quite promising. I hope that some ideas could be soon implemented at the local level.

Regards,
Nadia]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Sat, 29 Oct 2016 19:29:02 +0000