SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sun, 01 May 2016 23:06:58 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Economics research paper: Human fertilizer and the productivity of farming households - by: ddiba http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/17368-economics-research-paper-human-fertilizer-and-the-productivity-of-farming-households#17829 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/17368-economics-research-paper-human-fertilizer-and-the-productivity-of-farming-households#17829 Nice to see that you did this work in Mali and with interesting findings.
I came across another study that was done in Mali too, though only focusing on the use of urine. It also included an overview of urine fertilizer promotion projects done by PeaceCorps in several Malian towns.
A link to the pdf is here: www.mtu.edu/peacecorps/programs/civil/pd...haw-thesis-final.pdf

Regards,
Daniel]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 27 Apr 2016 09:35:00 +0000
Re: Economics research paper: Human fertilizer and the productivity of farming households - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/17368-economics-research-paper-human-fertilizer-and-the-productivity-of-farming-households#17809 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/17368-economics-research-paper-human-fertilizer-and-the-productivity-of-farming-households#17809
Thanks for posting here. That's really interesting that you did this research at the economics department!

The link that you posted leads to a journal paper behind a paywall. Could you provide other links or files that are accessible for free (had you considered making your paper open access? Please do in future). E.g. past conference presentations?

Who installed those UDDTs in Mali?

Also you said:
Our results suggest that the average household in our study is able to produce amounts of N, P, and K equivalent to around a fourth of its yearly expenditures on artificial fertilizers, corresponding to a yearly addition of nutrients or a yearly reduction in fertilizer expenditures to a value of about 50 €

How does 50 Eur per year compare to other expenditures - is it regarded as a lot or not a lot?

And you said:

An interesting behavioral finding of our study was that only a small fraction of the potential amount of feces and urine was reused. We haven’t discussed why that is the case but it is of course of very important question.

What are your theories why this is the case? It is because it is too much "hassle" to apply it? Or because the fertiliser from the UDDTs is not available at the right time of the year in the right quantity?

Which aspects of your research were of particular relevance to the people in the economics department that you worked with?

And are you doing further work on this topic right now?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Tue, 26 Apr 2016 04:51:32 +0000
Economics research paper: Human fertilizer and the productivity of farming households - by: johanwikstrom http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/17368-economics-research-paper-human-fertilizer-and-the-productivity-of-farming-households#17368 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/17368-economics-research-paper-human-fertilizer-and-the-productivity-of-farming-households#17368
I’m not quite sure if this is the best place to post this or if it should be somewhere else. Anyway, my name is Johan Wikström and I have together with my colleague Jan Pettersson performed a research project on the use of ecological sanitation and the reuse of human fertilizer in rural Mali, West Africa. We did it at the Economics department at Uppsala University in Sweden. The study aimed to measure if households having UDDT’s installed and therefore access to human fertilizer had higher yields of farming than equivalent households without UDDT’s. Or if they substituted artificial fertilizer with human fertilizer. Our research paper, named Human fertilizer and the productivity of farming households, has now been published in the journal Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems.

To our knowledge there hasn’t been much research performed at all in this field, measuring the actual use/reuse in the real world and what impact the use/reuse has on farming yields. If anyone knows of studies that have measured the actual real world effect on yield levels or substitution effects on artificial fertilizer, please let me know.

We got significant results showing a somewhat higher yield of farming on maize fields for households with UDDT’s than the control households.

We also found that the households with UDDT’s substituted artificial fertilizer with human fertilizer, which we believe is bad strategy since more fertilizer is needed and not less.

An interesting behavioral finding of our study was that only a small fraction of the potential amount of feces and urine was reused. We haven’t discussed why that is the case but it is of course of very important question.

Please see the abstract below for more information and our main findings and further down the link to the paper.

ABSTRACT
Ecological sanitation offers both sanitation and fertilizer
through recycling of nutrients. Human fertilizer provides a
close to free addition of nutrients in household farming and
may, therefore, decrease the downward risk of fertilizer adoption.
We study an ecological sanitation investment program in
southern Mali, where just over 150 beneficiaries got a urine
diverting dry toilet installed. Our results suggest that the average
household in our study is able to produce amounts of N, P,
and K equivalent to around a fourth of its yearly expenditures
on artificial fertilizers, corresponding to a yearly addition of
nutrients or a yearly reduction in fertilizer expenditures to a
value of about 50 €. However, the quantity and quality of N, P,
and K actually retained is found to be only a fraction of this
potential amount. Using propensity score matching methods,
we find an increase in maize yields among beneficiary households,
but no effect on the yields of other crops. Moreover,
households substitute artificial fertilizer with human fertilizer at
10–15% of the average household use of artificial fertilizers.
Thus, the substitution may worsen an already bad soil nutrient
balance. Higher retention levels are needed for solutions to
prove financially viable.

Link to paper:
www.tandfonline.com/eprint/sGzRsYPiwTWfIBvHyYc8/full

I presented this research at the dry toilet conference in Tampere a couple of years ago so a few people here might have heard about it before. I'd love to get some of your views on this topic though!

/Johan Wikström]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Wed, 09 Mar 2016 21:26:07 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#17183 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#17183
Interesting about this grant by Indian Institute for Human Settlements with CDD Society as a sub grantee - I will send off some e-mails and hopefully can have it introduced formally on the forum soon.

And thanks for your compliment regarding asking the right questions and putting things back on track - much appreciated!

About "weeding out the literature": No, don't worry, we're not actually weeding it out. The library has several filter functions. For those who don't know: Go here: www.susana.org/en/resources/library and then click on the green filter button towards the top right.

Here you can filter the library by technology, by reuse option, by country and by a number of other parameters. You can also use the keyword search which picks up any word that was mentioned in the title or in the summary (or in the keywords field).

The filter by working group is meant to help people orientate themselves which doucments are important for the working group topic, like for working group 5 whose objectives are explained here:
www.susana.org/en/working-groups/food-se...ve-sanitaion-systems

We've decided to limit those working group filters to around 50 documents per working group, as otherwise it's not a good orientation anymore. But using one of the other filters, like country, reuse type, technology etc. one can still find all the others ones, too.

Filtering by Working Group 5 now gives you these results (currently 45):
www.susana.org/en/resources/library?vbl_...amp;vbl_8%5B42%5D=42

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Thu, 25 Feb 2016 02:44:09 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops - by: Susanne http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#17074 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#17074
We are presently revising it and will keep you updated.


sorry, I was talking in riddles there.

Within the project titled “Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Program” we are working on a compendium of innovative and established technologies along the sanitation value chain, including reuse. For the established technologies the eawag compendium provides a solid basis. We are adding up to it and selecting technologies suitable for Tamil Nadu to give orientation to the stakeholders.

The project is funded by Bill and Melinda Gates foundation and is being implemented by IIHS, Indian Institute for Human Settlements with CDD Society as a sub grantee.

Weeding out the literature - I don't like the idea... If there's a possibility to sort it (Top list as you're doing it, rating, number of downloads etc.) it helps newcomers, but if for people who work let's say in a certain region, as specific case study that took place there might be of interest while it's totally irrelevant to others. The filter function is something that I would look for (as someone used to searching for literature). If keywords are placed properly and the search works let's not to cut back on content that might be useful.

By the way, Elisabeth - you are doing a great job, asking the right questions and keeping track. Has been helpful many times, thank you!

Best regards,
Susanne]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Thu, 18 Feb 2016 11:53:05 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#16837 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#16837
Thanks a lot for your post here. Much appreciated!

About the Compendium: yes, it does include a bit on reuse, but it's quite superficial regarding reuse, so I would hesitate to include it in the Top-5 here. Oh and what did you mean by:
We are presently revising it and will keep you updated.

I didn't know another revision of this compendium was currently on the cards?

Regarding additional readings, beyond the Top-5, I agree with you in principle, and that's what the links section in the sticky post is meant to be for. E.g. by filtering the SuSanA library for working group 5 as a topic, you get all these 177:
www.susana.org/en/resources/library?vbl_...amp;vbl_8%5B42%5D=42

Actually, I was talking with Anne (SuSanA secretariat) the other day and we felt that even this list of 177 should perhaps be weeded out and shrunk to 50 or 100 to make it more user friendly for newcomers. What do you you think?

Note users can also filter by reuse type, e.g. filtering by "urine reuse" gives these 250 documents (wow, 250! - now I am surprised myself):
www.susana.org/en/resources/library?vbl_...amp;vbl_6%5B26%5D=26

I just wonder if folks are aware of these library filtering options (the other day someone told me he'd never heard about the filter before). It's the green button at the top right here:
www.susana.org/library

And I wonder if we should provide more guidance, as a pile of 177 or 250 documents really is not that helpful for newcomers. At the moment we give them the Top-5 and after that a list of 200 "other" documents on the topic. Perhaps not ideal?

Regarding your other two questions:
How is it possible to feed this library? Can literature also be mentioned there which can not be downloaded directly, such as books?

To get a publication into the library, you just need to send it to the secretariat for inclusion: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
(for larger organisations, if they have a whole batch of documents they want to have included, the secretariat can also give out the uploading instructions)

Or when a new publication is mentioned here on the forum, if it's an important one, we ensure that it gets into the library (e.g. I or someone else alerts the secretariat to it).

And yes, the library can also list documents that are behind a paywall, like this book by Rosemarin et al., for example:
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2103

Do you have particular books in mind that you'd like to recommend?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Thu, 04 Feb 2016 02:15:32 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops - by: Susanne http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#16798 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/12109-key-documents-for-the-sub-category-on-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops#16798 I would add the iwa/eawag Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, since it comprises a part on (re)use also. We are presently revising it and will keep you updated.

www.sswm.info/sites/default/files/refere...evised%20Edition.pdf

I think it is good to name the top 5 documents, but I think it can not do any harm to add information beyond that, for those who want to dig deeper. If docs are categorized well and keywords added in the description like it is done in the SuSanA library. No need of course to build a parallel literature collection here.
How is it possible to feed this library? Can literature also be mentioned there which can not be downloaded directly, such as books?]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 01 Feb 2016 06:20:42 +0000
Re: composting questions - by: morgan http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/8216-dried-vs-composted-fecal-material-merit-and-demerit#16772 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/8216-dried-vs-composted-fecal-material-merit-and-demerit#16772 So pleased to have been a help
good luck with the work
Peter]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Sat, 30 Jan 2016 08:25:21 +0000
Re: composting questions - by: Guinya http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/8216-dried-vs-composted-fecal-material-merit-and-demerit#16766 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/8216-dried-vs-composted-fecal-material-merit-and-demerit#16766
It is only today that I have notice your very insightful reply - more than two years after your reply! Very strange indeed!

I am back in Rwanda, after working mostly on solid household organic waste, from which we made compost and briquettes. We were just starting with composting toilets when ...the crisis started.

We are now organizing a workshop in Musanze (north of Rwanda)attempting to:
1/ know professionals in waste management in Rwanda
2/ the expertise built after years of practice
3/ the gaps/new frontiers of learning that we at the University of Rwanda could help expend.

Our hope is that not far away in the future we could put in place a model for sanitation (public toilets) valid for small town in Rwanda that could be run the private sector (or at least a combination of private/public sectors), generating profit,achieving an acceptable level of pathogen reduction, and producing good bio-fertilizer.

We are aware of the valuable work done by CEPAD in west-africa. We will also be drawing from the extraordinary wealth of experience and learning that you have accumulated over the years.

warm regards,
Guillaume]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 29 Jan 2016 15:58:42 +0000
Re: Nutrient recovery and reuse of human excreta - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15641-what-are-the-general-reactions-of-the-community-at-large-towards-the-idea-of-human-excreta-for-manure#16077 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15641-what-are-the-general-reactions-of-the-community-at-large-towards-the-idea-of-human-excreta-for-manure#16077
Welcome to the Forum.

This is a big question and one of our biggest hurdles. Resource recovery happens all of the time, whether we recognize it or not. People go out into corn fields to urinate and defecate, the corn grows bigger, and this is mostly not a problem because the corn grows high above the ground and it gets cooked. Knowing that it contains so many nutrients, people sometimes specifically apply wastewater to their fields, which is very unsafe, unless great care is applied to control disease.

Everyone is correct to be concerned about feces, only they should just remember and control the real risks and not fall into the irrational fear, called ''fecophobia''. We need to remember that ''feces'' is a temporary state. It had been soil, then plants, then sometimes animales, we eat these, and they spend only about our guts, so why can't they become soil again, thanks to decomposer microbes.

I suggest you read this 2-part interview with me:
www.chekhovskalashnikov.com/water-sanitation/
www.chekhovskalashnikov.com/human-waste-disposal/

... and, of course, these books and articles:
www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/Ecological_Sanitation_2004.pdf
www.ecosanres.org/toilets_that_make_compost.htm
www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/ESR2010-1-Pr...InCropProduction.pdf
www.unesco-ihe.org/faecal-sludge-management-0
(Which I just translated into Spanish and should be available soon.)

Also search for this topic on this Forum and the SuSanA Library. Let us know how your research and studies go. And tell how you then achieve resource recovery.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 27 Nov 2015 13:05:15 +0000
Re: Nutrient recovery and reuse of human excreta - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15641-what-are-the-general-reactions-of-the-community-at-large-towards-the-idea-of-human-excreta-for-manure#16069 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15641-what-are-the-general-reactions-of-the-community-at-large-towards-the-idea-of-human-excreta-for-manure#16069
Very pertinent topic. Impossible to summarise it in a few sentences.

If you browse through the previous discussion on this topic in this sub-category, you will get a pretty good idea:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fer...-production-of-crops

Also check out the key documents post of this topic here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fer...-production-of-crops

So what conclusions did you draw regarding this topic after taking this online course and doing some reading on it? How is the situation looking for your own country (Kenya?) according to your perception so far?

Perceptions differ a lot even within one country (urban versus rural folks for example) and do also change over time. Those changes over time also for European countries were discussed here on the forum:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fer...ia-article-on-ecosan

Hope this helps a bit to get you started?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 27 Nov 2015 09:45:02 +0000
Re: History of ecosan - Causes for abandoning recovery of nutrients from human excreta (and Wikipedia article on ecosan) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=36#15666 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=36#15666
Thanks for your comments. I am not sure if Sir Albert Howard and Joseph Jenkins need to be mentioned in the Wikipedia article on ecosan, but they should be mentioned on the page for composting (I like to make a clear distinction between ecosan as a concept and composting as one technology option).

In fact, Sir Albert Howard is already mentioned here in the history section of composting (please check if you agree how it's written?):
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compost#History

And he has his own Wikipedia article:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Howard

(Joseph Jenkins doesn't have that honor yet)

If you're interested in extremely simple toilets, then maybe you'd like to help improve the new article on bucket toilet?:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bucket_toilet

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Thu, 29 Oct 2015 01:43:39 +0000
What are the general reactions of the community at large towards the idea of human excreta for manure? - by: muthumbi http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15641-what-are-the-general-reactions-of-the-community-at-large-towards-the-idea-of-human-excreta-for-manure#15641 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15641-what-are-the-general-reactions-of-the-community-at-large-towards-the-idea-of-human-excreta-for-manure#15641
I am a student doing an online course on Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation (SWSS). Currently we had a topic on nutrient recovery and reuse and having no field experience in this topic, would like to know more about it. My questions are, just what are the general reactions of the community at large towards the idea of 'human excreta for manure'? are there cases that it has been abhorred? if so what are the procedures employed to reduce these occurrences( ensuring that majority embrace the idea)?

Thanks.]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Tue, 27 Oct 2015 20:21:06 +0000
BonaRes Program (Soil as a sustainable resource in Bioeconomy) - by: Gabriela http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15041-bonares-program-soil-as-a-sustainable-resource-in-bioeconomy#15041 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/15041-bonares-program-soil-as-a-sustainable-resource-in-bioeconomy#15041 My name is Gabriela, researcher & consultant currently at the Technical University of Munich. I work in the fields of water quality, waste streams management, resource recovery and watershed management.

Last week took place in Munich the annual Conference of the German Soil Science Association (DBG). The website offers a good overview of conferences in Germany and abroad. www.dbges.de/wb/

I would like to share information about the BonaRes Program - Boden als nachhaltige Ressource für die Bioökonomie (Soil as a sustainable resource in Bioeconomy), financed by the BMBF for 9 years. This program and Centre for Soil Research aims to produce and gather scientific data and information on soil functions, soil management, nutrient utilization and better farming strategies. It also aims to serve as platform for knowledge sharing and transfer. The Centre is relative new and may start including more information as the program advances.
The research themes are of global interest and results may contribute to the development of better practices and policies also at international level. I thought about the reuse of waste streams in agriculture (manure and wastewater) and soil quality. From discussions with the participants, it seems that these themes will get more interest in the soil research agenda in Germany. I think this is also because of the increasing interest in international research cooperations.
cosalux.net/bonares/en/bonares-zentrum/

Best greetings

Gabriela]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Fri, 18 Sep 2015 17:15:11 +0000
Re: History of ecosan - Causes for abandoning recovery of nutrients from human excreta (and Wikipedia article on ecosan) - by: Agas http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=36#14839 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fertiliser-soil-conditioner-production-of-crops/10885-history-of-ecosan-causes-for-abandoning-recovery-of-nutrients-from-human-excreta-and-wikipedia-article-on-ecosan?limit=12&start=36#14839
Sir Albert Howard who wrote An Agricultural Testament, was one of the pioneers of modern composting systems and also recognised the importance of ecosan long before it was given that name:

www.zetatalk3.com/docs/Agriculture/An_Ag...l_Testament_1943.pdf

A slate roofing contractor called Joseph Jenkins coined the words 'humanure' and 'faecophobia' in his book 'Humanure Handbook' in which he popularised the concept of extremely simple composting toilets (basically a paint bucket a seat and a compost heap)

humanurehandbook.com/]]>
Fertiliser, soil conditioner, production of crops Mon, 07 Sep 2015 11:41:37 +0000