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Topics in Category: Public awareness raising - SuSanA Forum Mon, 29 May 2017 17:22:19 +0200 Joomla! - Open Source Content Management /media/kunena/images/icons/rss.png Topics in Category: Public awareness raising - SuSanA Forum en-gb Topic 3: What can we do to promote the use and replication of good sanitation lessons and practices? - by: prithvisimha Thank you for sharing your insights on this topic. My name is Prithvi Simha. I am a Doctoral Candidate working at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. I have been active in academic research surrouding new sanitation systems and practices for the past 5 years.

Let me now add to this discussion thread. Firstly, many others working in the sanitation research sector and I believe that sanitation isn't simply about providing people access to a toilet. Provisioning, per se, does not end with user access to the interface. Irrespective of the system model in place, sanitation needs to extend beyond the toilet and be able to connect users to a service chain that provides adequate treatment.
Let me take the case of source-separating sanitation systems to highlight this. Here, two system user stakeholders are of particular importance:
a. Consumers – stakeholders that need to be motivated to use urine–diverting toilets and consume urine–fertilised food. Consumers are vital, since the initiation of a closed–loop sanitation cycle through source–separation begins in households.
b. Producers (Farmers) – stakeholders among whom interest, motivation and acceptance of source–separated human wastes as a fertiliser must be created, developed and sustained over time.

When replicating source-separation based sanitation systems, surprisingly, we dont have best practices on implementation figured out when it comes to the farmers. We have carried out research in South India that points to this fact:
One important finding from our study shows that ‘trust’ could be a key variable that determines the proliferation potential of new sanitation practices. Farmers in our study region (Vellore) trust and value the opinions of people they know, people to whom they are related or people with whom they have been socialising and interacting over the years.
Hence, early dialogue, continuous interaction and integration of user stakeholders (both, farmers and consumers) is necessary when it comes to deciding what type of sanitation system should be adopted, what type of treatment chain that follows the sanitation system needs to be in place, and how the local sanitation loop can be closed adequatley and safely.

Thank you for the opportunity to share some thoughts on this!
Thematic Discussion: Case studies are Signposts for Recognition and Encouragement Fri, 12 May 2017 08:53:30 +0200
Defining the Scope of Case Study Research - What is a best practice? - by: nityajacob
Dear all,

The first topic of this thematic discussion on case study research dealt with defining what a case study is. The topic's moderator Girija Bharat said case studies are investigations, in that they are based on knowledge and experience and involve the collection and analysis of data. They look in-depth at the issues. They provide insights into how something takes place. To be meaningful, she said longitudinal studies are necessary. However, field staff often it hard to understand what a case study is. It could be the normal, every-day activities of a project, or the extra-ordinary. Hence the need to demystify case study research so field staff can participate.

Nipun Vinayak said any study that captures a principle leading to achievement of desirable and sustainable outcomes at scale in a short period of time can be a case study. Capturing principles may be more important than capturing a practice. He gave the example of the practice of sustaining ODF. The set of activities to sustain ODF would be more important that the distinct practices. The underlying principles include
  • eadership and initiative by a champion
  • Fostering collective spirit – only group sports were chosen to further gel the ODF community and enhance their team spirit required for sustainabilty.
  • Positive discrimination and enhancing competition, by disallowing non-ODF villages from participating
  • Flexibility to the district to take decisions
  • [Productive engagement of village-level motivators in people engagement activities (and not bureaucratic work alone!)
However, in the same example, individual practices would include ODF Olympics, walks of pride, award ceremonies, etc.

Alka Palrecha reiterated case study is a method in social science research used for building and testing theories. Their biggest contribution is in communication i.e., dissemination of 'good' and 'bad' practices. Value judgements can be attributed only in hindsight, a limitation of the case study approach. The exemplary value needs to be explained for justifying the choice of the case. A clear line of discovery of the case normally will assert its value. Case studies are useful when the researcher aims to study the dynamic relationship between rationality and power; in planning and, more generally, modern democracy at work; tell a story that will elicit critical thinking and action on the part of readers; and look at planning (or any other disciplines) from a novel perspective.

Abhishek Mendiratta remarked too often case studies are written up to satisfy a donor, or make an organization look good. Effective case studies need to be written up honestly. Elisabeth van Muench reiterated this, and brought up SuSanA's earlier work on case studies that are available at this URL . A template for SuSanA's case studies is available at . This has a section 11 on Practical experiences and lessons learnt. The important thing is to share the good and the bad so others can avoid making the same mistakes. The template has a section on long-term impacts. However, as people write about their own projects, again it might be hard to stay objective and neutral.

Srinivas Rao Podipireddy defined a case study as a place where a best practice has been tried and tested and delivered the intended result. Further, the result has been to be sustained in a given conditions. What is important is ‘what best practice was followed to achieve what’. A best practice is also about optics – demonstration /visibility is important. Perhaps, that is a condition for choosing a best practice to showcase for scaling up.

Robin Van Kippersluis felt an important component of a best practice is something that has worked in different settings - and hence offers opportunities for replication at scale. Lessons can be drawn from both quantitative and qualitative research and every-day challenges, but are are not necessarily all captured in case studies. They are also not necessarily tested to work in different settings. Failures also yield lessons on 'how not to do something'. The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation has launched the Swachh Sangraha portal where local lessons and solutions on sanitation can be found.

Under SBM, said Sujoy Mojumdar, case studies demonstrate innovations in implementation that are generally context-specific, and those reporting initiatives taken up by implementing agencies. Both have an inherent bias but lessons are sometimes useful and can be taken up by others. Few have critical conclusions and these are discouraged. They do not give results of evaluations which can be used for learning and course correction.]]>
Thematic Discussion: Case studies are Signposts for Recognition and Encouragement Mon, 01 May 2017 04:26:57 +0200
Topic 2. How can case studies be collected, validated and disseminated efficiently - by: Meena
With an overall aim to demonstrate a successful program for replication to serve geographies beyond Bihar, the selection of cases requires careful consideration on the basis of clear objectives and may include: (i) comparing cases at the micro level – such as an entrepreneur or household base case studies – these can just focus on program area, comparisons against case studies documented during a baseline, longitudinal studies (same cases studied over a period of time) or can be comparative case studies (program and control group areas); (iii) case studies focussing on program approaches (for example – the logic model or theory of change); (iii) higher level comparison with a similar program, or a control group to establish causality though a statistically significant sample, data analysis and synthesis process. In all situations, high quality practical studies with key messages and facts, documentation of evidence will be a key enabler contribute to strengthened programming and scaling up.

Case studies at micro level or related to program approaches can be embedded in an external evaluation. For case studies already available through program process documentation, validations can be applied to these case studies - through formative peer reviews (stakeholders, program staff or external validation). Parameters like resources, time frames and data collection options influence the level at which case studies can be documented.

Dissemination can be through stakeholder consultations, in this case especially among those who have been associated with the program and new geography stakeholders – as an experience sharing and new programs design platform. And the routes to paper presentations, fora such as India Sanitation Coalition, publications, social media, website of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation etc. remain.

Meena Narula is currently Country Director and Water For People – India. In the past she has held lead Monitoring Evaluation and Research positions at Aga Khan Foundation and Plan International India.]]>
Thematic Discussion: Case studies are Signposts for Recognition and Encouragement Wed, 10 May 2017 07:04:58 +0200
World Water Day 2017 publications by USAID, UN Water, WaterAid and others - by: campbelldb
Congrats to you and your colleagues on compiling such a useful World Water Day resource.
I included a separate post on Sanitation Updates with a link to the Wikipedia article.

World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Wed, 22 Mar 2017 16:36:44 +0100
World Water Day is today, 22 March 2017: Tell us about your events for this day? - by: nuribepando
Please find below and attached Action Against Hunger’s World Water Day “kit for missions”, with the purpose of raising awareness and mobilizing on water and this year’s theme, wastewater, as well as the links with health and nutrition. We think it can be interesting to share through the SUSANA forum !

What is ACF doing?

•For ACF the objectives of WWD are:
-To raise awareness and mobilise the general public on water, wastewater, as well as its impact on health and nutrition.
-Mobilise the media and the public opinion on the various key messages.

•This year we have prepared a “Game of the goose”, a life-sized game of questions/answers based on access to water and sanitation and the annual theme, to invite passers-by to test their knowledge on water! At the end of the game participants are invited to take a picture with their key messages.
•ACF will organize like every year an annual event in Paris and in the regional delegations of the association.

Do not hesitate to use our material and to share it within your networks!


Natalia Uribe Pando
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Advocacy Advisor
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Tue, 21 Mar 2017 17:11:19 +0100
Speakers wanted for international event on World Water Day - 22 March 2017 - by: Sasisoy sanctioned by UN.

Ripples Make Waves is a LIVE, 24-hour, interactive video event bringing students of the world together to share water stories, discuss change and advocate FOR EACH OTHER, the need and the right for every child to have safe water. The event will start begin at 15.00 GMT on 22 March, 2017 with a representative from United Nations Water in Geneva, Switzerland. The official languages are Spanish and English. ​

We have few free positions for speakers. Presentations are 30 minutes duration + 10-15 min for possible questions. Only needed internet access and a computer with microphone and camera. If interested, write an email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. with a summary explaining the topic you would like to treat during your presentation and your professional experience.

All the best!
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World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Sun, 19 Feb 2017 14:53:26 +0100
World Toilet Day - visit Oxfam's updated ‘Water’ website - by: jonpar World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Sun, 20 Nov 2016 05:20:24 +0100 Empowering Families on World Toilet Day to Improve Sanitation in Bihar, India (announcement by PSI) - by: jsauer
#WorldToiletDay - Empowering Families to Improve Sanitation in Bihar, India ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In the state of Bihar, more that 80% of the population practices open defecation. Improving access to and sustained use of improved sanitation at such a large scale, requires facilitating systemic changes and improvements to the sanitation market. As part of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-funded Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI) project, PSI has partnered with Unilever's Domestos Toilet Academy to increase access to toilets by developing the sanitation market in Bihar.

Through the partnership, Sunila Devi and her family, featured in the video below, have been able to purchase an affordable, desirable toilet for their home.
For families like Sunila Devi's, getting a toilet meant improved health and safety for her children; the creation of new and stronger sanitation businesses in the her community; and the assurance of privacy and dignity.

This #WorldToiletDay, we celebrate this partnership that has worked to empower people like Sunila to improve sanitation in their own communities. Watch the video below to learn more about how the project has been able to achieve this and
to show your support for clean, safe sanitation for all!

See also: ]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Fri, 18 Nov 2016 14:57:10 +0100
World Toilet Day 2016 - 19 November 2016, let's get ready for it (theme is toilets and jobs) - by: muench
Thanks for your post.
I am curious how you determined that

Last year our social media voice reached nearly 700 million people.

Must we pretty hard to estimate this, how did you do it?

Also, every year around this time I invite people to help improve the Wikipedia article on World Toilet Day:

Every year, the page views show a spike of viewers of this page on 19 November. I think the page can still be expanded and improved a lot! Would you like to help?

If anyone has questions on how to edit Wikipedia pages, I can help. Or you can also use the article's talk page to discuss improvements, see here:

See discussion we had about this last year here:

World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Tue, 08 Nov 2016 12:50:15 +0100
Water Action Month: March 2016! - And World Water Day on 22 March 2016 - by: muench
As expected, the click rates soared on World Water Day (22 March) itself, peaking at 14,000 page views. On a normal day it is around 400 page views.

See this graph (source: ):

This proves once again that people (the general public, but probably also politicians and journalists) do turn to Wikipedia to find out more when the mainstream media tells them it is World Water Day...

Just a pity that what they find on that page ( ) is still not that great... The article could and should be improved in my opinion.]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Sat, 23 Apr 2016 08:34:13 +0200
Mapping of Access to Water and Sanitation around the World (interactive maps) - by: F H Mughal Mapping of Access to Water and Sanitation around the World
Katherine Purvis, a freelance journalist, in her recent post ( ) has given good statistics on access to water and sanitation, world-wide.

She has provided interactive maps, which, on mouse pointer, gives data in any given country on water and sanitation. She has given data on:

• How many people around the world have access to improved sanitation facilities?

• Which countries met the millennium development goal on sanitation?

• How many people around the world have access to an improved source of drinking water?

• Which countries met the millennium development goal on water?

I’m sure, forum users will find the data useful.

F H Mughal]]>
Public awareness raising Sat, 27 Feb 2016 16:34:12 +0100
It’s No Joke: The State of the World’s Toilets 2015 - and toilet photos from around the world - by: F H Mughal Around the World in 45 Toilets
China-born Jason Lee has taken interesting pictures of the toilets in many countries. These can be found at:

One can find groovy toilets as well as tin-sheet toilets in the collection.

I think this forum has some collection of the photos of the toilets. These new photos will make a valuable addition.

F H Mughal]]>
Public awareness raising Sat, 27 Feb 2016 16:10:58 +0100
Publication on Achieving total sanitation and hygiene coverage within a generation – lessons from East Asia (Water Aid) - by: Carol McCreary here in June 2015) "Achieving total sanitation and hygiene coverage within a generation – lessons from East Asia" was just brought to my attention (today by a fellow Tweeter).

This paper sets out findings from WaterAid’s research in East Asian states on the political economy of sanitation and hygiene services that delivered total coverage within a generation. The purpose of this research is not to claim blueprints for success – the specifics of each case show the contextual nature of sanitation transformation. However, the intention is to galvanise and frame the emerging dialogue in the sanitation and hygiene sectors, on how to achieve the necessary radical ‘step-change’ in progress, to deliver universal access to services by 2030.

The short report has information on the awareness creation strategies used early on by leaders of these nations. This should be of interest to members of SuSana Working Group 9 (Public Awareness, Advocacy and Civil Society Engagement) as well as to Working Group 1 (Capacity Development).

And, yes, Jonathan the earlier title is more attention getting: "How did E. Asian Tigers Provide Sanitation Access So Quickly ?"]]>
Public awareness raising Mon, 15 Feb 2016 16:19:46 +0100
Sanitation’s Impact on Human and Environmental Health (UN Secretary-General's message on World Toilet Day (19 November 2015))) - by: F H Mughal Sanitation’s Impact on Human and Environmental Health
The UN Secretary-General's message on World Toilet Day (19 November 2015) gives significant importance to sanitation. The message says: “Sanitation is central to human and environmental health as well as to individual opportunity, development and dignity. Yet today, worldwide, one in every three people lacks improved sanitation, and one in every eight practices open defecation.”

Giving a bit of background on how poor sanitation impacts community, the message says: “Poor sanitation and hygiene are at the heart of disease and malnutrition. Each year, too many children under the age of five have their lives cut short or altered forever as a result of poor sanitation: more than 800,000 children worldwide -- or one every two minutes-- die from diarrhea, and almost half of all deaths of children under five are due to under-nutrition. A quarter of all children under five are stunted, and countless other children, as well as adults, are falling seriously ill, often suffering long-term, even lifelong, health and developmental consequences. Parents and guardians carry the cost of these consequences. Women in particular women bear the direct brunt.”

An important point in the message is the comment on importance of sanitation in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The message says: “The recently adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes the central role sanitation plays in sustainable development. The integrated nature of the new agenda means that we need to better understand the connections between the building blocks of development.”

While the UN Secretary-General’s message acknowledges the importance of sanitation at global level, it is not known how these important messages would be converted into practical and concrete actions in poor developing countries. Having said that, it is acknowledged that there exist the UN Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation. The UNSG's Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (UNSGAB) is an independent body established in March 2004 by the then United Nations Secretary-General, Mr. Kofi Annan, to give him advice as well as to galvanize action on water and sanitation issues.

According to the website ( ), the mission of UNSGAB is to: give advice to UN Secretary General; give input in global dialogue process; raise global awareness through mass-media, etc.; influence and work on global, regional, national institutions at highest level; and take its own actions towards MDGs.

And, the objectives are to work on: help to mobilize resources for water and sanitation towards achievement of MDGs and JPOI; publicly mobilize support and advocate for actions and ensure political visibility; assess progress made towards the water and sanitation goals; and advocate for improving the capacity of Governments and the international system.

(JPOI stands for Johannesburg Plan of Implementation)

With the institutional set-up in place, it is time that the UNSGAB should translate objectives into actions.
Sanitation in most poor developing countries is poor, and there is almost no political-will at the governments’ level. UNSGAB needs to work on poor developing countries, so that there is visible improvement in sanitation, in the short run.

F H Mughal]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Wed, 09 Dec 2015 06:52:38 +0100
Media attention for World Toilet Day 2015 and effect on Wikipedia click rates - and how well does such a UN Day "work" for us? - by: DianeKellogg World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Tue, 08 Dec 2015 18:04:09 +0100