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Topics in Category: Other types of toilets - SuSanA Forum Mon, 29 May 2017 19:03:23 +0200 Joomla! - Open Source Content Management /media/kunena/images/icons/rss.png Topics in Category: Other types of toilets - SuSanA Forum en-gb Key documents for the sub-sub-category on arborloos - by: morgan This looks like an excellent contribution about Aborloo's - the "tree toilet." I think huge numbers must have been built now in countries like Malawi, Ethiopia, Kenya and elsewhere. So simple. Nature at work - yet again.
Cheers and keep well and active
Peter from Harare]]>
Arborloos Tue, 15 Mar 2016 11:07:26 +0100
Updates about SaTo pan development and marketing - affordable, aspirational latrine products - by: cecile
Although the SaToPan provides a great improvement for existing pit toilets, thanks to the flap which is a barrier to odour and insects, some sanitation actors are held back in their efforts to develop the use of this product because improving toilets "does not count" in the JMP monitoring framework and in the MDG data.
Has anybody encountered this situation before and what do you suggest to "make it count"?

Best regards,
SaTo pan (pit latrine with closing flap) Sun, 14 May 2017 14:11:33 +0200
Worm toilets and deworming tablets - by: muench
Nice to hear from you on the Forum, always great to see new people! Where are you based? I am guessing U.S. as you use the term "humanure" which is popular there. ;-)

Regarding your statement:

At the risk of stating the obvious, pharmaceuticals in general are excreted in the urine, so while they may be present in mixed humanure, diverting the urine from the feces resolves that concern.

From memory, I think it's right to say that most pharmaceuticals are excreted in the urine, but not all. Some you can also find in the feces. But I am not sure where the anthelminthic drugs end up, i.e. in urine or feces or both.

If anyone has time to look into this further, start with the PhD thesis of Martina Winker:
Winker, M. (2009). Pharmaceutical residues in urine and potential risks related to usage as fertiliser in agriculture. PhD thesis, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Hamburg, Germany

Page 62 says:

Major parts of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites detected in municipal wastewater originate from urine although some substances show reasonable excretion via faeces.

Vermifilters for blackwater treatment, "worm toilets", "Tiger worm toilet" Wed, 12 Apr 2017 14:51:39 +0200
Update on SOIL's work in Haiti (social business model with mobile UDDTs, composting and reuse) - by: muench

P.S. I am still hoping that in the not too distant future we will also have a Wikipedia article on container based sanitation. Anyone keen to collaborate on this?

Thanks to our Cranfield student collaboration, we now do have such a Wikipedia article which is great!
Here it is: (further inputs and improvements are very welcome! See also this thread on the forum where you can comment: )

Nick, I have made a reference to your paper in the Wikipedia article now, with regards to costs, please take a look if you agree.

However, I had to use the 20 USD figure per month from the paper. In your forum post you said you can now do it at 12 USD per month per household. Do you have a new reference that we could use to quote for this figure?

Container-based, mobile or bag-based toilets Tue, 11 Apr 2017 16:07:05 +0200
The world can't wait for sewers - WSUP / EY Report on Clean Team Ghana - by: kwhitehouse
I am posting what I have fed back to EY/WSUP here to help the dialogue and see if anyone agrees/disagrees or can contribute their thoughts to the discussion. Happy chatting!

Insight 3 - Toilet cost/durability issue is spot on. I do think however there is the possibility to explore addressing the 'conundrum' locally which I think certain organisations have scratched the surface looking into but was a proposal from when I was in Kisumu for WSUP in strategising where to research going forward. For HECA region there are multiple plastics manufacturers who could work on creating something like this with the main challenge being proving the investment potential. It's a catch 22. Until there is a big enough market to convince local manufacturers to invest in moulds to produce low-cost toilets, creating good quality ones locally is a struggle. So I don't think it can't be done, it's justifying why it should be done if the manufacturer has no guaranteed market currently. SilAfrica ( ) is a good example of this sort of partnership but when we saw them trying to market it in Western Kenya there was initially a very low uptake.

Insight 4 - great section but feel one thing is missing on the complexity which is the relationship between the processing options and the upstream design of the toilet and requirement for faecal sludge quality and moisture content requirements.
Insight 5 & 6 - key connection for both here is that a driver for many low-income households to use CBS is the ability to maintain their own personal cleanliness (which is difficult in a shared space). That has been overwhelmingly the main driver in wanting a personal toilet with, as we talked about, people wanting to clean it if necessary. This not only emphasises need to understand the user and consumer but also emphasises the need for frequent collection.

Insight 7 - great bit of analysis just have a few queries on definitions
'low threat of competitors' -> who do you define as a competitor? Other CBS companies? Major competitors for CBS in these markets are the informal emptiers who achieve emptying goals cheaply, though not safely, in unregulated environments. Safe, regulated CBS companies find it hard to compete with these players in the market.

'precedent for paying for sanitation' -> agreed and this is where I think the PPP comes in very key and could have more emphasis. To maintain that precedent and mindset the face of these services has to be PPP not an NGO-driven otherwise there can become an expectation for 'free' services.

Insight 8 - one thing I don't think comes out and is a major factor is the budget attributed to sanitation at the government level compared to water. The 0% sanitation budget until 2020 in Kisumu at county level practically eradicated any form of PPP from them inputting into the model and we had to think of other ways that a PPP could support e.g. reduced rates for use of disposal facilities etc. Generally, the public sector were highly dependent on external grants/loans to pursue their sanitation goals. At the time, most grants were going either towards competitive pit latrine builds by NGOs; or massive infrastructure projects from bilateral donors or engineering-focused foundations (e.g. Veolia) on pipes for instance which shifted the focus of the public agenda away from supporting CBS initiatives either at household level or downstream processing support. So in addition to the PPP point, if these funding issues are being seen elsewhere too, I think highlighting to donors and their effect on public investment potential would be good.

CBS model 'plug and play' - I appreciate that the paper was written in the context of expanding the Clean Team CBS model but I think, as comes across in the paper, that flexibility in the model design and market chain is required to work in different local contexts. So, given all the different CBS models out there, it may be good to state that CBS can work with particular conditions common to all (e.g. your points in Figure 4) but that it would require a 'plug and play' type approach as different components may vary to meet local needs/context rather than the same model in every situation.]]>
Container-based, mobile or bag-based toilets Mon, 03 Apr 2017 20:08:21 +0200
A Water Saving Flush Toilet and Various Earth Toilets - by: Amos
These systems are yet in development, and need interested and governments and manufacturers. Please see for more details.

Thank you
Amos B]]>
Other types of toilets Mon, 13 Mar 2017 22:21:06 +0100
Bio Toilet for Tribal Areas in Odisha, India - by: Jeevanrekha ) a voluntary organisation has completed a Bio Toilet Project for 150 households in tribal areas of Daspalla and has declared 3 tribal villages as open defecation free villages. Thanks to CSR fund support of Care Today TV Fund.Visit following link-contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Vermifilters for blackwater treatment, "worm toilets", "Tiger worm toilet" Thu, 16 Feb 2017 12:29:23 +0100
Eco-san in Ethiopia (other than Arba Minch) - and arborloos - by: canaday
Good luck with that big task. Feel free to post preliminary plans here, so we can comment on them.

From what I have read (since I have yet to do these), it seems that an ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) would be more reliable and easier to build and operate than a UASB, especially given that flows would be irregular across time.

Have you considered Vegetated Sand Filters (= subsurface treatment wetlands) for polishing the effluent? These would require less space, control smell, avoid mosquito breeding, and even produce forage for animals.

Water seems to be a scarce and precious resource in Addis Ababa, so it would be excellent for the university to set an example of innovative ways to conserve water and not contaminate rivers.

I attach some Suggestions for Sustainable Sanitation that I formulated for the reconstruction of the Earthquake Zone of Ecuador, which would also have great application in other parts of the world. (I also attached the same document in Spanish.) I especially encourage you to look at the concept of Closed-loop Flushwater Recycling, in which effluent never is released into the environment, but instead returns back to the same toilets, like a conveyor belt. Remember that no touches or drinks the water in the toilet, so if color, smell and major disease risk are removed, there should be no objections from the users. It would be key to demonstrate this first on a small scale, maybe for a single person, potentially the same researcher (maybe you).

Please let us know what you think of these ideas and what we can do to help you.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Arborloos Wed, 15 Feb 2017 10:34:33 +0100
Barrel Compost Toilets - by: AquaVerde
I found this "Open Source" Barrel Compost Toilets on the Internet:
from Text : Marilia Kalouli, Illustration : Nicolas Bedau

Best Regards,
Composting toilets Tue, 14 Feb 2017 15:49:41 +0100
South African Sanitation Technology Demonstration Programme (SASTEP) - Reinvented Toilet Technology Demonstration and Roadmap to Commercialization - by: fcharlesc
I have been working around a similar concept but this one include both the superstructure and the semi-attached slab to facilitate emptying. However funds limit has been the main constraint. I will be able to share a full design once I finalise it]]>
Innovations and research in toilet design Sun, 12 Feb 2017 13:27:29 +0100
The Tiger Toilet which works with worms - like in-situ vermi-composting (field trials in India, Uganda and Burma) - Bear Valley Ventures Limited and Oxfam UK - by: smecca Effectively, the GSAP Microflush toilet is open source. We only ask that those intending to build our toilets get proper training. Putting our training guide on-line opens the door to someone taking a shortcut or scaling in the wrong direction leaving a potential bad mark on our design. If you have artesans in a community where you are working, we would be happy to arrange training for them.
Thanks for your astute observations.
Vermifilters for blackwater treatment, "worm toilets", "Tiger worm toilet" Tue, 17 Jan 2017 20:11:37 +0100
Prototype Microflush-Biofil Toilet Facilities (Ghana Sustainable Aid Project, USA and Ghana) - by: marrath Vermifilters for blackwater treatment, "worm toilets", "Tiger worm toilet" Sun, 15 Jan 2017 10:04:08 +0100 The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - latest results and publications since 2016 - by: AParker
The membrane will be modular. However, we would be nervous about installing the toilet without the membrane as the untreated liquid component will still be pretty nasty - basically feacally contaminated urine, which could cause significant groundwater contamination, depending on the local conditions. Our energy modelling suggests we will be able to get enough energy out of the faces to enable the membrane processes.

The membranes are hydrophobic so fouling is not too much of a problem (a paper on this is in preparation).

Innovations and research in toilet design Mon, 09 Jan 2017 12:36:13 +0100
A framework for the Most Important Risk Factors of Exposure in Container Based Sanitation (CBS)? - by: muench
Hi Eve,

I've been enjoying reading the conversation between you and Claire, thank you! :-) Please don't take it away to direct e-mails unless you really have to - you might be surprised how many people read the open exchanges, and benefit and learn as a result of it.

Just a quick one about pharmaceutical residues in urine:
  1. You can read up about that here on the forum - please just check that you're not re-inventing the wheel. See here:
  2. You also have pharmaceuticals in feces by the way, not just in urine.
  3. In the scheme of things in developing countries, health risks from pharmaceutical residues in urine and ultimately on crops, is miniscule compared to all the other risks in sanitation provision (and due to lack of sanitation)
  4. Soils are better in breaking down pharmaceutical residues in urine than aquatic environments which are receiving sewage. Therefore reuse of urine may be preferable from that perspective.
Also, somewhere above you talked about risks coming from urine infiltration. Don't forget also the risk of nitrate pollution of groundwater (although the health risks from that might also be smaller than previously thought, see here: (2 pages of discussion))

Container-based, mobile or bag-based toilets Wed, 21 Dec 2016 22:32:21 +0100
All the toilets supported by BMGF are very expensive, luxary, sophisticated and expensive in China - by: scottchen Half a year ago, there was a toilet competition in China funded by Gatets foundation. All the winnners come with advanced and sophiscated systems and claim theie device can turn the waste into drinkingable water...
As for the toilet you mentioned , i think 300 USD is not cheap at all comparing with normal flush toielts.
I would be very please if you could tell me more infomation about it.
best wishes
Innovations and research in toilet design Fri, 18 Nov 2016 16:49:01 +0100