SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Mon, 27 Apr 2015 10:31:10 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Breathable membrane enclosures for fecal sludge stabilization (University of Delaware, USA) - by: shraysaxena88
The dry crust formation is an indication of absence of free water. The sludge crust will hence, not be a problem until the very end of the drying cycle. I would also point out that continuous stirring will definitely help in removing the deposits which do settle down due to sedimentation. But in a field situation such deposits will offer resistance to the drying rates and hence lab results should provide a good substitute for the same.

For your second concern about the actual reduction in water content, I agree that an increase in 0.5 months is not much over an impermeable container. For this particular reason we have replacement drums which will allow the fully filled sludge drums to dry for 1.5 + 0.5 = 2 months. That, given certain hot and dry climates could be a sustainable model for these Eco-Vapor toilets.
I hope this helps.]]>
User interface technology innovations Thu, 16 Apr 2015 21:10:56 +0000
Re: Breathable membrane enclosures for fecal sludge stabilization (University of Delaware, USA) - by: JKMakowka
Did I understand the "wetted surface area" slide correctly, that after a while a dry crust forms close to the membrane, that slows the drying of the more interior fecal sludge? And ideas how the sludge could be stirred before that happens?

I am also a bit dubious about the conclusions based on the "current progress" slide... volumes without measuring the actual water content can't really measure the effectiveness of the membrane because you only estimate what went in. And even if your assumption is correct, the actual reduction in water content seems not all that high, i.e. at the current size of the drum you would have to empty it every month without the membrane and maybe every 1.5 months with?]]>
User interface technology innovations Tue, 14 Apr 2015 16:29:01 +0000
Re: Breathable membrane enclosures for fecal sludge stabilization (University of Delaware, USA) - by: shraysaxena88 To summarize, in this project we use a breathable membrane for the dewatering of fecal sludge and containment of pathogens as the sludge dries due to the partial pressure difference between the inside and outside the membrane bags. This partial pressure difference is created due to the temperature difference or the humidity difference (wet sludge is 100% humid).
Recently, we started field trials of these membrane bags in Kanpur, India where we provided two toilets to 2 households in urban slum areas. These bags line the inside of a perforated 55-Gallon drum which will act as the storage for fecal matter from active toilet users. This perforated drum is housed on the roof of the house in a honeycombed wall chamber surrounding it. The toilet seat is housed in the superstructure above the drum and the connection is a funnel shaped sheet metal design. The toilet seat used is a locally made squatting type seat based on the SATO pan design. This particular design contains a counter-weighted trapdoor through which any solid or liquid passes through due to its weight. It has been shown that this SATO pan design reduces the amount of flush water used in a toilet. It should also be noted that all connections between the toilet seat and the drum is air tight and no odors are expected to escape back into the superstructure.
In addition, the drum is placed on a wheeled platform which makes the replacement of a fully sludge filled bag easy to maneuver. We also provide a replacement drum and membrane so that the toilet does not go out of commission once the active drum is full. This supplementary drum also provides a good amount of waiting period for the fully sludge filled drum before the replaced drum fills up, hence more drying time for the full drum. Each drum also has a seep hole in the bottom connected to a pipe which runs through the nearest drain, so that in case of leakages the users’ house is not contaminated.
Since, this is a pilot research study, we have limited the number of uses to 4 per day which includes 1 liter/use of wash water. We are regularly monitoring these toilets on a weekly basis through our collaborators WaterAid India and Shramik Bharti.
Currently, we see that one 55 Gallon drum gets full in approximately 50 days of regular usage under the winter conditions of Kanpur. We hope that in the summer months (June-July), the filling rate and drying rate will reach an equilibrium.
Please find attached two presentations:
1) Fecal Sludge Management 3 conference
2) Graduate Seminar at University of Delaware. Spring 2015.]]>
User interface technology innovations Tue, 14 Apr 2015 14:58:10 +0000
Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: chuckhenry User interface technology innovations Sun, 05 Apr 2015 17:12:45 +0000 Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: ben
This is great to see your progresses, your new model and the low prices you managed to reach. Congratulation, I've been following you for a while and you showed that innovation is a long path. Looking forward to see how they're perceived outside ecuador.

Just for curiosity, are you working on some decentralized production, mean a way to ship molds and technical guides rather than actual products from china. Chinese production could spread all over asia and pacific for cheap though. Would local production everywhere be the next step of your development or the price difference will make it cheaper from china for a long time still ?

Wish you best of luck in your prospects, and thanks for sharing all the updates.

User interface technology innovations Sun, 05 Apr 2015 16:58:41 +0000
Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: chuckhenry 100-499 units $150USD
500-999 units $125USD
1000+ units $110USD

This is based on complete kits for the current model, with reductions of price achievable by reductions of production and handling costs with higher quantities.]]>
User interface technology innovations Fri, 03 Apr 2015 14:49:54 +0000
Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: chuckhenry
We do recommend a separate urinal next to the toilet. Yet, at the same time, we're always trying to improve the design - changing the seal is a possibility to act as a stand-up urinal. Each change, however, is relatively expensive!]]>
User interface technology innovations Fri, 03 Apr 2015 14:41:21 +0000
Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: JKMakowka
One remark regarding the UD part: Seems a bit unfortunate that the design doesn't allow for urine division when the faeces compartment is open (the opening is too small to hit I think).
I do like the idea of having a lid that allows clean urine division, but the specific design doesn't allow it to be used as a standing urinal. Wouldn't it be possible to shape it in a way that there is a splash protection for the seat and with a more rounded interior that one can actually use the lid for urinating while standing?

Last but not least: do you already ship samples? What would be the approximate price?]]>
User interface technology innovations Fri, 03 Apr 2015 12:58:08 +0000
Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: mtfioravanti
The attached PPT that we used in the FSM3 in Hanoi, Vietnam can be illustrative for the current status of our activities in Ecuador. We should have strong results by the mid of 2015 regarding to the technology assesment in Ecuador.

Cheers! Marcos]]>
User interface technology innovations Fri, 03 Apr 2015 00:57:29 +0000
Re: Low-cost sanitation for emergencies - Aerosan in New Delhi - by: Andrew
Thanks for your comments! The bags are made of the same material as the cubicles--the used vinyl billboard fabric. In the ones in Haiti they were somewhat large (1.5 m3) with the idea that the first part of the composting would occur at the toilet site. In practice, we found that it was better to compost everything at a secondary site and so we moved the partially full bags of the five arrays in operation (5 toilets per array) and set that up. It's not ideal and moving the material was difficult. Having the toilet superstructures be moved back and forth onto two bins (like a giant fossa alterna) was the idea, but it was harder to do in practice than we had originally thought. So the Haiti toilets are still functioning and not filling very fast (due to a level of composting which is decreasing volume even if it's not performing the hygienization process that we want), so they are working but the emptying of those systems remains a challenge. We are working on a different design which will be for single toilet units and which will be much easier to handle as far as maintenance is concerned.

I like the cylindrical approach as well--there are a lot of structural benefits to building them that way. We have only built these ones you see in the videos for the Delhi show. We are looking at going to single units and will be emphasizing the pack-ability/ship-ability issue, but I don't have a video of that. My new idea has us going away from the cylinders (at least for the moment) for a few reasons. Not sure how that will work out at the moment, but I feel like we have some good ideas.

The flexible strips for the walls were a problem in the India units--we had used masonite, which I didn't like, but it worked for the time being. I want to use strips cut from the 2 x 4s and am experimenting with that a bit.

We do not have a tech guide as of yet in Kreyol.

The rate of filling was one of the pleasant surprises to us--we found that they just weren't filling up and when we went to look at them 9 months after initial set-up, they were not full then, but we changed out the bags anyway, as described above. The thing is, I think there is a fair amount of volume loss due to the decomposition like you say, and I would like to be able to quantify that at some point.

As far as temperature monitoring, we did that while we were living in Cite Soleil with our own compost pile and found that we could regularly get temperatures over 70 C. We turned our compost often and experienced the spike at least 5 times before it gradually decreased. We were composting in Vodrey (our village) on the edge of Cite Soleil.

And yes, SOIL we know very well--Sasha and her team have made a ton of progress as far as promoting composting as a treatment method for sanitation. GiveLove, with whom I've also worked, has done a lot in that area as well.

Sorry for the late reply--I am not checking these posts often enough! Please feel free to ask anything else. There are some things about our design that I'm not satisfied with, and I think that's why I'm still trying some new ideas. The one thing I can say that I think we have a better handle on is the building style using wood and billboard fabric with each iteration. Each time we build something from these materials we learn more about how to perfect the building style itself--which is separate from all the process stuff, but a necessary part of a low-cost humanitarian solution.


User interface technology innovations Thu, 12 Mar 2015 03:33:49 +0000
Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: chuckhenry
Yes, I totally agree about EA-X being a hybrid. AS you know, fairly rapid composting takes place at solids percentages between 40-60; composting definitely takes place while being mixed and moved through the horizontal tube. And it's easy to tell, as the material that comes out the end has a typical musty odor of rich earth rather than a fecal smell. But drying definitely occurs as well, with end material varying between a low of 30% and a high of 90% - this is presumably dependent upon number of users and effectiveness of the urine diverter.

Air gets into the pipe via the black vent tube - as solar radiation heats up the tube, air is drawn upwards and out. as the toilet seat is not totally air tight, air enters from there and passes through the horizontal tube.

In the US I test all versions at my home in the mountains outside of Seattle. Currently I have three still available for use! EA-X is my current toilet of choice as it's attached to my house!

Then, an organization in Oregon is in the process of developing a "Go & Grow" concept - where EA-X is the centering point of a greenhouse - the 'compost' and urine/greywater is used for edible garden crops. They have four toilets.

Also, my wife and I were recently written up in the University of Washington Columns magazine
That has stirred a fair amount of interest from UW alumni and we've gotten a number of requests for toilets in our area in the US. Our plan is to choose three local sites (in addition Go & Grow) for extensive monitoring for certification of the toilet.

Why Cambodia, Nepal and South Africa in particular? Opportunity! Live and Learn from Cambodia has long been interested in the EA - because my wife and I had the conference in Hanoi (and our partner Roger joined us) we each carried a toilet US-Vietnam-Cambodia and had a wonderful visit/installation to the Angkor World Heritage site.

In South Africa, as mentioned earlier in a post, we were invited as one of five technologies for large-scale demonstration. This project may start in June this year. In Nepal we were asked to co propose for a small ADB grant that was approved, but not yet started.

The fate of Ascaris is being investigated by the University of Washington for us. As there are few incidences of Ascaris found in Ecuador, they are pursuing this by lab studies in Seattle. You are correct - we don't expect to find much reduction in the horizontal tube UNTIL compost reached the outside of the structure, where you can see it's all black (this is a new design change). Temperatures increase about 20°C above ambient due to solar radiation in the black bucket - with moderately high ambient temperatures we expect to see good results.]]>
User interface technology innovations Thu, 05 Mar 2015 16:22:23 +0000
Re: Diversion for Safe Sanitation - Grant on Advanced Toilet with On-Site Water Recovery (Eawag and EOOS, Switzerland and Austria) - by: SteffiE
I just wanted to give you a little update on this project in case you are wondering about its progress: The Gates Foundation has unfortunately decided against giving further funding for this research for now. Reason: they want to focus on “reinvented toilets” that treat all the excreta at the household level, which is something that this toilet cannot do (it is only treating the flush and washwater at the household level).

Nevertheless, things might still be progressing. Eawag is currently talking to a toilet manufacturer who is interested in the filtering mechanism that is installed in the vertical back part of the toilet.

You should also know, that Eawag recently received BMGF-funding for a new project called AUTARKY, to develop a complete on-site treatment toilet. Similar to Blue Diversion, water, urine and feces are being separated and hopefully - by the end of 2016 - treated directly in the toilet. The final products will be water and precipitated solids. However, I don't want to confuse you for which reason we will present AUTARKY in detail in a new thread.

Best regards,
User interface technology innovations Mon, 23 Feb 2015 15:00:07 +0000
Re: Partners wanted for Ghana - by: smecca Note by moderator: This post was originally in this thread:

Household level GSAP Microflush toilets are made by trained local toilet MAKERs in Ghana (as well as other countries) for ~$300US and this incudes a $100 gross profit to the MAKER. The toilets are sustainable, off-grid, flushing on 150 cc (1 cup) of water from the prior user's handwashing. They are harvested for a rich compost after 2-3 years of 15 or uses per day...much less than 1000 sterling.]]>
User interface technology innovations Sun, 01 Feb 2015 22:21:28 +0000
U-ACT Project by ETH Nadel, Sandec and Makerere University (urban affordable, clean toilets - Kampala, Uganda) - by: donahupa]]> User interface technology innovations Wed, 21 Jan 2015 10:04:11 +0000 Re: Much improved Wikipedia page on composting toilets - by: muench
Thanks for your reply.
What does EA-X stand for or is that just the name of your model?

Also on second thoughts I am wondering now if your toilet really classifies as a composting toilet or is it more of a hybrid between UDDT and composting toilet? I mean how do you ensure you have enough moisture and aeration in your composting process? How does the air geht into the pipe, just from each "flush" and addition of new material? Maybe I should rather move it to the UDDT page of Wikipedia rather than the composting page, what would you say?

Also, could you please provide some information about composting toilets and UDDTs in general in Ecuador. Are there any, apart from yours now? (and the ones by Chris Canada which are mentioned in the Wikipedia article here:

And where in the US have they been installed by now?
Why Cambodia, Nepal and South Africa in particular?

What about helminth eggs in the compost, is this something you test for regularly? I would not expect that you get much reduction there as you probably don't have much of a temperature increase in your process or do you?

User interface technology innovations Tue, 13 Jan 2015 20:19:30 +0000