SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Wed, 29 Jul 2015 17:56:04 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: Taber http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#14221 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#14221 I am able (smile) to understand this, but perhaps it can be said more succinctly for all Wiki readers.

For example, yet still awkward:
Within the total solids component, volatile solids make up 75-85%. The remaining 25-15% is dry solid matter that is 65-85% organic material.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 17 Jul 2015 04:13:20 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: AParker http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#14199 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#14199 ]]> Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 15 Jul 2015 13:07:31 +0000 Re: Odor Survey announcement - by: kathyjooss http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12559-odor-control-in-sanitation-facilities-and-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#14006 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12559-odor-control-in-sanitation-facilities-and-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#14006
Thanks for taking the survey and recommending it to others.

By 'on-site researcher' we mean sanitation researchers located on the ground in developing countries.

The terms 'latrine' and 'toilet' are used interchangeably in the survey. While some audiences may infer differences in meaning, to my knowledge and based on the Webster's definition, the two are interchangeable. (E.g. latrine can be used to describe a bathroom for soldiers or a pit in the ground that is used as a toilet, but it is also used as another word for toilet.)

Best Regards,
Kathy]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 23:30:26 +0000
Re: Assessing Odor Issues and Control Strategies for the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - Duke/University of Colorado, Boulder, USA - by: kathyjooss http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#14004 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#14004
As part of the project, research is being conducted on two potential odor control mechanisms, (1) odor adsorption by activated carbon and biochars and (2) biochar based biofilters. We will be correlating adsorption characteristics to char physico-chemical properties and investigating the applicability of biochar-based biofilters for odor control in specific FSM applications. At this time, we are not yet targeting a specific sanitation system or geographic location.

Best Regards,
Kathy]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 23:09:52 +0000
Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - by: TinaVelkushanova http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13988 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13988
Hope this brings some clarity and please do not hesitate to ask should you need more information.

Best regards
Tina]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 13:16:03 +0000
Re: Equipment and health and safety modifications required for developing the capacity to support grantees field-testing in Durban, SA (UKZN, South Africa) - by: TinaVelkushanova http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13985 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13985
apologies for the late reply. Actually the SOP manual has been developed about two years ago and we are currently working on the next revision as a lot more work has been done since the latest version


We have shared the Pollution Research Group FS SOP manual on request with a lot of our partners and are happy to provide guidance and support if more information is required.

Soon you will be able to download the next version of our FS SOP manual with additional FS analytical procedures from our website: prg.ukzn.ac.za/laboratory-facilities.

There are currently negotiations regarding the further peer-review and publication of the FS SOP manual. Any advice on this matter will be appreciated.


Best regards
Tina]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:52:26 +0000
Re: Odor Survey announcement - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12559-odor-control-in-sanitation-facilities-and-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#13981 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12559-odor-control-in-sanitation-facilities-and-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#13981
I have just completed your online odor survey. With my post I want to encourage others to take it as well because the survey is well structured and easy to fill in. It doesn't take long. I liked how you used the conditional formatting, i.e. if you answer like this on Question 1, then the following questions are adjusted etc.

Just two things that I noticed (I also put them in the comment field):
  • What is your definition of an "on-site researcher"? Someone who does research in the field of on-site sanitation or someone who does research and is located "on the ground" in developing countries?
  • I noticed that you jumped around between the terms latrine and toilet... E.g. in the one list you gave the option of "public latrine" but not "public toilet". I think we should be quite careful with the two terms. Latrine more or less implies something odorous, doesn't it?

See also Wikipedia pages on latrine:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latrine

and on toilet:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toilet

and compare the difference... (not saying that these Wikipedia pages are ideal yet but they give a good overview).

And I'd love to work with you later on improving the Wikipedia page on odor but I will leave that for a separate thread (the Wikipedia page on odor does not yet mention the words sanitation, toilet, excreta, feces anywhere - hard to believe, isn't it?).

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:56:19 +0000
Re: Assessing Odor Issues and Control Strategies for the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - Duke/University of Colorado, Boulder, USA - by: pkjha http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#13935 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#13935 Project is on Assessing odour issues and control strategies………. Assessment is not a challenging issue. Odour control is definitely a challenging task. Would like to know if there is any mechanism developed to control odour under the project.

Best
pawan]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 30 Jun 2015 06:35:08 +0000
Odor Survey announcement - by: kathyjooss http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12559-odor-control-in-sanitation-facilities-and-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#13929 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12559-odor-control-in-sanitation-facilities-and-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#13929
I’d like to take advantage of this important thread to extend an invitation and a request to all viewers to provide us with information about your first-hand experience. Duke University and University of Colorado, Boulder are conducting an on-line survey to define the landscape of odor nuisance and control, and we need your help. We are interested in the sources and level of malodor you’ve experienced in any type of sanitation systems in less developed countries. We are interested in odors present in toilets, during storage, or during handling, processing, application or disposal of fecal waste.

Click here to access take the survey: duke.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_3q0E3xaKk9tpUeF

This survey should take 5-20 minutes to complete, depending on the extent of your responses. It is being conducted as part of a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded odor project which I have just introduced here on the forum:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-pr...colorado-boulder-usa

The results will be published and applied to find effective methods of preventing, capturing and destroying odors, promoting successful adoption of safe toilets and sanitation technologies.

We would greatly appreciate your time. We hope the results can help us all address this important issue.

Best Regards,
Kathy Jooss]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 29 Jun 2015 19:32:06 +0000
Assessing Odor Issues and Control Strategies for the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - Duke/University of Colorado, Boulder, USA - by: kathyjooss http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#13927 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#13927
Title of grant: Assessing Odor Issues and Control Strategies for the RTTC (Reinvent the Toilet Challenge)

Short title: Duke University odor project

Summary: This project seeks to improve the adoption rate of sustainable sanitation services and their intrinsic health benefits through the development of odor control and mitigation solutions for various “Reinvented Toilet” (RT) systems and fecal sludge management (FSM) technologies. Cleaner smelling toilets will be more successful at overcoming a key barrier to broader public uptake of new sanitation solutions.

  • Name of lead organization: Duke University
  • Primary contact at lead organization: Marc Deshusses, PI; Kathy Jooss, Research Support
  • Grantee location: Durham, North Carolina, USA
  • Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: Global
  • Start and end date: Nov. 11, 2014 – Nov. 15, 2015
  • Grant type: Other
  • Grant size in USD: $226,709 as per grant database here

Short description of the project:
Malodor nuisance is a major risk factor in the adoption of effective fecal sludge management. It has been reported that filthy and smelly latrines motivate people to practice open defecation in areas with poor sanitation. This project focuses on what can be done to address the odor issue. The challenges of mitigating odor nuisances are very significant, owing to the highly odorous nature of fecal matter, the multiple ways that odorants can be released to the atmosphere, and the very low concentrations at which these odorants cause nuisance. Malodor can be released, evolve and cause nuisance at the source directly in toilets, during storage, handling, processing and disposal of fecal waste. Effective methods for preventing, capturing and destroying odors are required for successful adoption of any toilet or sanitation technology being developed.

Goals:
Conduct a broad survey to define the landscape of odor nuisance and control in all types of sanitation systems currently in use in developing countries. Determine the applicability of traditional and emerging filtration options to control odor using biochars both as an adsorbent and as a support material for bacteria in biofilters. Evaluate odors emitted from Reinvented Toilet systems and emerging fecal sludge management (FSM) methods specifically, i.e., primarily fecal odors, but also including combustion or drying of fecal sludge.

Objectives:
(1) Survey the malodor landscape in FSM using an on-line survey (click here to access the survey), (2) Adsorption studies (Boulder team), (3) Biofiltration Studies (Duke team), and (4) Filling knowledge gaps and preparing for pilot testing and field trials in locations yet to be determined.

One of the project team members working with an olfactometer to measure odours:




Research or implementation partners: Karl Linden, University of Colorado, Boulder
Links, further readings – results to date: none

Current state of affairs:
  • Two surveys have been created, one specifically for Gates funded technology developers and a one for the broad audience of stakeholders using or working on sanitation solutions in developing countries. Both surveys were launched in June. To participate in the stakeholder sanitation malodor study, please use the link below or click here.
  • A new graduate student started in April at Duke to conduct biofiltration research.
  • Research at University of Boulder comparing adsorbents performance well underway.

Biggest success so far:
Held successful odor session and roundtable at FSM3 in Hanoi in Jan., 2015, as well as discussions during an ensuing Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation workshop.

See: www.susana.org/en/resources/conference-m...ials-2/2015/259-fsm3
(from this page you also have access to the presentations and videos)

14.30 – 15.30 Odour issues in FSM – A panel discussion on the challenges of mitigating odour nuisances, owing to the highly odorous nature of faecal matter – Day 2, Room 2, Session 2

Introduction: Marc Deshusses, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
(see here in the video starting at 11s: youtu.be/vM6uCiiKhjM?t=11s)

FSM3 Conference Odor Roundtable Discussion – key takeaways:
(see here in the video starting at 28m4s: youtu.be/vM6uCiiKhjM?t=28m4s)
  • >200 people attended, suggesting significant interest in odor issues
  • Importance of malodor control/avoidance was recognized
  • Malodor is an essential and truly cross-cutting concern in FSM because no technology or toilet will be accepted if it smells bad.
  • The main culprit odorants are known and limited to about a dozen chemicals.
  • Specific odor mitigation methods that work in different contexts are needed but are currently missing.
Specific points that were discussed:
  • Schools are often the worse.
  • Pour flush toilets reduce odors, but fill pits faster.
  • Some vacuum trucks stinks, others not.
  • Malodor release is a concern for neighborhood treatment facilities.
  • Designs that increase odors include lined pits, cement pads.
  • Few odor mitigation means are known/tested. Odor control methods should not have negative effects downstream.
  • Odor can serve as a hazard warning and health indicator.

Sanitation Stakeholder Odor Survey: (also mentioned in another thread on the forum here):

We are conducting an on-line survey as part of this project. If you have first-hand experience using or working with sanitation systems in less developed countries, we need your input. Please consider taking our survey to help us collect important data on sanitation malodor. It should only take 5-20 minutes to complete, depending on the extent of your responses.

We greatly appreciate your time and hope the published results can help us all address this important issue.

Click here to access take the survey: duke.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_3q0E3xaKk9tpUeF

Kathy Jooss]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 29 Jun 2015 18:32:50 +0000
Re: GSAP Microflush Toilet in Ghana is making steady progress - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13710-gsap-microflush-toilet-in-ghana-is-making-steady-progress#13714 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13710-gsap-microflush-toilet-in-ghana-is-making-steady-progress#13714
Thanks a lot for the update from the field, despite lacking power and internet access. Much appreciated!

You said here in August 2013: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-us...t-usa-and-ghana#5452

The S-Lab at Providence College in the US has been studying several options for blackwater treatment from our digester. We expect publishable results in the first quarter of 2014; I will keep you posted on this.


Are these publications available by now?

Also, can you please post some photos of the toilets and prototype treatment units from the field?

And why do you write "MAKERS" in capital letters, is it an abbreviation for something? Just wondering.

Have you received additional funding for this work or is it based on donations for your NGO called Ghana Sustainable Aid Project (GSAP)?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 16 Jun 2015 09:36:13 +0000
GSAP Microflush Toilet in Ghana is making steady progress - by: smecca http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13710-gsap-microflush-toilet-in-ghana-is-making-steady-progress#13710 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13710-gsap-microflush-toilet-in-ghana-is-making-steady-progress#13710
The model creates a small enterprise for the MAKER in his/her community wile helping to solve the community's sanitation issues. The basics system including the filter-digester, user interface and facility enclosure averages about $300 USD for the household version and that includes ~$100 profit to the MAKER.

The S-Lab at Providence College, Dept Engineering-Physics-Systems has been working on 4 different processing systems for the filtrate, two of which we are currently prototyping. When these studies are finished, I will post a link to the paper.

It has been a while since I provided an update on our work; Elisabeth reminded me that I should do this even while busy and lacking power with unsteady internet in Ghana.

..Steve

+++++++++

* Note by moderator: GSAP stands for Ghana Sustainable Aid Project
A related earlier discussion about this technology is available here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/106-us...roject-usa-and-ghana]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 15 Jun 2015 22:48:26 +0000
Re: Sanitation NoW - Unit Operations Approach for Rapid Disinfection of Human Waste (University of Toronto, Canada) - by: steve4real http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4123-sanitation-now-unit-operations-approach-for-rapid-disinfection-of-human-waste-university-of-toronto-canada?limit=12&start=12#13562 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4123-sanitation-now-unit-operations-approach-for-rapid-disinfection-of-human-waste-university-of-toronto-canada?limit=12&start=12#13562 My apologies for not posting an update sooner. We are fevershily working under the third phase of our RTTC grant. Please listen to Prof. Yu-Ling Cheng's high level presentation at FSM3 in March of this year for a very excellent overview of where we are at.

The exact starting point is here:
youtu.be/XutfOZSdK10?t=48m21s

Or go to 48m21s here:



We have an integrated prototype that is operational in our lab. We will be testing it using donated human samples this summer. I've attached a photo of our phase 2 prototype. The key differences of phase 2 vs phase 3 is that our phase 3 prototype will be much smaller and will be able to operate without a dedicated daily operator. No photos of our phase 3 prototype yet but will update when we can.

Thanks,

Steve

+++++++++
Note by moderator:
The presentation slides from Yu-Ling Cheng's presentation at FSM3 are here:
www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-d...m-3/3-3-2-4Cheng.pdf
(or on this page: www.susana.org/en/resources/conference-m...ials-2/2015/259-fsm3)]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 03 Jun 2015 17:52:29 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: AParker http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#13539 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#13539
Thanks for taking the initiative to edit the Wikipedia pages, that's great!

I hadn't realized that "per capita" would be so confusing as I thought it was widely used in other fields as well e.g. economics. Obviously we can't change the paper now, but please do use "per person" in the wikipedia pages if you think it would be less confusing.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 02 Jun 2015 10:09:05 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#13533 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper#13533 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_feces

I would avoid using the per capita (replace with per person) for ease of understanding, Elisabeth.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 02 Jun 2015 06:54:02 +0000