SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Mon, 02 May 2016 08:16:45 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Safe sludge – The disinfection of latrine faecal sludge with ammonia naturally present in excreta (University of California, Berkeley, USA) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4934-safe-sludge--the-disinfection-of-latrine-faecal-sludge-with-ammonia-naturally-present-in-excreta-university-of-california-berkeley-usa#17485 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4934-safe-sludge--the-disinfection-of-latrine-faecal-sludge-with-ammonia-naturally-present-in-excreta-university-of-california-berkeley-usa#17485
Here are the details:

washdev.iwaponline.com/content/6/1/104

In-toilet disinfection of fresh fecal sludge with ammonia naturally present in excreta

Temitope A. Ogunyoku, Fikreselam Habebo, Kara L. Nelson
Published March 2016, 6 (1) 104-114; DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2015.233

Abstract

A simple treatment method, Safe Sludge disinfection, was developed to disinfect pathogens in fresh fecal sludge using the ammonia naturally present in excreta. In the first step, urea is hydrolyzed to ammonia (NH3/NH4+). In the second step, Ca(OH)2 is added to raise the pH level such that NH3, a known disinfectant, is the dominant form of ammonia; subsequently, the waste is stored until sufficient disinfection is achieved. In a closed system at 23 °C, Safe Sludge disinfection achieved >9.3 log10 and >4.0 log10 decrease of indigenous Escherichia coli and seeded MS2 coliphage, respectively, within 10.6 hours, and 2.0 log10 inactivation of seeded Ascaris suum eggs within 2 weeks.

Disinfection of feces at high pH with no urine addition was tested for comparison, and similar inactivation levels were achieved for E. coli and MS2 bacteriophage. However, for Ascaris eggs only 0.38 log10 inactivation was achieved over 2 weeks. For control samples (feces plus urine only), no inactivation of bacteria or virus indicators was observed and inactivation of Ascaris eggs was also low (0.42 log10). To illustrate how the Safe Sludge concept could be incorporated into a waterless household toilet, a conceptual design and prototype was developed, called the pHree Loo.


Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. I noticed that the question by Patty from 2 years ago haven't been answered yet. I will try to alert the people from the project to them, perhaps they could still answer them.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 21 Mar 2016 02:34:13 +0000
Equipment and health and safety modifications required for developing the capacity to support grantees field-testing in Durban, South Africa (UKZN) - by: ChrisBuckley http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-south-africa-ukzn#17274 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-south-africa-ukzn#17274
If you have any questions, please put them into this thread.

Regards,
Chris


Title of grant: Equipment and health and safety modifications required for developing the capacity to support grantees field-testing in Durban, SA

Name of lead organization: University of KwaZulu-Natal
Primary contact at lead organization: Chris Buckley
Grantee location: Durban, South Africa
Countries where the project takes place: South Africa, Senegal, East Africa and India
Start and end date: 10 Nov. 2014 to 31 Oct. 2017
Grant type: Other (supporting researchers from the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge scheme, but also other researchers)
Grant size: USD 1,600,432 (as per BMGF grant database here)

Short description of the project:

The grant was awarded to the Pollution Research Group (PRG) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in order to increase the capacity of the PRG to provide support to sanitation practitioners working in the faecal sludge management field. This included covering the cost of upgrading the laboratory to increase health and safety (improved extraction, storage etc.), provide more space for visiting researchers, and to purchase analytical equipment to increase the range of tests that can be undertaken.

In addition, the PRG offers training support to other laboratories wishing to undertake similar analyses. Staff labour costs of the PRG are covered by the grant, but all other costs such as chemicals, consumables, and travel and subsistence need to be covered by the researcher requesting assistance. Application for support can be made to Chris Buckley via email ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ).


Goals:
  • To augment the services provided to transformative technology grantees and sanitation practitioners wishing to demonstrate their technologies in Eastern Africa
  • To provide laboratory and testing services to SteP (Sanitation Technology Evaluation Programme) in which prototypes developed by the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge and other initiatives are operated in a realistic environment (Senegal, Durban and Coimbatore)
  • To provide laboratory, and field testing support services to faecal sludge researchers

Objectives:
  • To have a laboratory, field testing and office facilities available for use by faecal sludge researchers
  • Increase the chemical, physical and microbiological data available of relevance to faecal sludge researchers

Research or implementation partners:
  • eThekwini Water and Sanitation
  • Water Research Commission of South Africa
  • Research partners: Durban University of Technology, Sanergy; Centre for Science and the Enviroment; Eawag; Sandec; Asian Institute of Technology; BORDA; Oklahoma State University; UNESCO-IHE; University College London

Links, further readings – results to date:

Current state of affairs:
  • The offices and laboratory at the PRG, University of KwaZulu-Natal are currently being refurbished and are operating with reduced capacity. The Newlands Mashu laboratory and facilities are fully functional
  • The laboratory technicians are conducting training courses in Africa and India on methods for the analysis of faecal sludge streams (including Ascaris analysis) and health and safety in dealing with such streams.
  • The mechanical workshop is manufacturing a nitrification reactor for Sanergy
  • One of the engineers is assisting UNESCO-IHE in the manufacture and field evaluation of equipment

Biggest successes so far:
  • Assisting laboratories in Africa and India in the range of analyses that they can undertake. This includes Sanergy (Kenya), Consortium for DEWATS Dissemination (CDD) Laboratory (Bangalore, India), Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) Laboratory (Delhi, India), University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Mzuzu University (Malawi) and Malawi University (Malawi). Training has also been undertaken at the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand.
  • Training researchers from Botswana University and University of Western Province in the Pollution Research Group laboratory in undertaking faecal sludge analysis.

Main challenges / frustration:
  • Being housed in the middle of a building site – but the end result will be an expanded facility
]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 01 Mar 2016 14:36:12 +0000
RTI Reinvent the Toilet - September and October 2015 User Studies: Ahmedabad, India Summary Field Report - by: thaddeushunt http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#17023 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#17023 abettertoilet.org/wp-content/uploads/201...ry-Report-vFINAL.pdf

Here's a quick intro:

This report presents the findings from a set of 32 FGDs conducted with groups of potential users who were able to observe the alpha prototype on the CEPT University campus in September and October 2015. These FGDs build on previous data collection activities and technical research and development (R&D) efforts. RTI and its partners designed the FGDs in this round to collect information from potential users of the RTI prototype system on a variety of topics:
  • water reuse in the RTI system
  • menstrual hygiene management (MHM)
  • men’s practices and preferences
  • reactions to particular features of the RTI prototype user interface

]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 16 Feb 2016 14:56:27 +0000
Grant update: Viscous Heating for Helminth Deactivation in Fecal Sludge - by: garyfoutchosu http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4054-update-viscous-heating-for-helminth-deactivation-in-fecal-sludge-university-of-missouri--kansas-city-usa-and-ukzn-south-africa#16962 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4054-update-viscous-heating-for-helminth-deactivation-in-fecal-sludge-university-of-missouri--kansas-city-usa-and-ukzn-south-africa#16962
Title of grant: Viscous Heating for Helminth Deactivation in Fecal Sludge (200 to 1000 Liters/Hour)
Subtitle: Scale-up of viscous heater technology
Name of lead organization: University of Missouri – Kansas City
Primary contact at lead organization: Gary L Foutch
Grantee location: Kansas City, Missouri
Country where the research is being tested: At UKZN in Durban, South Africa
Start and end date: January to December 2016
Grant type: Initially we were a GCE, now funded by Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Global Development
Grant size: USD 336,733 (as per BMGF grant database here)

Short description of the project:

We were successful in destroying Helminth eggs, particularly Ascaris lumbricoides, in VIP sludge during Phase 2 using viscous heating. Our next step is to scale-up the equipment for larger flow rates. This year we will design, build and test equipment that can operate effectively at 200 and 1000 L/hr. Our computational fluid dynamics design is underway with construction of devices beginning in May and testing in Durban during late summer and fall. Viscous heating allows any viscous fluid to heat itself on the molecular level by passing it through a shear field. No additional heating is required, we have achieved experimental temperatures up to 190 C. For Ascaris, no eggs have survived 80 C effluent temperatures. Water addition is not desired.

Goal(s): Prove that viscous heating can work at scale.

Research or implementation partners: Oklahoma State University – Jim Smay, lead, and University of KwaZulu-Natal – Chris Buckley, lead

Links, further readings – results to date:

Documents from Phase 1 and 2 in SuSanA library: www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1752

Important peer-reviewed journal articles from Phase 1 (note they are all behind a paywall, sorry about that (however, I can send you the pdf file on a one-on-one basis on request; just drop me a note using the contact button on the left); in 2016 we plan to publish more in open access mode):

  1. Podichetty, Jagdeep T., Md Waliul Islam, David Van, Gary L. Foutch, and A. H. Johannes. "Viscous heating analysis of simulant feces by computational fluid dynamics and experimentation." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 4, no. 1 (2014): 62-71. washdev.iwaponline.com/content/4/1/62
  2. Woolley, S. M., C. A. Buckley, J. Pocock, and G. L. Foutch. "Rheological modelling of fresh human faeces." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 4, no. 3 (2014): 484-489, washdev.iwaponline.com/content/4/3/484
  3. Belcher, D., G. L. Foutch, J. Smay, C. Archer, and C. A. Buckley. "Viscous heating effect on deactivation of helminth eggs in ventilated improved pit sludge." Water Science and Technology 72, no. 7 (2015): 1119-1126, wst.iwaponline.com/content/72/7/1119
  4. Thomas, J. E., J. T. Podichetty, Y. Shi, D. Belcher, R. Dunlap, K. McNamara, M. V. Reichard, J. Smay, A. J. Johannes, and G. L. Foutch. "Effect of temperature and shear stress on the viability of Ascaris suum." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 5, no. 3 (2015): 402-411, washdev.iwaponline.com/content/5/3/402
  5. Podichetty, Jagdeep T., Gary L. Foutch, A. H. Johannes, Jim Smay, and Md Waliul Islam. "Designing a high-throughput viscous heater to process feces: heater geometry." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 5, no. 3 (2015): 521-524, washdev.iwaponline.com/content/5/3/521

Current state of affairs: Scale-up design is underway.

Biggest successes so far: The technology works.

Main challenges / frustration: We need sufficient viscosity to generate heat and the sludge requires screening of tramp materials.

Questions or comments? Please put them in this thread.

Regards,
Gary]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 11 Feb 2016 11:55:18 +0000
Re: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - China Regional Program - Introduction and update on progress - by: arno http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16893 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16893
1. Will there be any Chinese projects linked to Africa and other Asian countries as was originally proposed?

2. Will the original criteria for the reinvent the toilet challenge be strictly followed? That is from www.gatesfoundation.org/What-We-Do/Globa...the-Toilet-Challenge

a. Removes germs from human waste and recovers valuable resources such as energy, clean water, and nutrients.

b. Operates “off the grid” without connections to water, sewer, or electrical lines.

c. Costs less than US$.05 cents per user per day.

d. Promotes sustainable and financially profitable sanitation services and businesses that operate in poor, urban settings.

e. Is a truly aspirational next-generation product that everyone will want to use in developed as well as developing nations.

Regards]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:38:55 +0000
Re: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - China Regional Program - Introduction and update on progress - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16822 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16822
Some technical details are provided on this page:
www.rttc-china.org/competition/Introduction_cy1.html

I ran Google Translate over the page and got the following information (aren't we lucky to have Google Translate nowadays even though it is far from perfect yet! - the translation below at least gives a general idea of what this is all about):

+++++++++

The first round of outstanding programs
Excellent Innovation Programme Overview (in alphabetical order)

1, the program name: High MFC-MEC-ABR Reactor Construction and Operation stool Blackwater process optimization

Lead Unit: Shanghai University
Participation: Suzhou Germany and the ecological environment Technology Co., Ltd. Shanghai Hai Ting Environmental Engineering Co., Ltd.
About the program:
Associate Professor Liu Hongbo Shanghai University responsible for the "efficient MFC-MEC-ABR Reactor stool Blackwater workers
Construction and operation optimization Arts "project, aimed at developing a set covering the province, pollution processing load is high, the sludge (fecal residue) a small amount of
Efficient low bioreactor, so the urine Blackwater to promote efficient use of resources. (Figure 1 below) reactor tired
Oxygen tank baffle (ABR) as the main body, the introduction of microbial electrochemical coupling reaction apparatus (MFC-MEC), through microbial electrochemical
Learn coupling mechanism to promote microbial activity, improve reactor volume efficiency and energy recovery efficiency and reduce the residual sludge reactor
(Fecal residue) emissions.



2, the program name: In forward osmosis technology as the core of the new waste water treatment system resources

Lead Unit: Tsinghua University
Participation Units: Tsinghua University, Institute of Chemistry, Wan if (Beijing) Environmental Engineering Technology Co., Ltd.
About the program:
Tsinghua University Professor Zhou Lvfu by the responsible Professor Wang Chengwen as a major participant in the "forward osmosis technology to nuclear
Heart of the new waste water treatment system resources "is intended for the use of forward osmosis concentrate reductions core technology, follow-up
Harmless and resource processing, the output value of fertilizer and clean water. Sought in the absence of external power grid intervention
, The realization of the entire energy supply system, water recycling toilet system and achieve the green state of health of the program
Providing positive penetrate the core of the two techniques were applied to toilets and household sanitation systems. At the core of
Two techniques were applied to toilets and household sanitation systems.



3, the program name: oil-based raw material preparation device source separation stool

Lead: Beijing University of Chemical Technology
Participating units: Renmin University of China Beijing Science and Technology Co., Ltd. Ching red and blue
About the program:
Wang Huan from the Beijing University of Chemical Technology liter assistant researcher in charge, Professor Zhang Jinglai Renmin University of China as a major participant
The "stool-based bio-oil production apparatus source separation" project aims to develop new environmentally friendly toilet facilities, and strive to resolve transfer
EC flush toilets and water resource conservation conflict, to achieve free water and feces harmless, resource. By combining avoid blisters
Mo urine diversion toilet and traditional ecological toilet, improve health and senses, providing proper sanitation; pass
Separation can be achieved through waste recycling, biomass waste into oil after separation, after the separation of urine is stored as organic agriculture
Liquid fertilizer. For the type of public toilets, public toilets and on-site processing to achieve integration processing mode. For communities, apartment style
Type indoor toilet, rapid development of sound processing and re-focus the energy of the conversion processing mode. The project will attempt to biomass oil
The use of combined wind and solar energy to achieve energy self-sufficiency and reduce operating costs.



4, scheme name: Community manure and fertilizer collection of closed - flush toilets gas-based health system

Lead Unit: ten thousand if (Beijing) Environmental Engineering Technology Co., Ltd.
Participation unit: Tsinghua University, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry
About the program:
If the ten thousand (Beijing) Environmental Engineering Technology Co., Ltd. Chairman Dr. Zhang Jian responsible for innovative projects aimed at research
Send "gas flush the toilet system." Gas flushing toilets is a use of liquidity and lubrication of urine, feces using ambient air punch
The new toilet urine. The toilet by a low voltage motor drive, power consumption is much lower than conventional water-flush toilets; no flush toilet both advantages
Health performance and comfort flush toilet, a small amount of water only when necessary, to be cleaning; special diaphragm valve seal, closed odorless. collect
The resulting high concentration of manure, straw and other organic materials can be used with mixed biological drying, to obtain the full nutrition part organic fertilizer. In the air
Under rooms and environmental conditions permit, the biological oxygen ventilation drying apparatus to cancel and extend the residence time of the reaction, as
Anaerobic reactor used to obtain biogas energy. Solar power system equipment can be used, it can also make use of the existing electricity
Network, or to obtain biogas to generate electricity. Sources reduce the total amount Blackwater system, a high degree of resources, little impact on the environment ,
It can be used for a variety of household toilets and toilet. Under water, comfort, energy saving, economical premise, to address the high concentration of waste collection and
solving issues.



+++++++++

It may seem a bit "high tech" (this is also my first reaction) but let's keep in mind that this is for the Chinese market, and perhaps not necessarily for very poor people. Mind you, the project description also mentions African countries so I'd be curious to know which African countries and which segment of society these innovations are geared towards?

Regarding high tech devices, a mobile phone is also high tech and yet it has become a cherished possession for so many poor households. How come? I guess it's because it requires no maintenance by the user, except for charging it, and it provides such an excellent service (communication, banking, access to information) that people won't forget to charge their mobile phones regularly. Users never have to look at the inside of their mobile phone, so it doesn't matter how complex it is inside.

Whether something equivalent could ever be achieved for a novel toilet + sanitation system, I don't know. But if it did, it would be fabolous!
Related threads about this topic of "high tech for developing countries sanitation issues" are also available here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-in...attle-in-august-2012
and here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-in...ess-grand-challenges

It would be nice to find out more about these Chinese research projects, if possible.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 03 Feb 2016 03:17:46 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet - by: mwaniki http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16795 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16795
Kindly note that the Nano Membrane Toilet has also featured on page 30 in the current edition of the Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Vol. 11 # 1 which has just been posted in the forum.

Please observe “Alternate toilet options” e.g. Report on Dallo Ado UDDT latrines and tiger worms latrines in Ethiopia and Monrovia in Liberia on the same page.

Kind regards

Mwaniki]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Jan 2016 18:06:46 +0000
Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - China Regional Program - Introduction and update on progress - by: zifuli http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16793 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/16793-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-china-regional-program-introduction-and-update-on-progress#16793 Below you can find the word doc about brief introduction to RTTC China.
Best greetings
Zifu 

Professor Zifu Li
University of Science and Technology Beijing

++++++++++++

Title of grant: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) - China Regional Program

  • Name of lead organization: University of Science and Technology Beijing
  • Primary contact at lead organization: Professor Zifu Li
  • Grantee location: Beijing, PR China
  • Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: African and South Asia countries
  • Start and end date: 1 Nov 2013 to 31 Dec 2016
  • Grant type: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge
  • Grant size in USD: $ 5,023,660 (as per grant database here)

Short description of the project:

Reinvent The Toilet Challenge China (RTTC-China) is funded and supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. University of Science and Technology Beijing team is responsible for the organization and implementation of all the activities for this event. Toilet Technology R&D biddings and Toilet Innovation Concept Contest by university students are included in this event.

Toilet Technology R&D biddings intends to attract exceptionally high-qualified Chinese consortia in 1st round and consortia in which foreign institutions could also be invited in 2nd round as a network of partners or teams from for-profit and not-for profit organizations, universities as well as top industrial design institutes and prototyping companies that can contribute to the advancement of sanitation research and development.

The RTTC-China targets to design, prototype and test entirely stand-alone, self-contained, practical sanitation modules which intake bodily wastes or fecal sludge collected from pit latrines and septic tanks and swiftly dispose of them without any incoming water piping, outgoing sewer piping, or electricity or gas utility services. The candidates will be supported by the Foundation to design, develop, prototype and test their innovations.

The initial idea and pragmatic work of Toilet Innovation Concept Contest by university students is to offer more opportunities to young students and inspire their creativity. There would be chance to make further research together with interested companies/institutes for those ideas which are selected.


Goal:

The goal of this grant is to improve the health and environmental status of poor communities in African and South Asian countries as well as in China through introduction, adaptation and adoption of sanitation innovations at scale


Objectives:
  1. To mobilize and engage leading R&D organizations in China;
  2. To promote RTTC solutions that meet communities needs in African and South Asian countries as well as in China;
  3. To develop a business plan for BMGF and China Government for co-investing in adoption and promotion of sanitation innovation.

Research or implementation organizations:
1. Tsinghua University (including two projects)
2. EnviroSystems Engineering & Technology Co., Ltd.
3. University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
4. Beijing University of Chemical Technology
5. Kunming Huiyun Luminous Engineering Co., Ltd.
6. China Agricultural University
7. China University of Geosciences
8. Dalian Jinshui Cleaning Equipment Factory
9. Hunan Hyso Environmental Biotechnology Co., Ltd

Links, further readings – results to date:

Project website:
Chinese version: www.rttc-China.org (note: the Chinese version of the website contains more information than the English version; you can use Google Translate to translate the page; this page contains technical information about the projects: www.rttc-china.org/competition/Introduction_cy1.html)

English version: www.rttc-china.org/en/

Current state of affairs:

Toilet Technology R&D biddings totally funded 10 projects by two rounds of bidding, each had five projects. The five projected funded by first round are almost finished and all of them are under site testing, and the next step is to evaluate economic and technic value for further scaling-up application. The other five projects funded by second round started from 09/2015, till now, they are still under a prototyping investigation (www.rttc-china.org/competition/Download.html).

The initial idea and pragmatic work of Toilet Innovation Concept Contest is closed for proposal and the evaluation for all the proposals is supposed to be finished before Feb. 2016.


Biggest successes so far:

Till now, ten projects have been implemented, and half of them are under prototype site testing in China, the primary results show that all the systems work well in terms of technical functions.


Main challenges / frustration:

Because first-round projects are still under prototyping on-site testing, the main challenge may be the transition from research work to product commercialization in future.


+++++++

A somewhat similar program is the RTTC India Program. You can find out more about it here:
www.susana.org/en/resources/projects?sea...m+for+joint+projects]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Jan 2016 15:20:42 +0000
Waterless Toilet that Turns Fecal Matter into Clean Water and Power - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16789 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16789 Waterless Toilet that Turns Fecal Matter into Clean Water and Power


Cranfield University, UK has designed a toilet turns human waste into electricity and clean water. It has been called as the Nano Membrane Toilet. Cranfield University says that this new approach to managing waste could help some of the world's 2.3 billion people who have no access to safe, hygienic toilets.

How does the toilet works? The post says:
(www.gizmag.com/waterless-nano-membrane-t...amp;utm_medium=email)

The toilet's magic happens when you close the lid. The bottom of the bowl uses a rotation mechanism to sweep the waste into a sedimentation chamber, which helps block any odors from escaping. The waste is then filtered through a special nanotech membrane, which separates vaporized water molecules from the rest of the waste, helping to prevent pathogens and solids from being carried further by the water.

The vaporized water then travels through to a chamber filled with "nano-coated hydrophilic beads", which helps the water vapor condense and fall into a collection area below. This water is pure enough to be used for household washing and farm irrigation.

The residual solid waste and pathogens are driven by an archimedean screw into a second chamber. This part of the design is still being finalized, but the current plan is for the solid waste to be incinerated to convert it into ash and energy. The energy will power the nanomembrane filtration process, with enough left over to charge mobile phones or other small devices.


The above link gives a video on how the toilet works.

While it is a great innovation, one would doubt, where its applicability would be compatible with the scenarios in poor developing countries. The proposed toilet appears more appropriate for developed countries, and for the large hotels and yachts. It will be difficult to say whether it would be helpful to large populations in poor developing countries, which lack improved sanitation.

F H Mughal]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Jan 2016 07:14:56 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16594 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16594
Yes it's been a pretty crazy couple of weeks for the project! Lots of media coverage, some exaggeration, and the usual mix of criticism and enthusiasm!

Actually as Elisabeth points out we don't have any updates to share yet while we finalize the IP protection. Of course our blog will be the first place we share updates:

nanomembranetoilet.blogspot.co.uk/

And the SuSanA forum will be the second!

The webinar I referred to in my e-mail was part of the grantee webinar programme, so I'm not sure it's my place to share the link to the recording or introduce the STeP programme. Elisabeth - maybe this is something you could follow up?

Happy to answer any other questions in the meantime, but be assured we will have a lot more to share soon!

Alison]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 18 Jan 2016 11:38:00 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16569 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3409-the-nano-membrane-toilet-cranfield-university-uk-new-phase-of-funding-until-jan-2016?limit=12&start=48#16569
Even Bill Gates mentioned it on his Facebook website (always good to see Bill talk about toilets - whichever toilets they are):



Here is the link to the post on the "I fucking love Science" Facebook page which he had shared (sorry for the rude language but that is the name of that particular Facebook account; they also have a good twitter handle by the way):

www.facebook.com/IFeakingLoveScience/posts/1297719066915768

It got 1400 comments so far! I had a look at the first few, it seems to be the usual mixture of "toilet humor" jokes to "do we really need this?" to "this looks far too complicated for developing countries" to "I want to buy one!".

I asked Alison on Twitter if she could post an update and this is here reply on twitter:

Alison Parker ‏@AlisonP_WASH 6. Jan.
@EvMuench @saniblog Hi Elisabeth we're making progress with the IP protection so should be able to share more soon!

@EvMuench @saniblog also media reports that we're "about to trial in Ghana" are much exaggerated - it will still be a few months yet!


Here's another link to an article about the toilet in mainstream media:

www.gizmag.com/waterless-nano-membrane-toilet/41108/

Anyhow, it's funny how the media picks up on a story and then it gets repeated in different places.

This thing about IP protection is something we've talked about on the forum quite a bit. It seems counter-intuitive at first but Alison explained to me:
Have you been following the STEP programme? They talked a lot about protecting IP in the introductory webinar. They talked to a lot of potential commercialisation partners and realised that few of them would be keen to engage without protected IP.


Interesting point!
Alison, I hope you don't mind that I took that quote from your e-mail to me - but I think it raises a good point. Would you be able to provide the link to the mentioned webinar? Sounds very interesting.

Cheers,
Elisabeth]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 15 Jan 2016 13:34:35 +0000
Re: Electrochemical disinfection with integrated biomass oven for solid waste processing and energy harvesting (RTI International, USA and India) - by: thaddeushunt http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16527 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16527
"It’s great to hear that you are making progress and that your work has attracted community participants to purchase the unit, what was most appealing to them about it?"

Broad consensus revolved around the cleanliness of the unit, the space and privacy it provided, and the safety it could deliver. Many were in awe that such a system existed and were very excited about merely having the option of a toilet where there previously was none.

"I wonder to what extent the things people say they want or need in a toilet differs from what they do in practice."

We've had the exact same questions. That's why it continues to be critical to step back and simply observe participants interacting with our sanitation system. We've learned so much from this practice and we continue to learn more as testing continues in India.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 13 Jan 2016 16:05:35 +0000
Re: Electrochemical disinfection with integrated biomass oven for solid waste processing and energy harvesting (RTI International, USA and India) - by: SDickin http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16518 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16518
It looks like you are considering a range real-life scenarios, e.g. a vegetarian diet, rodents, changing weather conditions, and it makes me realize the complexity of factors that can influence the operation of a toilet. I’m sure the field tests are critical, and I wonder to what extent the things people say they want or need in a toilet differs from what they do in practice. I think this has been observed in the case of fuel stoves technologies where it is a simpler process to observe how users interact with the technology!]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 13 Jan 2016 09:47:17 +0000
Re: Reports from RTI International's Recent Field Work in India - by: thaddeushunt http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16321 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16321
Here is the response to your questions that I received from Myles Elledge on our team:

+++++
Yes, with regard to MHM, we have made it a priority in our system design and user adoption user studies. MHM will be planned in, and is clearly a determinant to use and adoption. MHM is such a critical issue for women, and we see it as the right thing to do to work on providing a private and safe place for women to manage their menses, and to work to address the issue of safe disposal of menstrual absorbents. We are learning a lot in our prototyping and testing in India, and have been very encouraged by the user feedback from men and women to the directions we are exploring.

Our system is designed for a shared or public toilet application. E.g. Public market, rail station, bus station, construction site, school, or shared use in community setting. In many of these settings, it will be possible to charge users on a per use basis. In other settings such as a school, it would not be appropriate to have a user fee scenario. Depending on the application of the technology and the targeted users, we have imagined a business model that could be a NGO or community owned and operated model, or a public entity or municipality owned approach, a factor or construction company purchase and operation, or a franchise-like model for installation and maintenance of operations.

I think there are scenarios for break-even social benefits approach to the operations, and other business applications that would be driven on a profit-making orientation (franchise). Our cost model for producing the unit at scale suggests we are on target to achieve the Gates Foundation challenge to work towards 5 cents / per person / day metric over a 10-year life.

We will continue to explore business model scenarios in the coming year. Again, we have been encouraged to-date. We have had community participants in the FGDs come forward and want to organize themselves to purchase with their own funds and install the unit, as well as municipal and commercial entities in India expressing interest in testing, purchasing and manufacturing.

As we continue our field testing in India, we will be gaining insight on real-life issues of managing varied waste streams and operations in different settings. Such things as the number of times a person flushes the toilet, how long the body wash is used, or the desire and practice of washing clothes in the unit will greatly impact our assumptions about water volumes and how our system is sized, and how it manages, treats and recycles the water. Also, understanding what a vegetarian diet does to our solid waste composition, or the liquidity of stools will also be an area for us to see how the system manages waste processing and energy generation through the drying and combustion process.

Other environmental factors are also areas for learning, such as managing pests such as rodents, flies, monkeys, as well as robustness under varied weather conditions in extreme heat, heavy rains, and high humidity. We plan for many of these challenges, but we have lots more to learn through expanding the duration of operations and doing more field tests to know how to adapt the design and manage varied real-life operations.


Best regards, Myles]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 18 Dec 2015 18:30:32 +0000
Re: Reports from RTI International's Recent Field Work in India - by: thaddeushunt http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16265 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/5777-electrochemical-disinfection-with-integrated-biomass-oven-for-solid-waste-processing-and-energy-harvesting-rti-international-usa-field-tests-in-india#16265
Sorry for the late reply. Our group is quite small and that translates to us often being quite busy as our project progresses.

I noticed in the previous discussions above you mentioned you are still deciding on a business model, so maybe there isn’t yet an answer to the following questions:
For a toilet system like this, are you expecting that there would be a cost to users, or that it would also potentially generate a profit for the operator? (I don’t think I saw any costs mentioned in the initial user perception results). If so, do you think this would impact user’s impressions and interest in the system. Is something you plan to tackle, or is it something up to the partner, NGO, government, etc. that choose to implement the toilet?


I've reached out to my group and they are trying to nail down a more definitive answer to your business model questions. As you suspected, we are still hashing out the details as to what we will end up using going forward (in both the short term and the long term). We are currently working on a post for our site in the near future addressing this topic. I'll be sure to share the link here, once it goes live.

Another question with respect to ‘real-life’ conditions, have you been able to address some of the challenges that were mentioned in the interview with Elisabeth (with variations in inputs, for instance). Seems like it would be difficult to deal with the range of possible unexpected scenarios.


With out a doubt, it has been a challenge. But it's one we've welcomed with open arms. Beginning in May 2014, RTI began field activities in India to gather user insights on the prototype’s technology and user interface, and gather feedback on the approach to on-site waste treatment. The information and data we've received has been invaluable in designing a toilet that can be modular and nimble, with the hope of being able to address as many needs/concerns as possible. I know I've mentioned it in a past post, but feel free to read our findings to date, on our site at: http://abettertoilet.org/field-work/. Be sure to check out the right column on that page to see posts and documents pertaining to our work in the field.

Hopefully this helps address your questions. I will post more info on our business model as soon as I have more from the appropriate channels.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 15 Dec 2015 17:57:57 +0000