SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sun, 26 Apr 2015 04:49:25 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Introducing Sanitation in Floating Communities - (and Flood prone land based communities) - by: Taber
The picture you attached (Constructed Wetland System) is for our land based treatment design and is most appropriate for flood prone areas, different from floating households in open water areas. In fact, as described below, the design has changed to use only 'traditional' cement septic rings.

Yes, regarding FLOATING community sanitation -- 'floating wetland' is more descriptive than 'Pod' but does not have the branding potential as a name. In fact, in Cambodia, Wetlands Work! Ltd. is asking users to come up with a Khmer name as part of a lottery to 'win a "HandyPod"'. The HandyPod, developed over 4 years in a floating community, has been in use in its "final" product form for less than one year. During our present sanitation marketing scale-up process for several thousand HandyPods in 10+ communities, we expect new materials will be sourced over time, including EPDM liner currently unavailable in Cambodia, and cost elements and design features will change to reach an 'appropriate' price point. Maintaining quality, including materials that last at least 4 years, is an important sustainability issue to impart on local businesses that make and supply HandyPods. All items we use have a very long life with the possible exception of the PVC liner material. It is shaded by plants and it can be double lined where sun exposure may occur, but will it last 4 or more years in the very extreme conditions? We do not know; substitution with EPDM liner -currently not sourced in Cambodia- may be a reasonable development. It's strong, flexible and very resistant to UV photo-degradation.

Forgive the confusion: WW! now has two treatment systems for sanitation in challenging environments (SCE). At the 2015 FSM3 Hanoi conference, we presented a new LAND BASED flood prone/high groundwater treatment system for households. This system is being built as a pilot project for 46 households in two flood prone communities in Cambodia. WW! will monitor treatment efficiency and behaviour change issues starting in May 2015.

This flood prone system has three stages of treatment. Each additional pour flush moves the waste by gravity flow from primary treatment in the septic container, to secondary treatment in a planted gravel bed, and then to tertiary treatment in a polishing pond. Our field tested design showed six log order cfu of E. coli reduction AFTER first stage treatment in the septic container. We have radically re-designed this from the picture included (Constructed Wetlands System), as we are now using only standard cement rings in sequence for each stage. It's cheaper, simpler, faster, more intuitive for builders, and more easily replicable. (And, as commented upon, less susceptible to cracks in a clay berm.) We are pleased with the possibilities for this design and hope we can train people and partners and license its usage widely.

WW!'s flood prone treatment systems are designed to serve one, two or three households, each house having about 6 people. Each individual house has its own septic container underneath a raised latrine, and each treatment system has differently sized 2nd and 3rd stage treatment systems according to the number of houses being served.

In one of the villages we are testing a single treatment system that is different from the rest, having a floating Pod tethered by poles that allows the Pod to rise with very high flood events. This is experimental and applicable for houses built on stilts beside a sloped flood way. This 3rd stage 'floating Pod' is conceptually similar to the picture with poles -- Constructed Wetlands System -- and this rising 'Pod' is preceded by 1st and 2nd stage treatment using cement containment rings. Best ways, Taber]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 20 Apr 2015 04:52:03 +0000
Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - by: joeturner Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 10 Apr 2015 16:12:44 +0000 Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - Web page development - by: muench
Thanks for making this post. I have a question about your presentation on:
Development of standard operating procedures for faecal sludge laboratory analyses: Tina Velkushanova, Merlien Reddy, Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal

This looks really interesting, but it wasn't clear to me what the timeline for developing these standard operating procedures are? When do you plan to heave them ready by? Once they are ready, how will they be made available to everyone? Will there be some sort of peer-review process for them or a testing scheme amongst different laboratories to see if they really work well?

About your new grant, congratulations on that one! I see it's another big one (1.6 million USD):

I suggest we start a separate thread for it so that full details of the grant, and then progress over the next two years can easily be followed on the forum. I will e-mail you about that. Thanks.

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 10 Apr 2015 16:04:46 +0000
Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - Web page development - by: TinaVelkushanova
The three FSM3 presentations of Chris Buckley and myself are available now at (Files 18, 19 and 20 in the list)

We received good feedback and are happy to announce that our list of collaborators is continuously increasing.

My presentation is also related to another BMGF project - "Mechanical Properties of Faecal Sludge" which was finalized last year. You can access a paper under this project that has been accepted for publication and is currently being corrected from here
. Additional data is available on request.

The "Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects" is nearly completed, too. Some of the progress reports and the major findings from all Masters students will be posted soon.

At the end of last year we signed another grant agreement with BMGF with the title: "EQUIPMENT AND HEALTH AND SAFETY MODIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR DEVELOPING THE CAPACITY TO SUPPORT GRANTEES FIELD TESTING IN DURBAN, SA". The agreement is valid until 31 October 2017 and is with the charitable purpose "To augment the services provided with transformative technology grantees and sanitation practitioners wishing to demonstrate their technologies in Eastern Africa".

For further information, check our website or contact us.

Best regards
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 10 Apr 2015 14:13:55 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker
Thanks again for your insightful question. We're still not concerned about biofouling due to the membrane materials. But we are a bit concerned about the formation of salt crystals on the membrane surface - these would be derived predominantly from urine. So this is what one of our post docs, Olivier Autin, is looking at.

I hope this clarifies this and if you have any other questions then Olivier and I can try to answer them!

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 24 Mar 2015 11:59:37 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: Hector I read from previous posts that you mentioned that there was no risk of biofouling (due to the material being used), which was the first thought I had when "membrane" was mentioned. However, I see that there are biofouling experts on the project team. So, is this a potential problem now?]]> Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 24 Mar 2015 01:45:26 +0000 Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker
I'm sorry if the posts above are not clear. The membrane is still a core part of the toilet, allowing us to dewater the waste for combustion and produce clean water. The membrane relies on nano scale processes for its operation.

I hope this is clearer but if there's anything else just post here or drop me an e-mail!

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 23 Mar 2015 11:38:40 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: Hector Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 22 Mar 2015 23:02:09 +0000 Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 17 Mar 2015 17:37:41 +0000
Re: South African Sanitation Technology Demonstration Programme (SASTEP) - BMGF-DST Partnership - by: swoolley (Presentation)

The RTTC technologies listed in the presentation are used as potential examples and are not confirmed for demonstration. Nor will SASTEP technologies be limited to the technologies considered in the presentation.

Please feel free to let me know if there are any queries!

* SASTEP stands for South African Sanitation Technology Demonstration Programme (added by moderator)]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 13 Mar 2015 09:00:33 +0000
Reports from RTI International's Recent Field Work in India - by: thaddeushunt Hey everyone,

We wanted to be sure you knew that the India user studies reports from our June and Sept 2014 events in Gujarat are now posted on our RTI RTT website, under the field work tab.

September survey and FGD (Focus Group Discussion) report

June FGD report

There are other reports from the field that can be found in the right column of our website (or below on mobile), so be sure to check those out as well.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 01 Mar 2015 18:43:05 +0000
Re: Introducing Sanitation in Floating Communities - by: muench
Thanks for this update.
I am a little bit confused, is this presentation from the FSM3 conference about the same system?:

A constructed wetland system for flood resilient sanitation: John Allen, Wetlands Work, Royal University of Agriculture, Dongkor District, Cambodia

I have to say that the term "pod" has always confused me and "floating wetland" is much better in my view.
This picture from the presentation made it finally clear to me what it is:

I wonder though about the longer term stability of such a system, as you could get cracks in your "boat" type structure which presumably lead to a poorer performance of this floating constructed wetland.

How long as the longest one been in operation for so far?

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 27 Feb 2015 16:16:16 +0000
Re: Development of a self-contained, PV-powered domestic toilet and wastewater treatment system (California Institute of Technology, USA) - by: muench
Development and field-testing of an onsite, self-contained and sun-powered human and toilet wastewater treatment system: Michael Hoffmann, Linde-Robinson Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Cal, USA

The presentation contains a lot of slides with photos, so it will be good to have the video of the presentation available as well (soon I hope - waiting for Tjibbe to send the files to the SuSanA secretariat).

Here one slide from the presentation to wet your appetite to view the presentation:

From my scribbled notes:
  • The projet start in mid 2011
  • Solar power is stored in batteries
  • There is now a collaboration with the company Kohler - to commercialise this
  • Test ongoing at an elementary school in China (see photos)
  • Membrane bioreactor (MBR) to process collected waste (folded plate anaerobic digester)
  • Electrochemical system, oxidise the effluent with chloride - electrode reactor, semi-conductor electrodes
  • 100 students use the toilet, only about 10 use it for defecation on a typical day, i.e. contribution of faeces is quite low
  • One prototype in Kerala (India) at a university
  • No discharge of water
  • Anal washing spray provided
  • Grinding of solids in the wastewater
  • Replacement of batteries needed from time to time
  • Aiming for 15,000 USD per complete unit, or around 5,000 USD for a simpler version
  • Hydroxy appatite and calcium accumulates but no struvite precipitation

This technology has also been selected by BMGF for further larger-scale field tests and possibly upscaling.
For example, it will also be tested in South Africa as far as I know, see this thread:

And as far as I know further prototypes (up to 100 if I remember correctly? Will need to check this) will be tested in India.

I don't think this will be a solution for the urban poor, but perhaps for the urban middle-class or specialised applications, such as schools and maybe high-rise buildings with little space and not connected to the sewer. Will be interesting to see how it all pans out.

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 19 Feb 2015 09:20:15 +0000
Introducing Sanitation in Floating Communities - by: Taber
Let me give you all a little update on our project since my last post one year ago:

Wetlands Work!’s HandyPod is now a product for floating household sanitation. It reduces wastewater E. coli by 5 log order and meets all criteria for desirability amongst floating householders. It has a Cambodian material cost of approximately USD $35, though the cost to a consumer has yet to develop in a market-based context.

Our work has now moved from the final product stage to the marketing issues of creating a local/regional entrepreneurial supply and then developing the demand by poor floating householders to pay for the product through CLTS, etc. Sanitation marketing for floating communities has never been done before and we expect this will be a 2-steps forward, 1-step backward process. It will take several years, too, to be done at scale. This work is supported by a grant to WaterAid Cambodia from The Canadian Grand Challenges Program for Stars in Public Health, enabling Wetlands Work! Ltd. to partner with WaterAid and further develop the sanitation marketing program.

Additionally, WW! has developed a 3-stage treatment system for households in flood prone/high groundwater areas that is being piloted at 46 homes in Cambodia. We are excited about this recent work, and hope to make it affordable to the poor householders who live on such marginal lands.

Wetlands Work!’s designs for both floating and flood prone/high groundwater areas are relevant to the rural-to-urban population explosion scenario described as a mega-trend for major cities in East, South and Southeast Asia, Africa and South America. Favelas and shanty villages can be expected to develop on such land and water areas; it's the only alternative for landless poor migrants. There's no preparation or zoning thought being given for such potential settlements. Perhaps, WW! can provide a template for the sanitation element.

NB: Sanitation in Challenging Environments (SCE) has received little attention until recently. In Cambodia, Engineers Without Borders has convened groups interested in this area three times since August 2014. These SCE interests are now working to develop definitions, set standards for comparison and evaluation, and promote the monitoring and evaluation of SCE projects. These are very worthy efforts that should receive attention in the broader sanitation community.

Thank you.

Taber Hand
Director, Wetlands Work! Limited
Phnom Penh]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 16 Feb 2015 16:44:31 +0000
Sanitation NoW! RTTC Round One Phase Three - by: steve4real
We are building on all the exciting progress we made in Phase 2 to make a smaller, more efficient, and cheaper version of our prototype. The technology will not differ much from our Phase 2 prototype. For a very excellent summary of our technology please watch our animated video.




Note by moderator (EvM):
See in grant database:
Size: USD 2,349,432]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 16 Jan 2015 16:08:17 +0000