SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sun, 29 Mar 2015 19:32:17 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker
Thanks again for your insightful question. We're still not concerned about biofouling due to the membrane materials. But we are a bit concerned about the formation of salt crystals on the membrane surface - these would be derived predominantly from urine. So this is what one of our post docs, Olivier Autin, is looking at.

I hope this clarifies this and if you have any other questions then Olivier and I can try to answer them!

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 24 Mar 2015 11:59:37 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: Hector I read from previous posts that you mentioned that there was no risk of biofouling (due to the material being used), which was the first thought I had when "membrane" was mentioned. However, I see that there are biofouling experts on the project team. So, is this a potential problem now?]]> Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 24 Mar 2015 01:45:26 +0000 Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker
I'm sorry if the posts above are not clear. The membrane is still a core part of the toilet, allowing us to dewater the waste for combustion and produce clean water. The membrane relies on nano scale processes for its operation.

I hope this is clearer but if there's anything else just post here or drop me an e-mail!

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 23 Mar 2015 11:38:40 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: Hector Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 22 Mar 2015 23:02:09 +0000 Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 17 Mar 2015 17:37:41 +0000
Re: South African Sanitation Technology Demonstration Programme (SASTEP) - BMGF-DST Partnership - by: swoolley (Presentation)

The RTTC technologies listed in the presentation are used as potential examples and are not confirmed for demonstration. Nor will SASTEP technologies be limited to the technologies considered in the presentation.

Please feel free to let me know if there are any queries!

* SASTEP stands for South African Sanitation Technology Demonstration Programme (added by moderator)]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 13 Mar 2015 09:00:33 +0000
Reports from RTI International's Recent Field Work in India - by: thaddeushunt Hey everyone,

We wanted to be sure you knew that the India user studies reports from our June and Sept 2014 events in Gujarat are now posted on our RTI RTT website, under the field work tab.

September survey and FGD report

June FGD report

There are other reports from the field that can be found in the right column (or below on mobile), so be sure to check those out as well.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 01 Mar 2015 18:43:05 +0000
Re: Introducing Sanitation in Floating Communities - by: muench
Thanks for this update.
I am a little bit confused, is this presentation from the FSM3 conference about the same system?:

A constructed wetland system for flood resilient sanitation: John Allen, Wetlands Work, Royal University of Agriculture, Dongkor District, Cambodia

I have to say that the term "pod" has always confused me and "floating wetland" is much better in my view.
This picture from the presentation made it finally clear to me what it is:

I wonder though about the longer term stability of such a system, as you could get cracks in your "boat" type structure which presumably lead to a poorer performance of this floating constructed wetland.

How long as the longest one been in operation for so far?

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 27 Feb 2015 16:16:16 +0000
Re: Development of a self-contained, PV-powered domestic toilet and wastewater treatment system (California Institute of Technology, USA) - by: muench
Development and field-testing of an onsite, self-contained and sun-powered human and toilet wastewater treatment system: Michael Hoffmann, Linde-Robinson Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Cal, USA

The presentation contains a lot of slides with photos, so it will be good to have the video of the presentation available as well (soon I hope - waiting for Tjibbe to send the files to the SuSanA secretariat).

Here one slide from the presentation to wet your appetite to view the presentation:

From my scribbled notes:
  • The projet start in mid 2011
  • Solar power is stored in batteries
  • There is now a collaboration with the company Kohler - to commercialise this
  • Test ongoing at an elementary school in China (see photos)
  • Membrane bioreactor (MBR) to process collected waste (folded plate anaerobic digester)
  • Electrochemical system, oxidise the effluent with chloride - electrode reactor, semi-conductor electrodes
  • 100 students use the toilet, only about 10 use it for defecation on a typical day, i.e. contribution of faeces is quite low
  • One prototype in Kerala (India) at a university
  • No discharge of water
  • Anal washing spray provided
  • Grinding of solids in the wastewater
  • Replacement of batteries needed from time to time
  • Aiming for 15,000 USD per complete unit, or around 5,000 USD for a simpler version
  • Hydroxy appatite and calcium accumulates but no struvite precipitation

This technology has also been selected by BMGF for further larger-scale field tests and possibly upscaling.
For example, it will also be tested in South Africa as far as I know, see this thread:

And as far as I know further prototypes (up to 100 if I remember correctly? Will need to check this) will be tested in India.

I don't think this will be a solution for the urban poor, but perhaps for the urban middle-class or specialised applications, such as schools and maybe high-rise buildings with little space and not connected to the sewer. Will be interesting to see how it all pans out.

Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 19 Feb 2015 09:20:15 +0000
Introducing Sanitation in Floating Communities - by: Taber
Let me give you all a little update on our project since my last post one year ago:

Wetlands Work!’s HandyPod is now a product for floating household sanitation. It reduces wastewater E. coli by 5 log order and meets all criteria for desirability amongst floating householders. It has a Cambodian material cost of approximately USD $35, though the cost to a consumer has yet to develop in a market-based context.

Our work has now moved from the final product stage to the marketing issues of creating a local/regional entrepreneurial supply and then developing the demand by poor floating householders to pay for the product through CLTS, etc. Sanitation marketing for floating communities has never been done before and we expect this will be a 2-steps forward, 1-step backward process. It will take several years, too, to be done at scale. This work is supported by a grant to WaterAid Cambodia from The Canadian Grand Challenges Program for Stars in Public Health, enabling Wetlands Work! Ltd. to partner with WaterAid and further develop the sanitation marketing program.

Additionally, WW! has developed a 3-stage treatment system for households in flood prone/high groundwater areas that is being piloted at 46 homes in Cambodia. We are excited about this recent work, and hope to make it affordable to the poor householders who live on such marginal lands.

Wetlands Work!’s designs for both floating and flood prone/high groundwater areas are relevant to the rural-to-urban population explosion scenario described as a mega-trend for major cities in East, South and Southeast Asia, Africa and South America. Favelas and shanty villages can be expected to develop on such land and water areas; it's the only alternative for landless poor migrants. There's no preparation or zoning thought being given for such potential settlements. Perhaps, WW! can provide a template for the sanitation element.

NB: Sanitation in Challenging Environments (SCE) has received little attention until recently. In Cambodia, Engineers Without Borders has convened groups interested in this area three times since August 2014. These SCE interests are now working to develop definitions, set standards for comparison and evaluation, and promote the monitoring and evaluation of SCE projects. These are very worthy efforts that should receive attention in the broader sanitation community.

Thank you.

Taber Hand
Director, Wetlands Work! Limited
Phnom Penh]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 16 Feb 2015 16:44:31 +0000
Sanitation NoW! RTTC Round One Phase Three - by: steve4real
We are building on all the exciting progress we made in Phase 2 to make a smaller, more efficient, and cheaper version of our prototype. The technology will not differ much from our Phase 2 prototype. For a very excellent summary of our technology please watch our animated video.




Note by moderator (EvM):
See in grant database:
Size: USD 2,349,432]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 16 Jan 2015 16:08:17 +0000
Floating Toilets - by: F H Mughal

According the news, a group of engineers in Cambodia wanted to solve the problem of the floating villages of Tonle Sap Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia.

To help clean the lake's water, engineers in Phnom Penh developed plant-based purifiers, called Handy Pods. The pods are essentially little kayaks filled with plants. They float under the latrine of a river house and decontaminate the water that flows out.

Here's how it works. When a person uses the latrine, the wastewater flows into an expandable bag, called a digester. A microbial soup of bacteria and fungi inside the digester breaks down the organic sludge into gases, such as carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen.

Some microbes in the waste survive that first step, but then they're washed into a pod filled with water hyacinth. The hyacinth roots have a large surface area to which the remaining bacteria stick. The water that runs off the roots into the lake is clean enough to play and swim in. The water is not safe for drinking.

During a pilot project in 2013, pods were given to 35 houses in a village on Tonle Sap Lake. The pods reduced E. coli in the ambient water by 50 per cent. In lab tests, pods reduced E. coli by more than 99 per cent.

F H Mughal]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 24 Dec 2014 16:57:01 +0000
Re: Sustainable Decentralized Wastewater Management in Developing Countries (AIT, Thailand) - by: denniskl
Systems may seem similar (to me, as an outsider they do) but clever tech is not the issue anyway - it's suitability for purpose and culture, mass distribution and high volume usage uptake via even cleverer marketing, financial support systems, entrepreneurial models and distribution, installation, servicing and maintenance systems.

If it was just a matter of the tech, problem would have been solved already - we have more than enough low, medium and high tech toilet systems to eliminate OD and the diseases and problems that come with it - but we still have some 2B defecating in the fields.


Because in a world where we can distribute mobile phones and air time credit to the furthest reaches of the globe, petrol can get wherever it's needed for motorbikes and machinery, beer companies can display their signs and their products in every tiny shop, we continue to insist on toilets for the poor as some sort of public charity programme.

Our efforts will be far better served in marketing toilet systems, and the lifestyles that come with them, as aspirational lifestyle choices - and have the demand come from the market ("pull" marketing).

Rather than the current system where 500 toilet system inventors and another 1,000 NGO's beg poor people to "please take our system" when they see no need, have no problem with OD (no awareness of the problems) and just don't care (Push marketing).

But they will walk as far as they need to get air time!!

I have started a new thread on this topic here:]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 18 Dec 2014 22:13:33 +0000
Re: Sustainable Decentralized Wastewater Management in Developing Countries (AIT, Thailand) - by: Thammarat
Our technology solution is distinctly different and inventive. It is a technology solution and not a mere hydrocylone unit. Allow me to note that the comprehensive solution includes a toilet pot/pan for rural/urban poor specifically designed for pour flush, solid–liquid separation system and a septic system operated under thermophilic conditions –all working in synergistic manner. Wish to underline that the system operates with a pour flush in tandem with the specially designed toilet pot and thermophilic septic system.

We have great respect for the forum and our understanding and belief is that this forum is for knowledge dissemination, networking and enabling people to use right knowledge, at the right time and in the right context.

We have been developing appropriate naturally acceptable and technically sustainable (NATS) sanitation technology for the bottom billion poors and community in need. Our sanitation solution is designed for pour flush system with as low water consumption as possible considering water scarcity and challenging conditions poor/underprivileged encounter.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 18 Dec 2014 12:56:10 +0000
Re: The Nano Membrane Toilet (Cranfield University, UK) - new phase of funding until Jan. 2016 - by: AParker
Thanks for your questions and your honesty. It is much appreciated and I do share some of your concerns! I've just updated our blog with some of our latest development activities which might interest you.

denniskl wrote:
I see that the grant period was extended to March 2014; I went to your website but didn't really get a sense of where you are, progress-wise.

are you field trialling yet? if so, where and what results?

Our phase 1 grant finished in March 2014, and our Phase 2 grant started in September 2014. We decided (together with BMGF) to not move into field trials yet but to spend some more time developing prototypes in the lab. However, we have a team traveling to Ghana in January to get a better understanding of target users' needs.

denniskl wrote:
and did you sort out the likely production costs?

I acknowledge your financial modelling sees a less than 5c per day per user outcome, but the sheer tech involved frightens me:) from the capex (initial purchase / installation), a transportation and installation viewpoint and an ongoing maintenance / servicing / operational cost perspective

Yes, 5c per day is our target but we're still at a relatively early stage of development. However, we're looking at using off the shelf components where possible to keep costs down.

denniskl wrote:
Membranes, beads, scrapers, rollers - really? in the remote communities of developing countries? (Note my bias here?

The servicing, spare parts, harsh environments, damage from floods, and just general wear and tear must see high servicing requirements (not to mention the possible damage en-route, incorrect installation and usage, etc).

Has the team explored these areas of actual implementation?

Our target market is not remote areas, rather urban areas. The toilets will be rented to the households and the rental cost will include servicing by a local technician who will also be on hand to deal with any faults.

denniskl wrote:
I think your design is wonderful and in certain settings (even developed countries) it looks a viable alternative to minimise waste of treated water and even re-use of nutrients (can you re-use faces after you polymer wrap them?) but as a solution for an outlier village with 100% OD, I have to say I'd be more than a little sceptical (as I am with most of the Gates design winners, so it's not just yours) (Bias rears its head again here:)

Just one point here - we're not developing the polymer wrap any more - we'll now be combusting the dried faces directly in the toilet, as explained in an earlier blog earlier blog post

Hope this helps, do keep asking questions!]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 12 Dec 2014 14:48:52 +0000