SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Wed, 02 Sep 2015 14:48:03 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper (Cranfield University, 2005) - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14712 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14712
The paper is open access, so the page should be available to everyone - but in case it helps, I have attached the pdf to this message. If you login to the SuSanA forum, you should be able to see it below.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 28 Aug 2015 14:48:13 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper (Cranfield University, 2005) - by: aokucu http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14711 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14711 Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 28 Aug 2015 14:39:50 +0000 Re: Assessing Odor Issues and Control Strategies for the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - Duke/University of Colorado, Boulder, USA - by: milli http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#14694 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#14694
odor issues are an interesting subject. I am planning to construct some alternative sanitation system in a house which for now has a cesspit. I would be interested in experiences about odor issues with
a) composting toilets
b) urine-diverting dry toilets
Does anyone think one system is better than the other concerning odor issues? For now I just used different composting toilets which did in some cases actually smell.
Diverting urine should make it smell less, but I never used such a toilet...

Will you be testing those sanitation systems or will you be more focussing on pit latrines?

Another interesting point is the biochar as odor control medium, which is as far as I know produced through pyrolysis. I am wondering if it can be produced at low-tech level so that it will be easily available for the communities...

Best regards,
milli]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 26 Aug 2015 19:28:39 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: AParker http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14685 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14685
Yes, Buzzfeed decided to use the mean value we calculated rather than the median value! And yes, in this case volatile and organic solids are basically the same.

Alison]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 26 Aug 2015 10:38:35 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14680 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14680
That's cool about you being cited in that Buzzfeed video (not in the video itself but in the video description in Youtube, even with two links)! After all, the video has been viewed nearly half a million times so far! The 2 minute video is all about visualizing how much poo the world population excretes in a day - simple message!

And - as you pointed out to me at the WEDC conference - it might well be that they got onto your paper by seeing it mentioned on Wikipedia (thanks to Joe for including it in the article on urine: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine#Constituents and here on the page for human feces: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_feces#Averag...ical_characteristics). And also the fact that it's an open access article would have helped. So, congratulations!

Just a small thing I wonder about: in your paper you said:

Results showed that the median fecal wet mass production was 128 g/cap/day, with a median dry mass of 29 g/cap/day.


But in the buzzfeed video they rounded it up to 149 g/cap/day - how come (did they contact you about it?)?

See screenshot:



At Taber: I completely agree with your point. The more I think about this sentence, the less I understand it. I think for laypersons it is very unclear:
Organic material makes up 65-85% of the dry solids with volatile solids making up 75-85% of the total solids
(from here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine#Constituents)

People won't even know what volatile solids are and why that's important. Normally in wastewater treatment, volatile solids is pretty much identical to organic solids, isn't it?

Alison, perhaps you could explain a little what this sentence means so that we can come up with an easier to understand version for the Wikipedia article on urine?

Thanks.

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. If you are wondering - like me - what Buzzfeed is, read here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BuzzFeed :
BuzzFeed is an American internet news media company. It describes itself as the "social news and entertainment company . . . redefining online advertising with its social, content-driven publishing technology . . . provides the most shareable breaking news."]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 25 Aug 2015 23:54:31 +0000
Published Paper: Chemical and thermal properties of VIP latrine sludge - by: lzuma http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14608-published-paper-chemical-and-thermal-properties-of-vip-latrine-sludge#14608 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14608-published-paper-chemical-and-thermal-properties-of-vip-latrine-sludge#14608
I would like to share a paper has been recently published in the WaterSA journal. The study looked into the properties of faecal sludge from VIP latrines in Durban, South Africa. The abstract is below this text. I have also attached the PDF.

Thank you,
Lungi Zuma
eThekwini Water and Sanitation


This study investigated the chemical and thermal properties of faecal sludge from 10 dry VIP latrines in Bester’s Camp in the eThekwini Municipality, Durban, South Africa. Faecal sludge samples were selected at different depths and from the front and back sections of 10 VIP latrines during a manual emptying process. The samples were analysed for: moisture content; volatile solids; chemical oxygen demand; ammonia; total Kjeldahl nitrogen; pH; orthophosphate; thermal conductivity; calorific value and heat capacity. These properties will facilitate the design of faecal sludge emptying and treatment equipment. A manual sorting of the pit contents was carried out to determine the categories and amounts of household waste present. There was a significant difference in the moisture, volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and orthophosphate content of the faecal sludge between the front and back sections of the pit. There was minimal change in the thermal properties within the pit. The median values through the pit of each property analysed were: moisture content – 0.81 g water/g wet mass; volatile solids – 1.5 g VS/g ash; COD – 1.7 g COD/g ash; ammonia nitrogen – 10 mg NH3-N/g dry mass; TKN – 39 mg N/g dry mass; pH – 8.03; orthophosphate – 0.06 mg PO4 /g dry mass; thermal conductivity – 0.55 W/m K; calorific value – 14 kJ/g dry mass; heat capacity – 2.4x103 kJ/kg K. On average, 87% of pit content is faecal sludge; the remainder consists of wastes such as paper, plastics and textiles.

Keywords: faecal sludge, VIP latrines, chemical properties, thermal properties]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 21 Aug 2015 09:07:04 +0000
Re: Use of viral agents to improve the economics of human waste disposal (Amrita School of Biotechnology, Amrita University, Kerala, India) - by: spal05 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14352-use-of-viral-agents-to-improve-the-economics-of-human-waste-disposal-amrita-school-of-biotechnology-amrita-university-kerala-india#14364 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14352-use-of-viral-agents-to-improve-the-economics-of-human-waste-disposal-amrita-school-of-biotechnology-amrita-university-kerala-india#14364 Thank you very much for your thoughts. We agree with your concerns. That's why we have given so much importance to develop the protocol so easy and cost effective which can potentially be done at the local level.
However, phage therapy has been successful to treat diarrhoeal infection in human gut which is as complex as waste water system. Moreover, risks of toxicity to higher organisms or non-target organisms in sanitation is much lesser compared to human therapeutic purposes. So we strongly believe if properly designed, phage intervention in sanitation should work. So far, attention in that regard (research focus) to the waste water has not been enough. We would love to hear from the community to know more about the possible risks of failure or any serious studies about them.

Thank you again, Kris.
Best regards.
Sanjay]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 02 Aug 2015 10:38:41 +0000
Re: Use of viral agents to improve the economics of human waste disposal (Amrita School of Biotechnology, Amrita University, Kerala, India) - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14352-use-of-viral-agents-to-improve-the-economics-of-human-waste-disposal-amrita-school-of-biotechnology-amrita-university-kerala-india#14357 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14352-use-of-viral-agents-to-improve-the-economics-of-human-waste-disposal-amrita-school-of-biotechnology-amrita-university-kerala-india#14357
However, I am skeptical when it comes to waste-water applications.

Contrary to food production where it is currently mainly used as an additional HACCP barrier preventing regrowth in an already low bacteria and usually cooled environment, sanitation systems are pretty much the epitome of where bacterial evolution happens (and thus partial resistance to Bacteriophages or the other lytic agents mentioned here).
Sanitation systems also tested for pathogens to much less detail and at longer intervals, making it very likely that bacterial adaption will occur unnoticed and treatment becomes inefficient.

Of course Bacteriophages will adapt as well, but unless their evolution is constantly guided by scientists with the specific objective of high lytic capacity, it is much more likely that they will become less virulent and somehow "arrange" themselves with their host bacteria.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 31 Jul 2015 12:05:19 +0000
Use of viral agents to improve the economics of human waste disposal (Amrita School of Biotechnology, Amrita University, Kerala, India) - by: spal05 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14352-use-of-viral-agents-to-improve-the-economics-of-human-waste-disposal-amrita-school-of-biotechnology-amrita-university-kerala-india#14352 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/14352-use-of-viral-agents-to-improve-the-economics-of-human-waste-disposal-amrita-school-of-biotechnology-amrita-university-kerala-india#14352
Title of grant: Use of viral agents (and microbial fuel cell and effective recycling strategies)* to improve the economics of human waste disposal

* Note: This is the original title proposed but reviewers advised not to include microbial fuel cell (MFC) in that project. Even though we are working on MFC for last several years, this is not included in this project.




• Name of lead organization: Amrita School of Biotechnology, Amrita University
• Primary contact at lead organization: Dr. Bipin G. Nair
• Grantee location: Amritapuri, Kollam, Kerala, India
• Developing country where the research is being tested: India
• Start and end date: Dec 3, 2014 – Dec 2, 2016
• Grant type: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge India**
• Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Yes

Short description of the project:

This is proof-of-concept grant, where we have proposed to develop appropriate lytic agents (which “lyse” or kill cells) against major enteric pathogens and sulfur reducing bacteria (that cause malodour in the sewage). After production in a cost effective way, the lytic agents need to be dispensed (broadcasted) in sewage/septic tank. Appropriate lytics broadcasting system (LBS) is being developed to filter and broadcast different lytic agents such as bacteriophages, enzymes, bacteriocins* and small molecules from cheap renewable natural sources such as plant biomass waste (kitchen/agro-waste). Among the lytic agents, bacteriophages (viruses infecting the bacteria) are highly specific to the target pathogens and hence very safe. They are the most important and abundant biological entities on earth. They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union, eastern Europe and France. They are currently being tried as possible therapeutic agents against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. Phages against many food borne pathogens have been approved by FDA, US.

* Note: Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s)

Goal(s):
Reduction of pathogen load and odour in wastewater

Objectives:
Development of bacteriophages and other biological agents and their appropriate broadcasting system in wastewater

Implementation partners:
Mata Amritanandamayi Math (MA Math), Amritapuri, Kerala, India (Parent organization of Amrita University) Note: Amrita University is managed by a non-profit philanthropic spiritual organization, MA Math led by Mata Amritanandamayi popularly known as Amma (mother).

Links, further readings – results to date:
Project website: www.amrita.edu/center/sanitation-biotechnology

Current state of affairs:
After six months of the formal start of the project, we have been improving the strength and stability of the phages and other lytic agents so that they can be deployed in wastewater treatment. A prototype of the Lytics Broadcasting System (LBS) is being developed.

Appropriate lytics broadcasting system (LBS) is being developed to filter and broadcast different lytic agents such as bacteriophages, enzymes, bacteriocins and small molecules from cheap renewable natural sources such as plants, fungi and bacteria. Bacteriophages have been developed against five different enteric bacteria.

Overall, we have isolated about 25 phages against different strains of E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio, procured either from hospitals or wastewater. Few phages have been also developed against sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) such as Salmonella andProteus vulgaris. They were able to reduce production of hydrogen sulfide (one of major causes of the rotten egg smell). We have also started exploring the possibility of hosting the phage population in the human intestine surface layer (epithelia) so that they can work for the human host against the pathogens infecting the gastro-intestinal tract. Furthermore, we have isolated several E. coli bacteriophages that bind fibronectin and gelatin (denatured collagen) which are important matrix proteins of epithelial cells. We are currently testing their efficacy on protecting human epithelial cells (HT29) from E. coli infection.

This work has two purposes: test the safety of phages against human/animal exposure (even it is known as safe) and second is therapeutic purpose. This is not to be mixed with sanitation issue.

Biggest successes so far:
Development of bacteriophages against five enteric pathogens and their appropriate lytics broadcasting system

Main challenges:
The lytic agents are being made from mainly biological sources and they are susceptible to inhibition by heavy metals, detergents and other pollutants. Wastewater is very heterogeneous in composition with respect to biological pathogens, heavy metals, detergents, toiletries and other pollutants. Hence treatment procedures may be needed to be customized to tackle the inhibitors of the lytic agents. Thus the development and production cost may increase. In situ production of the lytic agents by the endogenous organisms which are not pathogenic and sustains pollutants in wastewater is one of the ideal ways. Our study should increase the deeper understanding of the different complex ecological interaction in wastewater and should be able to tackle these issues effectively.

Regards,
Sanjay

Sanjay Pal, PhD
Amrita School of Biotechnology
Amrita University, Kollam, Kerala.
www.amrita.edu/faculty/dr-sanjay-pal


Note by moderator (EvM):

** The total amount of the RTTC India grant is $1,068,908, which is spread over six research projects, one of them is this one (see also: www.gatesfoundation.org/How-We-Work/Quic...s/2013/05/OPP1055862)

Further information about the RTTC India grant scheme is also available here on the forum:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-gr...nda-gates-foundation]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 30 Jul 2015 18:02:09 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: Taber http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14221 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14221 I am able (smile) to understand this, but perhaps it can be said more succinctly for all Wiki readers.

For example, yet still awkward:
Within the total solids component, volatile solids make up 75-85%. The remaining 25-15% is dry solid matter that is 65-85% organic material.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 17 Jul 2015 04:13:20 +0000
Re: Characterization of Feces and Urine: review paper - by: AParker http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14199 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13521-characterization-of-feces-and-urine-review-paper-cranfield-university-2015#14199 ]]> Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 15 Jul 2015 13:07:31 +0000 Re: Odor Survey announcement - by: kathyjooss http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13929-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#14006 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13929-please-take-part-in-the-odour-survey-of-two-universities-in-the-us#14006
Thanks for taking the survey and recommending it to others.

By 'on-site researcher' we mean sanitation researchers located on the ground in developing countries.

The terms 'latrine' and 'toilet' are used interchangeably in the survey. While some audiences may infer differences in meaning, to my knowledge and based on the Webster's definition, the two are interchangeable. (E.g. latrine can be used to describe a bathroom for soldiers or a pit in the ground that is used as a toilet, but it is also used as another word for toilet.)

Best Regards,
Kathy]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 23:30:26 +0000
Re: Assessing Odor Issues and Control Strategies for the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge - Duke/University of Colorado, Boulder, USA - by: kathyjooss http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#14004 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13927-assessing-odor-issues-and-control-strategies-for-the-reinvent-the-toilet-challenge-dukeuniversity-of-colorado-boulder-usa#14004
As part of the project, research is being conducted on two potential odor control mechanisms, (1) odor adsorption by activated carbon and biochars and (2) biochar based biofilters. We will be correlating adsorption characteristics to char physico-chemical properties and investigating the applicability of biochar-based biofilters for odor control in specific FSM applications. At this time, we are not yet targeting a specific sanitation system or geographic location.

Best Regards,
Kathy]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 23:09:52 +0000
Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - by: TinaVelkushanova http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13988 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13988
Hope this brings some clarity and please do not hesitate to ask should you need more information.

Best regards
Tina]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 13:16:03 +0000
Re: Equipment and health and safety modifications required for developing the capacity to support grantees field-testing in Durban, SA (UKZN, South Africa) - by: TinaVelkushanova http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13985 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/12825-equipment-and-health-and-safety-modifications-required-for-developing-the-capacity-to-support-grantees-field-testing-in-durban-sa-ukzn-south-africa#13985
apologies for the late reply. Actually the SOP manual has been developed about two years ago and we are currently working on the next revision as a lot more work has been done since the latest version


We have shared the Pollution Research Group FS SOP manual on request with a lot of our partners and are happy to provide guidance and support if more information is required.

Soon you will be able to download the next version of our FS SOP manual with additional FS analytical procedures from our website: prg.ukzn.ac.za/laboratory-facilities.

There are currently negotiations regarding the further peer-review and publication of the FS SOP manual. Any advice on this matter will be appreciated.


Best regards
Tina]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:52:26 +0000