SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Mon, 24 Apr 2017 01:33:46 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Solutions for pit desludging and sludge management in low income urban settlements in Malawi (Mzuzu University) - and policy issues - by: rochelleholm http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/10663-modified-treadle-pump-pit-pump-prototype-peddle-powered-gulper-modification-malawi?limit=12&start=12#21245 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/10663-modified-treadle-pump-pit-pump-prototype-peddle-powered-gulper-modification-malawi?limit=12&start=12#21245 Thank you for your great feedback on our recent paper 'Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi).' Trash is a big problem to fully empty latrines here in Mzuzu, Malawi. Households use pit latrines as a garbage can, even at my house.

About the keyhole (squat hole), please see our other recent paper 'Characterization of pit latrines to support design and selection of emptying tools in peri-urban Mzuzu, Malawi.' In this work you are correct that we suggest a maximum pit latrine emptying tool diameter of 10 cm to fit through the keyhole (squat hole). In Malawi, we do not have standardized latrine designs, and the only pit access is through the keyhole (squat hole) or to break the floor.

Hope this is helpful and please feel free to contact me if there is anything else.

Rochelle]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sat, 15 Apr 2017 09:44:05 +0000
Re: Time taken for faecal sludge tankers to discharge? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/18932-time-taken-for-faecal-sludge-tankers-to-discharge?limit=12&start=24#21185 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/18932-time-taken-for-faecal-sludge-tankers-to-discharge?limit=12&start=24#21185
I was doing some work on the Wikipedia article on vacuum trucks today, so I added a section on emptying of the truck.

I have two dilemmas here:
  • I have no reference to cite (this forum thread doesn't count as a reference on Wikipedia)
  • I might have added more detail than what a layperson would need to know

But in any case, I have added it (=a bit like a summary of this thread), and let's see if it sticks. Perhaps someone will find a reference for this information in future, too.

So this is how I have written it, hopefully understandable for lay persons:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_truck#Emptying_the_tanker

Emptying the tanker [edit | edit source]

Normally a tanker is emptied by gravity. There is a possibility to pressure up the vacuum tank in order to “pressure out” the liquid quicker or against a small difference in level. But that procedure is not good for the equipment and is therefore done only in special situations.

The regular discharge time for a tanker of 8 – 9 m³ is about 15 minutes (or 7-10 minutes to unload a tanker of 4000 liters). The outlet is typically 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) in diameter. The discharge time depends on the thickness of the sludge, the size of the outlet valve and hose, the amount of garbage in the fecal sludge and how often the driver has to stop to clean the dump screen.[citation needed]


Comments welcome, also feel free to modify it directly in the Wikipedia article itself.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Tue, 11 Apr 2017 23:26:54 +0000
Re: GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: JulyG http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21175 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21175
Thank you for your answer.
I am a MSc studient in WASH, so not for now but maybe in the future!

All the best,
July]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:36:12 +0000
Re: GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: muhoza221 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21148 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21148
This study is really interesting, it shows how information technology can help for improving sanitation. One question, what is the major challenges you have found for the sustainability of this system?

Regards]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sun, 09 Apr 2017 05:48:56 +0000
Re: GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: jonpar http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21145 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21145
Do you or anyone else have experience using these software applications ? Would you like to explain how you used the applications, who did it and what the results/benefits have been.

Jonathan

ps. If you don't have time to write a long explanation, you could consider an alternative way to share your experiences - perhaps using audio/podcast or webcam/video - or a few photos or slides with an audio voiceover.]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sat, 08 Apr 2017 10:06:04 +0000
Re: GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21144 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21144 www.traccar.org/
or
opengts.sourceforge.net/]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sat, 08 Apr 2017 07:40:07 +0000
Re: GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: LindaStrande http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21141 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21141
We have not yet replicated the study. We are considering where we should replicate it, and still have all the trackers. Also, since the study completion, KCCA has instituted a call Center for emptying services in Kampala. Are you considering doing something similar?

You can find more Information on our Website
www.sandec.ch/fsm_tools

Best Regards,
Linda Strande]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Fri, 07 Apr 2017 09:53:43 +0000
Re: Solutions for pit desludging and sludge management in low income urban settlements in Malawi (Mzuzu University) - and policy issues - by: dandreatta http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/10663-modified-treadle-pump-pit-pump-prototype-peddle-powered-gulper-modification-malawi?limit=12&start=12#21132 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/10663-modified-treadle-pump-pit-pump-prototype-peddle-powered-gulper-modification-malawi?limit=12&start=12#21132
I carefully read the paper Designing local solutions....... regarding pit emptying in Malawi. I have a few follow up questions.

In the pits that the device could not successfully empty, what were the problems?

If the problems were trash getting stuck in the valves inside the gulper, I've often wondered if anyone has tried flexible check valves (sometimes called duckbill valves because they look sort of like a duck's bill) in such devices. I would think these would be a lot more clog resistant than other types of valves. Can you address this question?

You give a typical flow of 0.00058 cubic meters per second (0.58 liters per second) and give times to empty typical pits as 10-15 minutes for the sludge pumping part of the process, with additional time for set up, clean up, etc. This gives a pit volume of around 0.5 cubic meters or less. This seems much smaller than typical pit sizes that you mentioned earlier in the article. Were the pits only partially emptied?

You give some typical dimensions of the squatting hole in Table 1. One hole is listed as "round", but are the holes typically, rectangular, elliptic, keyhole shape, etc? I ask because I'm interested in tools that can go down through the squatting hole, and it seems the larger the hole, the easier the process. Someone recently said "Assume 10 cm diameter" for a squatting hole, but is this excessively restrictive? I notice all the holes in Table 1 are much larger.

Thanks,

Dale Andreatta]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Thu, 06 Apr 2017 20:44:08 +0000
Re: GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: JulyG http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21067 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21067
The study is really interesting!
I have noticed you are not involved in the study, but do you know if it has been tested elsewhere ?

All the best,
July]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Thu, 30 Mar 2017 14:36:53 +0000
GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: jonpar http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21057 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/21057-gis-analysis-and-optimisation-of-faecal-sludge-logistics-at-city-wide-scale-in-kampala-uganda#21057
My only questions to the authors would be, roughly how much did it cost to undertake the survey and secondly, where there issues in getting the service providers to participate. Clearly any service provider practising illegal dumping would not want to be monitored. Although you mention that this is not practised in Kampala (according to shit flow diagram, it seems to be about 2% of the sludge removed using mechanised fecal sludge trucks). Presumably in cities where illegal dumping is more widespread, then the methodology would be harder to implement, but what do the authors think about the application for regulatory purposes. If all registered trucks had to have them fitted and the operator would be charged if caught tampering with the equipment, then it would be possible to maintain detailed database of truck movements etc. In fact, a larger company with more than a handful of trucks might appreciate this information for their own management purposes ?

best regards,

Jonathan

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Authors : Lars Schoebitz, Fabian Bischoff, Christian Riuji Lohri, Charles B. Niwagaba, Rosi Siber and Linda Strande

"The objectives of this study were to use GPS (global positioning system) and GIS tools to
identify the scale of operation of mechanical faecal sludge emptying services, and to evaluate ways to optimise faecal sludge logistics at a city-wide scale to increase access to equitable sanitation services.

The employed method provides a powerful tool to optimise faecal sludge management on a city-wide scale by increasing sustainability of the planning and decision-making process, increasing access to service provision and reducing faecal sludge transport times and costs.


"The use of GIS tools for optimisation of faecal sludge collection and transport at city-wide scale provides an opportunity to increase sustainability of the planning and decision-making process by increasing access to service provision and reducing faecal sludge transport times and costs. The method is applicable anywhere, but variables need to be adapted to the local situation; for example, sufficiently detailed spatial data (e.g., GIS map layers or crowd-sourced information)."

These innovative methodologies and tools for the analyses of faecal sludge management were found to be effective for this purpose. The benefits of employing GIS analyses as a component of planning include:

 Access to sanitation: Identifying areas that lack adequate access to sanitation for priority
intervention by local municipalities to increase equity of service coverage.

 Underserved areas: Identifying areas where manual or mechanical private entrepreneurs could
profitably increase service provision, and increase access to faecal sludge management.

 Future demand: Identifying areas with rapidly growing and high population densities with a need
for increased service provision.

 Identify service areas: Locating areas outside of the municipal boundaries, which are being served by treatment plants within boundaries.

 Optimise locations: Siting of treatment plants and transfer stations to optimise transport distances could greatly reduce transport costs and impacts to traffic.

 Quantification and characterisation: Identifying sources of faecal sludge, which could be combined with other tools to increase accuracy of quantification and characterisation for appropriate design.

 Existing infrastructure: Optimising usage of existing infrastructure.

www.eawag.ch/fileadmin/Domain1/Abteilung...analysis_kampala.pdf

www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/2/194/pdf]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Wed, 29 Mar 2017 22:04:44 +0000
How to deal with trash in pits - TRASH EXCLUSION - by: FrancisdelosReyes http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20974-how-to-deal-with-trash-in-pits-trash-exclusion#20974 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20974-how-to-deal-with-trash-in-pits-trash-exclusion#20974
Options for dealing with trash during pit emptying
The main challenge in mechanized pit emptying is dealing with trash. Trash, such as large pieces of clothing, rope-type materials, bottles, shoes, etc., can clog any tube-based mechanical approach, if the material is bigger than the tube. Note that the tube is limited to around 10-12 cm in diameter, if it is to access through the squat holes or the pedestal. Trash clogs other human-powered machines such as the Gulper I and II.

There are several approaches to deal with trash in pit latrines. Most pit emptiers who use a machine either accept clogging as something that occurs, and try to minimize the downtime due to clogging. Others, such as those in Blantyre, Malawi, use a “fluidization” method, followed by manual “fishing” to remove the trash using manually operated hooks. This approach is messy and time consuming. “Fishing” can take hours, even half a day, while the subsequent pumping by vacuum pumps take just minutes (Chirwa, Personal communication). The trash in pit latrines is covered in faecal material, and comes in many forms and sizes, making manual removal unhygienic. A third approach is to “macerate” or somehow reduce the size of trash before they enter the hose or tube. To our knowledge, there has not been a single successful application of this technology in real pits. This is because high rotational speeds and a large amount of energy would be needed to chop up material such as cloth, or trash like jeans, shoes, or bottles. A fourth approach is to use screens to minimize clogging. Screens can increase the time between complete clogging, but will still need to be cleaned periodically.

The case for trash exclusion
Leaving the trash behind in the pit avoids all these issues. There is no clogging, no fishing, no fluidization needed (which requires addition of large amounts of water), and no messy trash outside the pit that needs to be handled and disposed. There is no need for additional energy for chopping or macerating trash.

What happens to the trash left behind? One option is to leave it there. This will decrease the subsequent working volume of the pit. Thus the homeowners will need more frequent pit emptying, which will increase their costs. The other option is for the homeowner to request removal of the trash left behind. Since the contract is for removal of faecal material, this additional service should also be additional cost to the homeowner. In both cases, the higher costs for dealing with trash will lead to the change in behavior that is needed- for users to stop using the pit latrine as a trash disposal system. It should be noted that the second option – subsequent removal of the trash that was left behind- will be likely a manual process, until a mechanical option is developed. The costs for removing the trash should be a function of the amount of trash in the pit, again directly incentivizing behavioural change.

Separating the trash from faecal material makes downstream treatment of faecal sludge easier. Current FS treatment technologies, such as anaerobic digestion, composting, fermentation, black soldier fly, vermicomposting, and supercritical water oxidation, all require the pre- removal of inorganics such as plastic, clothing, glass bottles, metals, etc. Technologies such as LaDePa would also benefit if trash were not present, as it would remove the need for the trash removal step that requires energy. If only faecal sludge needs to be treated, then needed steps, such as pathogen inactivation, become more economical and effective, as the volume of material to be treated is reduced. Other reuse options become more feasible. These include conversion technologies to energy or high-value materials (such as long-chain acids or biofuels). Note that the cost of removing trash is already included in the pit emptying step, and eliminated from the treatment step.

Separating the trash will lead to efficiencies in collection, since faecal sludge volumes would be lower. The separated trash can be collected separately and transported to a landfill or other trash management facility that is possibly in a different part of town. Alternatively, the trash can be disposed of in a trash pit within the homeowner’s property. In any case, the trash management system can be optimized to lower costs of dealing with trash.

Conclusions
The removal of only faecal material during pit emptying, and leaving the trash in the pit, is a new approach that has inherent advantages. It is realistic, solves many pit emptying problems, and makes downstream handling and treatment of faecal sludge and trash easier, more hygienic, and more cost-effective.]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Tue, 21 Mar 2017 20:24:00 +0000
Re: Lively discussion on 'fishing' of rubbish from pit latrines at WEDC - by: FrancisdelosReyes http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/14842-lively-discussion-on-fishing-of-rubbish-from-pit-latrines-at-wedc#20973 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/14842-lively-discussion-on-fishing-of-rubbish-from-pit-latrines-at-wedc#20973
Fishing is something that has been on our minds.

Below is a paper that attempts to look at how to deal with trash. I would say that since we submitted this paper, we have formulated a new approach which we described at FSM4 in Chennai. I will discuss that in a later post.


washdev.iwaponline.com/content/7/1/85

Trash removal methods for improved mechanical emptying of pit latrines using a screw auger

Tracey Sisco, Tate Rogers, Walt Beckwith, Willy Chipeta, Rochelle Holm, Christopher A. Buckley, Francis L. de los Reyes
Published March 2017, 7 (1) 85-91; DOI: 10.2166/washdev.2017.106
Abstract

Trash in pit latrines is one of the largest challenges facing pit emptying technologies, including the powered auger (the Excrevator), developed for improved emptying in lower- and lower-middle income countries. This study focused on two trash removal methods in conjunction with pit emptying by the Excrevator: (1) simultaneous removal of trash with sludge and (2) manual trash removal prior to sludge removal. Simultaneous removal was tested by adding to the inlet of the Excrevator system two cutting heads designed to reduce the size of trash particles before entering the pipe and auger. Laboratory testing indicated that the auger will not provide the rotational speeds necessary for proper maceration of fibrous materials such as clothing, indicating that a separate maceration unit with higher rotational methods may be more appropriate. Four manual trash removal mechanisms were designed to improve on existing manual trash ‘fishing’ tools such as iron rods with fixed hooks. Two of these tools (the ‘claw’ and the ‘hook’) showed promising laboratory results and were subsequently field tested in Mzuzu, Malawi. Both tools proved more efficient than the current tools used in the field and have potential for use in Malawi.

washdev.iwaponline.com/content/7/1/85]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Tue, 21 Mar 2017 20:19:15 +0000
Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi) - by: rochelleholm http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/10663-modified-treadle-pump-pit-pump-prototype-peddle-powered-gulper-modification-malawi?limit=12&start=12#20770 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/10663-modified-treadle-pump-pit-pump-prototype-peddle-powered-gulper-modification-malawi?limit=12&start=12#20770 Note by moderator: This thread is related to this research project:
forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-fae...ty-and-policy-issues
+++++++++++++

Please checkout our newest publication under the "Solutions for Pit Desludging and Subsequent Sludge Management in Low Income Urban Settlement in Malawi” project with support from the Water Research Commission of South Africa.

Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)
by W.C. Chipeta, R.H. Holm, J.F. Kamanula, W.E. Mtonga and F.L. de los Reyes III
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2017.02.012

Abstract
A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1–4 m3 could be emptied within 1–2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

To help you access the full article, it is open access, please visit www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706516300523 .]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Wed, 08 Mar 2017 03:58:13 +0000
Re: Emptying of sludge - How can we know the consistency of the fecal sludge during the emptying if it can be pumped or not? - by: ddiba http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20516 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20516
In the case of Kampala-Uganda, vacuum truck operators usually have an idea of what sludge consistency to expect in particular areas but what I have seen them do a lot also is to pour water in pits so as to make the sludge more workable before pumping it out.

Regards,
Daniel]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Mon, 20 Feb 2017 10:10:48 +0000
Re: Emptying of sludge - How can we know the consistency of the fecal sludge during the emptying if it can be pumped or not? - by: kevintayler http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20509 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20509
First, I would say that, in addition to septic tanks, many leach pits are pumpeable. Experience in Indonesia shows that there is sometimes a need to mix some water with the pit contents before pumping it and it is possible that some hard consolidated sludge remains in the bottom of pits (and septic tanks) that have not been pumped for some time. The research from e Thekwini in South Africa shows that some dry pit latrines contain faecal sludge that cannot be pumped but there are other places in Africa, for instance Dakar, where septage has a high water content and certainly can be pumped.

Perhaps the best way to make a quick initial assessment is to assess what is already happening. Do vacuum tankers operate and if so what does the material that they discharge look like - is it thick or thin? Of course, there is always the possibility that they are only taking the top layer from the sludge in the tank/pit but observation of existing practice and talking to tanker operators and manual emptiers will give an idea of the existing situation]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sun, 19 Feb 2017 20:42:05 +0000