Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA and Water Institute at UNC - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana)

  • Darrens
  • Darrens's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 6
  • Karma: 1
  • Likes received: 6

Research project by Plan USA: Testing different models of facilitation (funded by BMGF)

Information is provided to colleagues interested in CLTS in the sector relating to a new grant provided by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for Plan International USA. For further information, contact Darren Saywell, WASH/CLTS Technical Director, Plan International USA at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Plan International USA's Testing Modified CLTS for Scalability project aims to advance rural sanitation efforts in Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana, and worldwide by improving the cost-effectiveness and scalability of the CLTS approach through increased engagement of local actors. This goal will be achieved by collecting, critically evaluating, and disseminating practical lessons learned about overcoming common challenges to implementing CLTS at scale, based on applied research from pilot interventions in Kenya, Ghana, and Ethiopia that are embedded in broader knowledge generation activities. In line with the CLTS approach, the proposed project applies community-led solutions to address both demand for and supply of sanitation, to help communities eliminate open defecation and maintain and improve sanitation status over time.

The proposed project will be led by Plan USA with key support from the Water Institute at UNC (UNC) and local implementing partners, and will be achieved through three integrated objectives:

Objective 1: Learning. Plan and UNC will design and implement applied research pilot projects that test solutions to locally-relevant global CLTS scaling challenges in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Kenya. Plan International has implemented CLTS for several years in each of these countries; based on this knowledge and analysis of existing barriers to implementation at scale, the pilots were designed to address three strategic challenges. The proposed project applies experimental research standards and deliberate project design guidelines to test modified CLTS methodologies for local actor engagement that address these challenges, in a manner that will allow the partners to evaluate, document, and disseminate its experiences and innovations.

Objective 2: Capturing. The collection of knowledge, tools, and lessons learned is a central activity of the project, and will be conducted with the extensive support of researchers at UNC. This will include the systematic capture and evaluation of results from the pilot interventions, supplemented by innovations and expertise from Plan International’s global CLTS experience. UNC will also support Plan in conducting a broad literature review, and collecting and developing standardized metrics for sanitation programming.

Objective 3: Sharing. We will disseminate the knowledge collected and the results of the research pilots to internal and external practitioners and researchers in the sanitation sector. Specific dissemination activities will include publication of research pilot results, exchange visits among pilot countries, publication of knowledge collected (leading practices, methods, tools, case studies, etc.) through both traditional publications and web-based resources, and coordination of learning events at the regional and global levels.
The following user(s) like this post: tmsinnovation
You need to login to reply
  • Darrens
  • Darrens's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 6
  • Karma: 1
  • Likes received: 6

Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA and Water Institute at UNC - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana)

Here is a description of a large grant on examining various aspects of CLTS by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation* which we at Plan International USA have been carrying out with partners since 2011:

Title of grant:

Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability

Subtitle: Enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation
  • Name of lead organization: Plan International USA
  • Primary contact at lead organization: Darren Saywell, Senior Director—Water, Sanitation and Health Practice
  • Grantee location: Washington DC, USA
  • Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: The project is being implemented in Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana (plus 7 additional case studies of the sanitation context in: Cambodia, Nepal, Laos PDR, Indonesia, Niger, Uganda and Haiti)
  • Start and end date: October 2011-September 2015
  • Grant type (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other): Part of the Building Demand for Sanitation (BDS) portfolio
  • Grant size in USD: $7,080,753 (as per grant database )
  • Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): yes
Short description of the project:

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) was developed in 2000 as a way to generate change in sanitation behaviors, which can then stimulate both demand and supply for improved sanitation and sustainable reductions in open defecation (OD). While CLTS has shown promising results, there are elements and challenges inherent in the CLTS approach that hinder the overall effort to efficiently and effectively scaling the intervention. In particular, the requirement of labor-intensive facilitation, community by community, makes CLTS slow and costly to scale. NGOs most commonly lead facilitation, dependent on donor funding and geographic coverage. Efforts to transfer CLTS facilitation to relevant government entities have also struggled to secure sufficient motivation and resources to effectively implement the approach at scale. Removing these obstacles through modified CLTS methodologies and practices could significantly improve the coverage of the approach.

Plan USA and its research partner, The Water Institute at UNC, are implementing a rigorous, research-based project with the overall goal of advancing global sanitation efforts by improving the cost-effectiveness and scalability of the CLTS approach. This goal will be pursued by collecting, evaluating, and disseminating practical lessons learned about overcoming common challenges to implementing CLTS at scale, based on applied research from pilot interventions in rural Kenya, Ghana, and Ethiopia.

In response to the primary challenge of costly, labor-intensive CLTS facilitation, our approach tests identified strategies to enhance the roles of local actors at the community, facilitator, and government levels in CLTS implementation. In line with the CLTS approach to address both supply and demand for sanitation, the project will generate sustained and community-led demand for improved sanitation along with basic levels of supply of sanitation solutions, to eliminate OD in the short term and achieve further sanitation improvements over time. By identifying ways to enhance the cost-effectiveness and scalability of the CLTS approach within a variety of contexts, it is anticipated that the proposed project will contribute substantially to the overall global efforts to address both the supply of and the demand for improved sanitation, and thus advance the achievement of the MDG for improved sanitation.


Goal:

To advance rural sanitation efforts in Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana and worldwide by improving the cost-effectiveness and scalability of the CLTS approach through increased engagement of local actors, such as teachers, local government officials and natural leaders.


Objectives (set at project start in 2011):
  • Objective 1: Learning. Plan and UNC designed and implemented applied research pilot projects that test solutions to locally-relevant global CLTS scaling challenges in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Kenya. Plan International has implemented CLTS for several years in each of these countries; based on this knowledge and analysis of existing barriers to implementation at scale, the pilots were designed to address three strategic challenges. The project applies experimental research standards and deliberate project design guidelines to test modified CLTS methodologies for local actor engagement that address these challenges, in a manner that will allow the partners to evaluate, document, and disseminate its experiences and innovations.
  • Objective 2: Capturing. The collection of knowledge, tools, and lessons learned is a central activity of the project, and is conducted with the extensive support of researchers at UNC. This includes the systematic capture and evaluation of results from the pilot interventions, supplemented by innovations and expertise from Plan International’s global CLTS experience. UNC also supports Plan in conducting a broad literature review, and collecting and developing standardized metrics for sanitation programming.
  • Objective 3: Sharing. We disseminate the knowledge collected and the results of the research pilots to internal and external practitioners and researchers in the sanitation sector. Specific dissemination activities will include publication of research pilot results, exchange visits among pilot countries, publication of knowledge collected (leading practices, methods, tools, case studies, etc.) through both traditional publications and web-based resources, and coordination of learning events at the regional and global levels
Research or implementation partners: The Water Institute at the University of North Carolina, Plan Kenya, Plan Ethiopia, and Plan Ghana

Links, further readings – results to date:

Project website: scalingclts.web.unc.edu/resource-library/

Current state of affairs:

The project is being implemented according to the plan. To date the project has completed a range of scheduled activities: rigorously assessed CLTS operating context in all three pilot countries; reviewed literature worldwide to inform the project approach; conducted community-based implementation of CLTS (treatment vs. control groups) in pilot countries; conducted rapid assessments of CLTS programming in seven comparison cases worldwide; and completed process-learning focused workshops with regional stakeholders in Africa and Asia.


Biggest successes so far:
  • Data analysis still underway, so premature to identify results from the pilot evaluations as yet
  • In process terms, building an effective partnership between a research oriented organization (UNC) and a practice based organization (Plan) has been a strong lesson learning exercise, the insights from which will be documented and made available from this grant.
Main challenges / frustration:
  • Identification of serious confounding issues for the research in Kenya led to a complete re-design of research objectives and approach in 2012. These confounding factors were: complex institutional arrangements in which NGO and government roles are often indistinguishable; mixed financing of WASH from government, NGOS, and bi- and multi-laterals; expectations of and dependency on NGOs by district governments; low similarity of treatment and control districts; and upcoming elections and redistricting. This has impacted the available timeline to implement and monitor outcomes in that country;
  • Survey contractors in Ghana produced poor quality work, compromising the confidence that the research team had in the baseline prepared for the study. Surveys had to be re-commissioned using alternative contractors, impacting scheduled timeline for activities;
  • Interpretation of rigorous research protocols by practitioners has at times led to spillover effects between treatment and control groups.

Very best,

Darren


Darren Saywell, PhD
Senior Director – Water, Sanitation and Health Practice
Plan International USA
1255 23rd Street NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20037, USA


*
Note by moderator:
A list of all the sanitation grants by the BMGF is now available here in the project database on the SuSanA website, filtered by funding agency BMGF:
www.susana.org/en/resources/projects?vbl...5D=&vbl_22%5B%5D=612
You need to login to reply
  • F H Mughal
  • F H Mughal's Avatar
  • Long-term forum user
  • Senior Water and Sanitation Engineer
  • Posts: 762
  • Karma: 19
  • Likes received: 195

Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana)

Dear Darren,

Interesting output - I assume this is a summary. Do you have a detailed report?

In addition to Kenya, Ethopia and Ghana, a word "worldwide" has been used. I suggest inclusion of South Asian countries (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh), if that is possible at this stage, so that you have review from African and South Asian countries. I reckon, the findings of this research would interest many developing countries.

Best,

F H Mughal

F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan
You need to login to reply
  • KimAndersson
  • KimAndersson's Avatar
  • Long-term forum user
  • Research Fellow at SEI working on sustainable sanitation, integrated water management and resource recovery
  • Posts: 54
  • Karma: 9
  • Likes received: 23

Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana)

Dear Darren,
First of all I would like to thank you for introducing this major research initiative on the Forum. And also congratulate to your successful collaboration between researchers and practitioners, which create a powerful partnership.

In your objectives you are talking about “learning” and “capturing” in very broad terms. Is your focus mainly on upscaling of CLTS or are you also looking at more specific dimensions, e.g. how CLTS can support sustained use of sanitation systems and also how to successful achieve an integrated development i.e. water, sanitation and hygiene?

Having the recent functionality discussion in mind from the Thematic Discussion at the Forum on the Sanitation Ladder, I would like to ask if you have analysed the sanitation system function in communities? How is technologies successfully introduced in the CLTS campaigns, e.g. ensuring local capacity for O&M? As also recently discussed on the Forum, the new SDGs will most certainly move beyond containment towards sustainable management. How do you see this change in ambition level from a CLTS perspective?

In addition, it would be nice to hear if your research has provided any interesting cases where the CLTS approach has resulted in safe reuse of sanitation waste products in communities? At SEI we are interested in further exploring how triggering approaches like CLTS could be applied when aiming at strengthen the resource management and livelihoods in communities.

Thanks and best regards,
Kim

Kim Andersson
Stockholm Environment Institute
Postbox 24218,104 51 Stockholm, Sweden
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • ryanrowe
  • ryanrowe's Avatar
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 6
  • Likes received: 1

Re: New Research Summaries and Synthesis: Understanding the Implementation Context for CLTS

Dear Colleagues,

I've been a member of this forum for some time without posting, but have keenly observed and learned from many of the discussions. Thank you for this great resource and knowledge-sharing! :)

I would like to share with you four new documents being released from the Plan International USA project "Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability" for which the Water Institute at UNC is research partner.

We conducted situational assessments of CLTS in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Ghana and share with you the findings in these new short notes, which provide a snapshot of the context for implementing CLTS in each of those countries in 2012. We also developed a one-page synthesis to illustrate CLTS-specific challenges in the context of the findings of the UN-Water GLAAS 2014 report.

Community-led Total Sanitation in Kenya, Ghana, and Ethiopia: Findings from Situational Assessments. Crocker, Jonny, Jennifer Bogle, and Ryan Rowe. 2015. The Water Institute at UNC: Chapel Hill, USA. Link: http://bit.ly/1EKqD00

A situational assessment can inform program planning and evaluation. We assessed national policy, institutional arrangements, and monitoring systems for CLTS in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Kenya prior to evaluations of Plan International’s CLTS projects with local actors. In three short research summaries, we present the strong national government support for CLTS and the key role played by non-government actors in implementation. Improved monitoring is needed for countries to assess program efficiency and effectiveness. The insights provide a baseline reference for CLTS policy and practice.

Community-led Total Sanitation Research Brief: Implementation Context in Kenya, Ghana, and Ethiopia. Crocker, Jonny, Jennifer Bogle, and Ryan Rowe. 2015. The Water Institute at UNC: Chapel Hill, USA. Link: http://bit.ly/1OSOJ0v

Contextual factors may affect how local actors influence sanitation outcomes. In 2012, prior to working with local actors in Kenya, Ghana, and Ethiopia, researchers characterized the national context for implementing CLTS in each country. This publication synthesizes the research findings and shows how they illustrate the conclusions of the UN-Water GLAAS 2014 report, as they relate to political processes, implementation, and monitoring and evaluations systems. Decision-makers may utilize the information to guide CLTS policy and strategic plans.

We would welcome questions or comments on these resources.

Thank you and best regards
Ryan Rowe

This message has attachments files.
Please log in or register to see it.

You need to login to reply
  • muench
  • muench's Avatar
  • Long-term forum user
  • Freelance consultant (former roles: program manager, lecturer, process engineer)
  • Posts: 2145
  • Karma: 46
  • Likes received: 626

Re: New Research Summaries and Synthesis: Understanding the Implementation Context for CLTS

Dear Ryan,

Thanks for your post which provides these nice, concise, short synthesis documents about understanding the implementation context for CLTS in three countries: Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana.

I have moved your post into the existing thread about the project by Plan USA, who has partnered with you, to provide more context. Hope that's OK by you.

From your summary 1-page factsheet ( forum.susana.org/media/kunena/attachment...ynthesis-2015-04.pdf ) I found particularly interesting:

Our findings also aligns with CLTS grey literature, which
commonly notes that structured monitoring would enable
insight into sustained behavior change and scale-up.


and

Our assessments revealed CLTS implementation in Kenya,
Ghana, and Ethiopia relies on financial and human resources
from non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
[...]
This aligns
with GLAAS 2014 findings, which identified substantial gaps
between political aspirations and government capacity
. Where
there are many actors engaged in CLTS, the grey literature
suggests the importance of mechanisms to coordinate actors,
which this study found to be established at the national level
in Kenya and Ghana.


(interesting that you mentioned twice the term "grey literature", how come?)

So thanks very much for sharing and please post more information about your research when it becomes available.

I will also put your four documents in the SuSanA library and then link to it from the project database here:
www.susana.org/en/resources/projects?search=plan+usa

As you must be an expert on CLTS, may I take the opportunity to ask your input on three things:

(1)
Could you please take a look at the questions that Kim Anderson posted above on 18 March about this project? (I had already alerted Darren to them but he didn't reply yet; perhaps Kim's questions were also too "curvy" - but perhaps you could address some of them?).

(2)
Do you have any insights on CLTS in other countries, in particular I am interested in the question why it hasn't worked out in Latin America, for example Bolivia. Please see this thread on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-clts...it=12&start=12#13206 (the link should take you to Page 2 of the discussion).

(3)
And do you have suggestions for improvements to the Wikipedia article on CLTS? I have been working on it with Joe Turner and Jamie Myers and some other Wikipedia editors whom I don't know: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community-led_total_sanitation . Perhaps information from some publications by your institute need to be included and cited?

Regards,
Elisabeth

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant in Frankfurt, Germany
Community manager of this forum via SEI project ( www.susana.org/en/resources/projects/details/127 )
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Twitter: @EvMuench
Sanitation Wikipedia project: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Sanitation
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • ryanrowe
  • ryanrowe's Avatar
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 6
  • Likes received: 1

Re: New Research Summaries and Synthesis: Understanding the Implementation Context for CLTS

Dear Elisabeth,

Thanks for these queries and apologies for the lengthy delay in my reply.

On grey literature, we are referring to our review of 115 documents outside of scientific/academic journals such as technical reports, case studies, and briefing notes. A summary of the review is available here and the full report is available here .

To your numbered questions:

1) Those questions are probably best answered by Plan International as our implementation partner. I will follow up with Darren and our colleagues in the country offices and see if I can generate some information to address Kim's questions.

2) Sorry to disappoint you - we have not reviewed the materials on the experience of CLTS in Bolivia and therefore not familiar with the specific circumstances there.

3) Good idea to help strengthen the wikipedia article. I will have a look and see what could be added there.

Best regards,
Ryan
You need to login to reply
  • ryanrowe
  • ryanrowe's Avatar
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 6
  • Likes received: 1

Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana)

Dear Mr Mughal,

The work in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Kenya has generated a large amount of data which is still being analyzed, and therefore no reports have yet been made public. However, if you happen to be attending Stockholm World Water Week, some findings will be shared in an oral presentation at our CLTS seminar on Sunday August 23 at 09h00 in room FH 202. Additional findings will be shared at other events in September (a public access webinar) and October (the 2015 Water & Health Conference at UNC) this year.

The results are being submitted to journal publications before the end of the year in order to allow for peer review of the results and subsequent widespread dissemination (we hope this will be by early 2016). Please stay tuned to our project website: waterinstitute.unc.edu/clts . I will also add you to our mailing list.

Best regards
Ryan
You need to login to reply
  • F H Mughal
  • F H Mughal's Avatar
  • Long-term forum user
  • Senior Water and Sanitation Engineer
  • Posts: 762
  • Karma: 19
  • Likes received: 195

Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana)

Dear Mr. Ryan,

Thanks for the update. Myself and the other users of this forum look forward to the results, which, as you say, would be disseminated by the end of the year.

Regards,

F H Mughal

F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan
You need to login to reply
  • egichora
  • egichora's Avatar
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 1
  • Likes received: 0

Re: Testing CLTS approaches for scalability, enhancing the role of local actors in CLTS implementation (Plan USA and Water Institute at UNC - Kenya, Ethiopia and Ghana)

This is an interesting action research that has tested how local actors can be instrumental in the scaling up of CLTS.
From the recent implication workshop in Stockholm, it was clear that local actors have a role to play in scaling up CLTS.
Form the Kenya perspective, we note that the capacity building program for CLTS managers at the sub county level enhance the involvement in CLTS interventions, incorporating of CLTS in departmental work-plans. in addition the increased capacity of the government officers can lead to increased advocacy ad lobbying for resource allocation form county governments for CLTS implementation . This was there is potential for scale up if this approach can be replicated and initiated in other counties.
You need to login to reply
  • aks0813
  • aks0813's Avatar
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 16
  • Likes received: 4

Re: New video + learning brief from the Water Institute at UNC and Plan International Available Now!

Dear Colleagues,

I wanted to alert you to two new CLTS related publications on our website that may be of interest to you all:

1) A new video from Plan International and the Water Institute at UNC offers a preview of five exciting lessons on sanitation policy and practice, based on findings from operational research on CLTS in Ghana, Ethiopia, and Kenya: waterinstitute.unc.edu/new-video-offers-...-policy-and-practice .

2) In addition, we recently published a learning brief in which we review Plan International Nepal’s CLTS activities and the role of local actors in CLTS implementation: waterinstitute.unc.edu/publication/commu...entation-case-study/ .

I welcome your questions!

Regards,

Alec Shannon
Knowledge Management Associate
The Water Institute at UNC

Regards,
Alec

---
WASH Program Specialist, PMA2020
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • aks0813
  • aks0813's Avatar
  • Regular forum user
  • Posts: 16
  • Likes received: 4

Re: Webinar TOMORROW 17 Dec! Engaging Local Actors in Sanitation Behavior Change: Case Studies of CLTS (10 am EST New York time)

Dear Colleagues,

Join us TOMORROW, Thursday, December 17th, from 10:00 – 11:00 AM EST as we share the results of implementation research on the role and potential of local actors to sustain CLTS outcomes. This research is part of the CLTS Learning Series, a collection of case studies on CLTS implementation, prepared as part of Plan International USA’s Testing CLTS Approaches for Scalability project, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and implemented in partnership with the Water Institute at UNC (see here on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/5-comm...a-ethiopia-and-ghana ).

During the webinar, Vidya Venkataramanan, PhD candidate at the Water Institute at UNC, will present findings and implications from seven case studies across Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean, followed by 30 minutes of Q&A. Session moderation will be provided by Darren Saywell, Senior Director of Water, Sanitation, and Health at Plan International USA. We hope you will join us!

Please go here to register: waterinstitute.unc.edu/clts/webinar-registration/ .

Regards,

Alec
---
Alexandra Shannon
Knowledge Management Associate
The WATER INSTITUTE at UNC
Gillings School of Global Public Health
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Regards,
Alec

---
WASH Program Specialist, PMA2020
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
Share this thread:
Time to create page: 0.629 seconds