Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI) through Supply-Side Strengthening in Bihar, India (PSI)

  • kengelly
  • kengelly's Avatar Topic Author
  • Long-term forum user
  • WASH Technical Advisor - coordinate learnings across all of PSI's WASH programs, including sanitation in 14 countries. Market-based approaches, financing, FSM and entrepreneurship.
  • Posts: 32
  • Karma: 4
  • Likes received: 7

Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI) through Supply-Side Strengthening in Bihar, India (PSI)

Hi there,

Please find below the introduction of PSI's 5-year sanitation project, funded by the Gates Foundation.

Title of grant: Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI) through Supply-Side Strengthening
  • Name of lead organization: PSI (Population Services International)
  • Primary contact at lead organization: 3SI Lead: Arunesh Singh, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. WASH Coordinator: Genevieve Kelly, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
  • Grantee location: Washington, DC, USA
  • Developing country where the research is being tested: India
  • Start and end date: August 2012-July 2017
  • Grant type: Global Development
  • Grant size in USD: $8,522,912 (according to BMGF grant database )

Short description:

In 2012, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, PSI launched 3SI: Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements in Bihar, India. PSI with support from partners Monitor-Deloitte, PATH and Water For People is taking key steps towards improving sanitation access in Bihar by addressing constraints in supply and demand in order to build sustainable markets for sanitation. Activities include: innovating from existing toilet designs to drive down the cost while still meeting consumer needs and preferences (work led by PATH), building the capacity of local entrepreneurs to run effective toilet businesses, providing both households and businesses access to financing to facilitate investment in sanitation through advocacy with local partners as well as training and support to loan officers to sell sanitation loans, exploring products and services such as pump trucks and tiger worms for the safe removal, transport and treatment of the human waste from both pit latrines and septic tanks and coordinating all of these activities with a variety of sector actors such as government, service providers, producers and finance providers such as local and nation microfinance insitutions (MFIs).

Goal(s):
Increase access to and use of improved sanitation facilities and services and establish a sustainable, market-based supply chain for sanitation products and services.

Objectives:
1) Develop and support sustainable business models for increasing supply of sanitation products and services through the private sector; and,
2) Increase demand for improved sanitation products and services offered by the private sector.

Research or implementation partners:
PATH (Product Innovations throughout Project), Monitor-Deloitte (In-depth Market Research and Business Model Design), Water For People (Initial Product Technical Support)

Links, further readings – results to date:
Further reading: www.psi.org/publication/a-market-led-evi...o-rural-sanitation/​

Inclusive Markets (MIM) has written a white paper titled “A Market Led, Evidence Based, Approach to Rural Sanitation” (attached to this posting) on supply side market-based approaches to scale rural sanitation in India, based mainly on findings from the “Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements” (3SI) project and supplemented by additional investigation of interventions in other parts of India.

See on their website here: www.inclusive-markets.org/sanitation

Or see also here on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/164-fi...-can-act-as-enablers

This attachment is hidden for guests.
Please log in or register to see it.



Please watch the following videos to gain an appreciation of the work SAAB ("Sanitation as a business" project) displayed together with PATH and PSI, with whom Water For People is currently partnering to provide sustainable sanitation solutions in Bihar in India, where the Durasan will be among the sanitation technologies offered by the program.

Video interview with Sherina Munyana (formerly Water for People), talking about the DuraSan toilet (posted 31 March 2014):
forum.susana.org/forum/categories?func=v...2897&limit=1000#8041

Or direct link to the two videos:





Current state of affairs:
As of May 2015, PSI has facilitated the purchase of over 10,500 toilets, with over 30% of those sold to households in Bihar in the lowest wealth quintile. Over 605 consumer loans (range of $95-190 USD) or sanitation have been disbursed, as well as 30 enterprise loans.

Biggest successes so far:
With product development by PATH and extensive market research conducted by Monitor Group (now Deloitte), PSI successfully brought to market a full toilet, including twin pits, tiled slab and superstructure, for less than $250. Furthermore, PSI helped to infuse capital into the supply chain for financing in Bihar, to encourage Microfinance Insitution (MFI) engagement and increase access to sanitation loans for households and businesses. PSI and its partners are near-completion of a low-cost septic tank product, as well as a modular superstructure of pre-fabricated panels which can be assembled by the household in a matter of minutes, further reducing costs to the household while increasing the acceptability of the product.

Main challenges / frustration:
Bihar is a ‘credit-negative’ state – a long history of corruption among officials has made it an unattractive place for business for many investors and MFIs. As a result, PSI is challenged with increasing access to finance for households and enterprises, because sanitation in Bihar is considered a high-risk loan product. PSI is continuing to negotiate with national MFIs to address this. Additionally, supply chain outages, for example the sourcing of standardized doors which are not locally available in Bihar (with artisanal door production found to be unreliable and slow), have caused bottlenecks and delayed delivery of toilets to households.


Best,

Genevieve

Genevieve Kelly
WASH Associate Technical Advisor
Population Services International
Washington, DC | tel: 570-854-5075 skype: kengelly
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This message has an attachment file.
Please log in or register to see it.

You need to login to reply
  • arno
  • arno's Avatar
  • Moderator
  • Senior Research Fellow Stockholm Environment Institute
  • Posts: 217
  • Karma: 17
  • Likes received: 116

Re: Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI) through Supply-Side Strengthening in Bihar, India (PSI)

Hello Genevieve

Thanks for the comprehensive description of the 3SI Programme in Bihar. The documentation describing the present (2012) situation and potential for sector growth is impressive. It will be interesting to hear more about how the project has progressed and what sort of impact it is having. A few questions:
  1. What activities have been ongoing in 2014 and 2015?
  2. Can the years from 2014-2017 be classed as "implementation"?
  3. What sort of key performance indicators are being monitored?
  4. I noticed PSI uses the parameter "% DALYS averted" for other health projects to measure impact (both positive and negative). Can these assessments single out the impact of improved sanitation? I suppose providing evidence that people are financing and using and maintaining (not abandoning) toilets is the evidence required.
  5. How then can these data be obtained in a reliable fashion?
  6. Since parts of Bihar are prone to annual intense flooding, what technical options are being suggested in order to ensure permanent sanitation installations?
  7. The DURASAN kit is one that uses a leach pit. For how long are these rendered non-operational during the flood/rain season?

I have seen flooded pour-flush toilets with leach pits in Sri Lanka still being used while the water levels were at the level of squating pan. Elevated dry toilets were available but not generally accepted since they didn't have water seals and the faeces could be seen.

Do let us know how we can follow the progress.

Regards

Arno Rosemarin PhD
Stockholm Environment Institute
Linnegatan 87D, Box 24218
10451 Stockholm, Sweden
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • kengelly
  • kengelly's Avatar Topic Author
  • Long-term forum user
  • WASH Technical Advisor - coordinate learnings across all of PSI's WASH programs, including sanitation in 14 countries. Market-based approaches, financing, FSM and entrepreneurship.
  • Posts: 32
  • Karma: 4
  • Likes received: 7

Re: Supporting Sustainable Sanitation Improvements (3SI) through Supply-Side Strengthening in Bihar, India (PSI)

Hi Arno,

Long, long overdue -- responses to your questions:

1. What activities have been ongoing in 2014 and 2015?
Whew, not sure how to write this succinctly, but 2014-2015 have been primarily increasing access to financing for both households and entrepreneurs, direct sales, design and implementation of an SBCC campaign, product development for both a modular septic tank as well as super structure, testing of portable toilet cabins with both households and businesses, design of a retail audit for pans in the state of Bihar to see if there is a measurable increase in uptake of toilets, ramping up of the FSM project (including testing a variety of approaches), a partner’s sewage treatment plant was completed and we’ve begun coordination with local tankers for dumping there, various engagements with both local and national government with regard to the subsidy, FSM etc.

2. Can the years from 2014-2017 be classed as "implementation"?
2013 -2017 are implementation with 2012-2013 being the landscape.

3. What sort of key performance indicators are being monitored?
% of BPL households reached, # of toilets sold, # toilets constructed, Liters of fecal sludge safely treated, # of loans disbursed (household and enterprise) and we’re exploring a “use” indicator (hopefully can provide an update on that soon)

4. I noticed PSI uses the parameter "% DALYS averted" for other health projects to measure impact (both positive and negative). Can these assessments single out the impact of improved sanitation? I suppose providing evidence that people are financing and using and maintaining (not abandoning) toilets is the evidence required.
Yep, exactly and that is certainly part of why we’re so keen to demonstrate use as at PSI we always strive to demonstrate health impact if possible. There is a DALY for sanitation that we have developed building off of the guidance from the broader sector and that is specific to the project latrine (e.g. based on 2 5ft pits), however we have not started using this largely to do with what you’ve mentioned in terms of ensuring use but also because we cannot guarantee that households always install the exact pit same pit size, which is what the DALY is based on (liters of waste “removed” from the environment)

5. How then can these data be obtained in a reliable fashion?

I’ll be sure to update you once we have more information on the Use indicator. In the meantime, we are calling a representative sample size of households 30 days post-sale to determine whether or not the toilet has been constructed (in terms of sales and delivery of parts we rely on the project enterprises’ records). We also have a team of sanitation technical officers who conduct spot checks. We have sales/promotion agents who provide us regular data (uploaded via tablet) on sales leads, closed sales etc. that we can cross-check against the enterprise records. We also work closely with local microfinance organizations for their reporting in terms of loans applied, received and paid back.

6. Since parts of Bihar are prone to annual intense flooding, what technical options are being suggested in order to ensure permanent sanitation installations?
These areas are not within our current project scope, however we’re learning quite a bit in terms of facilities that have regular emptying (e.g. 2x weekly) that may have implications for above-ground/plastic solutions.

7. The DURASAN kit is one that uses a leach pit. For how long are these rendered non-operational during the flood/rain season?
Again, not within the current scope.

I’m attaching a financing note that provides a summary of our work with microfinance organizations and our attempt to “activate the supply chain for financing” as well as our most-updated 4 pager.

Also, the latest numbers:
~28,000 toilets sold (in last week nearly a thousand, so there is an acceleration)
40% of which were sold to households below the poverty line
~2100 household loans (still facing some contractual challenges with local partners)
53 enterpise loans
279 trained enterprises
~2.9 million liters of fecal sludge safely treated

Genevieve Kelly
WASH Associate Technical Advisor
Population Services International
Washington, DC | tel: 570-854-5075 skype: kengelly
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This message has attachments files.
Please log in or register to see it.

You need to login to reply
Share this thread:
Time to create page: 0.468 seconds